List of monarchs of Sardinia

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Coat of Arms of the kingdom of Sardinia from the 14th century

The following is a list of rulers of Sardinia.

Early medieval rulers[edit]

Judges[edit]

Main article: Giudicati

Before the Kingdom of Sardinia was founded, the rulers of the island were known as archons (ἄρχοντες in Greek) or judges (iudices in Latin and Sardinian, giudici in Italian).[1][2] The island was organized into one "judicatus" from the 9th century on. After the Muslim conquest of Sicily, in the 9th century, the Byzantines, who ruled Sardinia before, couldn't manage to defend their far west province. Probably, a local noble family acceded to the power, still identifying themselves as vassal of the Byzantines, but independent "de facto" as communications with Constantinople were very difficult. We known only two names of those rulers:

Turcoturiu (Tουρκοτουρίου)

Salusiu (Σαλουσιου)

(Κύριε βοήθε ιοῦ δού λού σου Tουρκοτουρίου ἅρχωντοσ Σαρδινίας καί τής δού ληςσου Γετιτ / Tουρκοτουριου βασιλικου προτοσπαθαριου (Protospatharios) και Σαλουσιου των ευγενεστατων άρχωντων.[3][4][5][6]), who probably reined between the 10th and the 11th century.

In the early 11th century an attempt to conquer the island was made by Muslims based in Spain.[7] The only records of that war are from Pisan and Genoese chronicles.[8] The Christians won, but after that, the previous Sardinian kingdom was totally undermined and divided into four small judicati: Cagliari, Arborea, Gallura, Torres or Logudoro.

List of judges of Arborea, c. 1070–1410 List of judges of Cagliari, c. 1060–1258 List of judges of Gallura, c. 1070–1288 List of judges of Logudoro, c. 1060–1259

Some of these rulers occasionally took the style of king (rex): 1113–1128 Constantine I, Judge of Torres 1128–1150 Gonario II, Judge of Torres

Nominal kings of Imperial appointment[edit]

Barisone II Judex of Arborea coat of arms
Entius Hohenstaufen coat of arms

Some rulers of the time obtained the title of King of Sardinia (Rex Sardiniae) by grant of the Holy Roman Emperor:

Barisone II of Arborea,[9] 1164–1165 (by Emperor Frederick I, who officially renounced in a peace treaty with the other judices in 1165);

Enzo of Logudoro Hohenstaufen, 1238–1245 (iure uxoris Adelasia of Torres, recognised by Emperor Frederick II, his father, who died in Bologna after a 26 years imprisonment)

None of these rulers had effective authority over the whole island.

Kings of Sardinia and Corsica[edit]

James II of Aragon received royal investiture from Pope Boniface VIII in 1297 as Rex Sardiniae et Corsicae. The Aragonese did not take actual possession of the isle until 1323, after a victorious military campaign against the Pisans. However, Sardinian royal title never had a specific line of succession, and all kings used their own primary numeral title.

Arms of the House of Barcelona

House of Barcelona (Aragon), 1323–1410[edit]

Main articles: Kings of Aragon and Crown of Aragon
Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
James II of Aragon
1323–1327
James I 10 August 1267
Valencia
son of Peter I and Constance of Sicily
Isabella of Castile
1 December 1291
No children

Blanche of Anjou
29 October 1295
10 children

Marie de Lusignan
15 June 1315
No children

Elisenda de Montcada
25 December 1322
No children
5 November 1327
Barcelona
aged 60
Alfonso IV of Aragon
1327–1336
Alfonso I 1299
Naples
son of James II of Aragon and Blanche of Anjou
Teresa d'Entença
1314
7 children

Eleanor of Castile
2 children
27 January 1336
Barcelona
aged 37
Peter IV of Aragon
1336–1387
Peter 5 October 1319
Balaguer
son of Alfonso IV and Teresa d'Entença
Maria of Navarre
1338
2 children

Leonor of Portugal
1347
No children

Eleanor of Sicily
4 children
5 January 1387
Barcelona
aged 68
John I of Aragon
1387–1396
Peter IV 27 December 1350
Perpignan
son of Peter IV of Aragon and Eleanor of Sicily
Martha of Armagnac
1 child

Yolande of Bar
3 children
19 May 1396
Foixà
aged 46
Martin I of Aragon
1396–1410
Martin I 1356
Girona
son of Peter IV of Aragon and Eleanor of Sicily
Maria de Luna
13 June 1372
4 children

Margarita of Aragon-Prades
1409
No children
31 May 1410
Barcelona
aged 54
Between 1410 and 1412 there was an interregnum.
Arms of the Aragonese House of Trastamara

