List of satellites which have provided data on Earth's magnetosphere

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Below is a list of satellites which have provided data on the Earth's magnetosphere.

Satellite Launch Date Inclination of orbital plane to Earth's equator Lifetime (days) Range (γ) Sensitivity Distance RE
Sputnik 3 March 15, 1958 65° 30 <60,000 5% <1.3
Explorer 3 March 1958
Pioneer 1 October 11, 1958 Earth impact 1 <1000 1% 3.7-7.0
Lunik 1 January 2, 1959 Solar orbit 1 <6,000 200γ 3-6
Explorer 6 August 7, 1959 47° 61 <20,000 3% 2-7.5
Lunik 2 September 12, 1959 Lunar impact 1.4° <1,500 50γ 3-6
Vanguard 3 September 18, 1959 33° 85 10,000-60,000 <1.8
Pioneer 5 March 11, 1960 Solar orbit 50° <1,000 0.05-5γ 5-9
Explorer 10 March 25, 1961 33° 2.2 30-5,000 1.8-7
Explorer 12 August 16, 1961 33° 112 ±500 10γ 4-13.5
Alouette 1 September 29, 1962 80° Still operating 60,000 0.3% 1.17
Explorer 14 October 3, 1962 33° 300 ±250 5-16.5
International Cometary Explorer August 12, 1978
Dynamics Explorer August 3, 1981
GEOTAIL July 24, 1992 Still operating
WIND November 1, 1994 Still operating
Ørsted February 23, 1999 96.4798° Still operating
IMAGE March 25, 2000 90° December, 2005 0.2-7.2
THEMIS February 17, 2001 16° Still operating
Double Star mission December 29, 2003 & July 25, 2004
Cluster II (spacecraft) mission July 16, 2000 and August 9, 2000 90° (then changed during mission operation) Still operating 4-20
Polar
TWINS June, 28 2006 and March, 13, 2008 63° Still operating 0.2-6.5
Van Allen Probes August 30, 2012
Ion Release Module
Charge Composition Explorer
MMS no earlier than 2014


Notes[edit]

1γ = 10−5 oersted = Dynamic range of instrumentation

References[edit]