List of scheduled monuments in Maidstone

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There are 27 scheduled monuments in Maidstone, Kent, England. In the United Kingdom, a scheduled monument is an archaeological site or historic building of "national importance" that has been given protection against unauthorised change by being placed on a list (or "schedule") by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport; English Heritage takes the leading role in identifying such sites.[1] Scheduled monuments are defined in the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 and the National Heritage Act 1983. They are also referred to as scheduled ancient monuments. There are about 19,700 scheduled monument entries on the list and more than one site can be included in a single entry. While a scheduled monument can also be recognised as a listed building,[note 1] English Heritage considers listed building status as a better way of protecting buildings than scheduled monument status.[1] If a monument is considered by English Heritage to "no longer merit scheduling" it can be removed from the schedule.[3]

The borough of Maidstone is a local government district in the English county of Kent. The Maidstone district covers a largely rural area of 152 square miles (394 km2) between the North Downs and the Weald with the town of Maidstone, the county town of Kent, in the north-west. It has a population of approximately 150,000.[4] The monuments range in date from a neolithic standing stone to a tiny 18th-century mortuary, but the majority are medieval.

Although mostly reduced to ruins and earthworks, the district contains the remains of four castles and five moated manor houses that are scheduled monuments. A number of monuments are buildings of ecclesiastical origin including an abbey, a priory and two tithe barns. The buildings associated with the former College of All Saints and the Archbishop's Palace in Maidstone town centre form the best preserved group of scheduled monuments. Seven medieval bridges over the River Medway and its tributaries are also included.

Monuments[edit]