House of Trastámara, 1412–1516[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Ferdinand I of Aragon
1412–1416
Ferdinand I 27 November 1380
Medina del Campo
son of John I of Castile and Eleanor of Aragon
Eleanor of Alburquerque
1394
8 children
2 April 1416
Igualada
aged 36
Alfonso V of Aragon
1416–1458
Alfonso V 1396
Medina del Campo
son of Ferdinand I and Eleanor of Alburquerque
Maria of Castile
1415
No children
27 June 1458
Naples
aged 52

Kings of Sardinia[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
John II of Aragon
1458–1479
John II 29 June 1397
Medina del Campo
son of Ferdinand I and Eleanor of Alburquerque
Blanche I of Navarre
6 November 1419
4 children

Juana Enríquez
2 children
20 January 1479
Barcelona
aged 81
Ferdinand II of Aragon
1479–1516
Ferdinand II 10 March 1452
son of John II of Aragon and Juana Enriquez
Isabella I of Castile
19 October 1469
5 children

Germaine of Foix
1505
No children
23 January 1516
Madrigalejo
aged 63
Joanna of Castile
1516–1555
Joanna 6 November 1479
daughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile
Philip IV of Burgundy
1496
6 children
12 April 1555
Madrigalejo
aged 75

House of Habsburg (Spanish branch), 1516–1700[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles I of Spain
1516–1554
Charles IV 24 February 1500
Ghent
son of Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile
Isabella of Portugal
10 March 1526
3 children
21 September 1558
Yuste
aged 58
Philip II of Spain
1554–1598
Philip I 21 May 1527
Valladolid
son of Charles IV and Isabella of Portugal
Maria of Portugal
1543
1 child

Mary I of England
1554
No children

Elisabeth of Valois
1559
2 children

Anna of Austria
4 May 1570
5 children
13 September 1598
Madrid
aged 71
Philip III of Spain
1598–1621
Philip II 14 April 1578
Madrid
son of Philip I and Anna of Austria
Margaret of Austria
18 April 1599
5 children
31 March 1621
Madrid
aged 42
Philip IV of Spain
1621–1665
Philip III 8 April 1605
Valladolid
son of Philip II and Margaret of Austria
Elisabeth of Bourbon
1615
7 children

Mariana of Austria
1649
5 children

17 September 1665
Madrid
aged 60
Charles II of Spain
1665–1700
Charles V 6 November 1661
Madrid
son of Philip III and Mariana of Austria
Maria Luisa of Orléans
19 November 1679
No children

Maria Anna of Neuburg
14 May 1690
No children

1 November 1700
Madrid
aged 38
Coat of arms of Philip V of Spain

House of Bourbon (Spanish branch) 1700–1714[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Philip V of Spain
1700–1714
Charles V 19 December 1683
Versailles
son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Maria Anna of Bavaria
Maria Luisa of Savoy
2 November 1701
4 children

Elisabeth of Parma
24 December 1714
7 children

9 July 1746
Madrid
aged 62

At the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, by the Treaty of Rastatt, Sardinia was ceded to Austria

Coat of Arms of Archduke Charles of Austria

House of Habsburg (Austrian branch), 1714–1720[edit]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Emperor Charles VI
1714–1720
Charles VI 1 October 1685
Vienna
son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg
Elisabeth Christine
1 August 1708
4 children
20 October 1740
Vienna
aged 55

Spanish forces invaded the kingdom in 1718 during the War of the Quadruple Alliance. Emperor Charles VI ceded it to the Duke of Savoy by the Treaty of The Hague.

Coats of arms of Savoy House

House of Savoy, 1720–1946[edit]

The monarchs of the House of Savoy ruled from their mainland capital of Turin but styled themselves primarily with the royal title of Sardinia as superior to the original lesser title of Duke of Savoy. However, their numeral order continued the Savoyard list. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II became king of Italy: however, the sovereigns continued to use all their former titles.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Victor Amadeus II of Savoy
17 February 1720 – 3 September 1730
Victor Amadeus 14 May 1666
Turin
son of Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy and Marie Jeanne of Savoy
Anne Marie d'Orléans, Princess of France
10 April 1684
6 children
31 October 1732
Moncalieri
aged 66
Charles Emmanuel III of Savoy
3 September 1730 – 20 February 1773
Charles Emmanuel III 27 April 1701
Turin
son of Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia and Anne Marie d'Orléans, Princess of France
Anne Christine of Sulzbach
1 child

Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg
6 children

Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine
3 children
20 February 1773
Turin
aged 72
Victor Amadeus III of Savoy
20 February 1773 – 16 October 1796
Victor Amadeus III 26 June 1726
Turin
son of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia and Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg
Maria Antonietta of Spain
12 children
16 October 1796
Moncalieri
aged 70
Charles Emmanuel IV of Savoy
16 October 1796 – 4 June 1802
Charles Emmanuel IV 24 May 1751
Turin
son of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain
Marie Clotilde of France
1775
No children
6 October 1819
Rome
aged 68
Victor Emmanuel I of Savoy
4 June 1802 – 12 March 1821
Victor Emmanuel I 24 July 1759
Turin
son of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain
Maria Teresa of Austria-Este
21 April 1789
7 children
10 January 1824
Moncalieri
aged 65
Charles Felix of Savoy
12 March 1821 – 27 April 1831
Charles Felix 6 April 1765
Turin
son of Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain
Maria Cristina of Naples and Sicily
7 March 1807
No children
27 April 1831
Turin
aged 66
Charles Albert of Savoy
27 April 1831 – 23 March 1849
Charles Albert 2 October 1798
Turin
son of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignan and Maria Cristina of Saxony
Maria Theresa of Austria
1817
3 children
28 July 1849
Porto
aged 50
Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy
23 March 1849 – 9 January 1878
Victor Emmanuel II 14 March 1820
Turin
son of Charles Albert of Sardinia and Maria Theresa of Austria
Adelaide of Austria
1842
8 children

Rosa Vercellana
1869
2 children
9 January 1878
Rome
aged 57

In 1861, after the annexation of all the others states of the Italian peninsula, the parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia voted a bill (Legge N° 4671 of 17 marzo 1861) to change the name of the State and the title of the King. Since then there were no more Kings of Sardinia but Kings of Italy. Nowadays the Savoy family is still the pretender of the Kingdom of Italy.

Coats of arms of the kingdom of Sardinia until 1848

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ C. Zedda and R. Pinna (2007), La nascita dei giudicati, proposta per lo scioglimento di un enigma storiografico, Archivio Storico Giuridico Sardo di Sassari, vol. 12.
  2. ^ F. Pinna (2010), "Le testimonianze archeologiche relative ai rapporti tra gli arabi e la Sardegna nel medioevo", Rivista dell'Istituto di storia dell'Europa mediterranea, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 4.
  3. ^ R. CORONEO, Scultura mediobizantina in Sardegna, Nuoro, Poliedro, 2000
  4. ^ Antiquitas nostra primum Calarense iudicatum, quod tunc erat caput tocius Sardinie, armis subiugavit, et regem Sardinie Musaitum nomine civitati Ianue captum adduxerunt, quem per episcopum qui tunc Ianue erat, aule sacri palatii in Alamanniam mandaverunt, intimantes regnum illius nuper esse additum ditioni Romani imperii." - Oberti Cancellarii, Annales p 71, Georg Heinrich (a cura di) MGH, Scriptores, Hannoverae, 1863, XVIII, pp. 56-96
  5. ^ Crónica del califa ‘Abd ar-Rahmân III an-Nâsir entre los años 912-942,(al-Muqtabis V), édicion. a cura de P. CHALMETA - F. CORRIENTE, Madrid,1979, p. 365 Tuesday, August 24th 942 (A.D.), a messenger of the Lord of the island of Sardinia appeared at the gate of al-Nasir (...) asking for a treaty of peace and friendship. With him were the merchants, people Malfat, known in al-Andalus as from Amalfi, with the whole range of their precious goods, ingots of pure silver, brocades etc. ... transactions which drew gain and great benefits
  6. ^ Constantini Porphyrogeneti De caerimoniis aulae Byzantinae, in Patrologia cursus completus. Series Graeca CXII, Paris 1857
  7. ^ F. CODERA, Mochéid, conquistador de Cerdeña, in Centenario della nascita di Michele Amari. Scritti di filologia e storia araba; geografia, storia, diritto della Sicilia medioevale; studi bizantini e giudaici relativi all’Italia meridionale nel medio evo; documenti sulle relazioni fra gli Stati italiani e il Levante, vol. II, Palermo 1910, pp. 115-33, p. 124
  8. ^ B. MARAGONIS, Annales pisani a.1004-1175, ed. K. PERTZ, in MGH, Scriptores, 19,Hannoverae, 1861/1963, pp. 236-2 and Gli Annales Pisani di Bernardo Maragone, a cura di M. L.GENTILE, in Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, n.e., VI/2, Bologna 1930, pp. 4-7. 1017. Fuit Mugietus reversus in Sardineam, et cepit civitatem edificare ibi atque homines Sardos vivos in cruce murare. Et tunc Pisani et Ianuenses illuc venere, et ille propter pavorem eorum fugit in Africam. Pisani vero et Ianuenses reversi sunt Turrim, in quo insurrexerunt Ianuenses in Pisanos, et Pisani vicerunt illos et eiecerunt eos de Sardinea
  9. ^ G. Seche, L'incoronazione di Barisone "Re di Sardegna" in due fonti contemporanee: gli Annales genovesi e gli Annales pisani, in Rivista dell'Istituto di storia dell'Europa mediterranea, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, n°4, 2010