Name Remains Date Location Coordinates Description Ref(s)
White Horse Stone Megalith 01Neolithic Aylesford 51°18′54″N 0°30′53″E / 51.315003°N 0.514852°E / 51.315003; 0.514852 (White Horse Stone) A large standing sarsen (3 × 1.6 × 0.7 metres (9.8 × 5.2 × 2.3 ft)), reputedly the remains of a neolithic burial chamber, though there is no evidence of this except for its position. Some of the legendary status appears to have been transferred in the 20th century from the Lower White Horse Stone, destroyed in the 19th century. [5][6]
Moat at Coldbridge Farm Earthworks 1114th century Boughton Malherbe 51°11′46″N 0°41′41″E / 51.196066°N 0.694698°E / 51.196066; 0.694698 (Moat at Coldbridge Farm)
51°11′57″N 0°41′48″E / 51.199288°N 0.696589°E / 51.199288; 0.696589 (Moat at Coldbridge Farm)
The remains of Coldbridge Castle, a medieval manor house demolished c. 1559–78, are incorporated into an 18th or 19th century farmhouse. The manor house may have been demolished to provide stone for the construction of Boughton Place. The house had a pair of concentric moats, remnants of which remain. The site also contains a medieval paddock boundary and fish pond. [7][8]
Boughton Quarry camp Earthworks 02Iron Age Boughton Monchelsea/
Loose
51°14′10″N 0°31′42″E / 51.236099°N 0.528296°E / 51.236099; 0.528296 (Boughton Quarry camp) Remains of a U-shaped Pre-Roman earthwork enclosing approximately 28 acres (11 ha) on the southern slope of the Loose valley, probably a major Belgic oppidum. [9][10]
Boxley Abbey Standing building and below ground remains 071143 Boxley 51°18′01″N 0°31′30″E / 51.300385°N 0.525013°E / 51.300385; 0.525013 (Boxley Abbey) Remains of a mostly demolished Cistercian Abbey. The Grade I listed Boxley Abbey Barn is the only substantial remaining structure. The barn is on the Heritage at Risk register due to its poor condition. [11][12][13][14]
East Farleigh Bridge Stone bridge 1214th century East Farleigh 51°15′16″N 0°29′05″E / 51.254437°N 0.484629°E / 51.254437; 0.484629 (East Farleigh Bridge) A medieval stone bridge of five spans crossing the River Medway. The bridge has substantial cutwaters on each side and the south approach has a large stone retaining wall across the low ground of the southern river bank. The bridge is also Grade I listed. [15][16]
East Sutton Manor Earthworks 19Medieval East Sutton 51°12′49″N 0°37′06″E / 51.213685°N 0.618313°E / 51.213685; 0.618313 (East Sutton Manor) A homestead moat in the grounds of East Sutton Park. Probably the site of East Sutton manor house, the moat is partly water filled. [17][18]
Sherway Bridge Stone bridge 2517th century Headcorn 51°10′15″N 0°40′13″E / 51.170916°N 0.67014°E / 51.170916; 0.67014 (Sherway Bridge) A brick bridge constructed in the 1680s and rebuilt in 1846. [19][20]
Ripple Manor Earthworks 20Medieval Hollingbourne 51°16′48″N 0°36′23″E / 51.279975°N 0.606394°E / 51.279975; 0.606394 (Ripple Manor) The site of the medieval Ripple manor house, the moat and the island at its centre cover an area roughly 50 × 30 metres (164 × 98 ft) with the moat being 7–15 metres (23–49 ft) wide. [21][22]
Leeds Priory Below ground remains and standing buildings 0812th century Leeds 51°14′51″N 0°36′39″E / 51.247517°N 0.610777°E / 51.247517; 0.610777 (Leeds Priory) The buried remains of both the Augstinian priory of St Mary and St Nicholas founded in 1119 and the 17th to 18th century mansion of the same name built on the site following the priory's demolition. A dovecote and another building are remains from the religious establishment. The site including the dovecote and other remains are on the Heritage at Risk register, due to their risk of collapse [23][24][25]
Lock-up or Mortuary Standing building 26Early 18th century Lenham 51°14′16″N 0°43′06″E / 51.237734°N 0.718466°E / 51.237734; 0.718466 (Lock-up or Mortuary) A small stone building previously used as a mortuary for the local workhouse. Also a Grade II listed building. [26][27][28]
College of All Saints Standing buildings, ruins and below ground remains 1314th century Maidstone 51°16′11″N 0°31′18″E / 51.269687°N 0.521796°E / 51.269687; 0.521796 (College of All Saints) The rag-stone buildings of the College were mostly built in the 14th century in the Perpendicular style. The existing buildings served originally as the Master's house, College Gateway, refectory, dormitory and infirmary and the Master's Tower. A ruined gateway stands to the south separated from the other structures by 19th century almshouses. Buried remains underlie the modern buildings and car park on the site. The buildings are all listed structures. [29][30]
Gatehouse, Archbishop's Palace Standing building 1013th to 14th century Maidstone 51°16′17″N 0°31′16″E / 51.271374°N 0.521142°E / 51.271374; 0.521142 (Gatehouse, Archbishop's Palace) A two-storey building built of roughly-coursed rubble and timber framing on the east end. It served as an outbuilding for the adjacent Archbishop's Palace and is also a Grade II listed building. [31][32]
Len Bridge Stone bridge 1414th century Maidstone 51°16′17″N 0°31′17″E / 51.271524°N 0.52128°E / 51.271524; 0.52128 (Len Bridge) A stone bridge spanning the River Len close to its confluence with the River Medway. It has two narrow arches built to suit the needs of a watermill served from a mill pond on the upstream side. The span of a modern bridge has been built above, so that the ancient bridge is only visible from the gardens of the Archbishop's Palace. The bridge is also a Grade II listed building. [33][34][35]
Tithe Barn Standing building 1514th century Maidstone 51°16′17″N 0°31′20″E / 51.27128°N 0.522141°E / 51.27128; 0.522141 (Tithe Barn) The barn is constructed of roughly coursed rag-stone rubble walls in six buttressed bays. The west façade features a projecting two-storey half-timbered porch with stone ground floor construction and brick infilling at first floor level between the timber framing. The barn served the nearby Archbishop's Palace and is also a Grade I listed building. [36][37]
Earthworks in Milbay's Wood Earthworks 21Medieval Nettlestead 51°13′52″N 0°23′37″E / 51.231159°N 0.393729°E / 51.231159; 0.393729 (Earthworks in Milbay's Wood) Earthwork that once formed the retaining embankments to a mill pond. Previously though to be the embankments of an Iron Age hill fort. [38][39]
Moat at Lovehurst Manor Earthworks 22Medieval Staplehurst 51°08′38″N 0°32′27″E / 51.143811°N 0.540878°E / 51.143811; 0.540878 (Moat at Lovehurst Manor) A homestead moat in the grounds of Lovehurst Manor. The site of the original manor house, the circular moat covers an area of approximately 65 × 70 metres (213 × 230 ft) and is water filled. [40][41]
Moot mound near Knox Bridge Earthworks 22Medieval Staplehurst 51°08′15″N 0°32′57″E / 51.137552°N 0.549097°E / 51.137552; 0.549097 (Moot mound near Knox Bridge) Remains of a moot and surrounding ditch. Previously thought to be the motte of a Norman castle. [42][43]
Stockbury Castle Earthworks 04Norman Stockbury 51°19′25″N 0°38′54″E / 51.323726°N 0.648247°E / 51.323726; 0.648247 (Stockbury Castle) The remains of a motte-and-bailey castle. The motte has been flattened and part of its surrounding ditch infilled. The ditch around the bailey remains mostly intact. [44][45]
Sutton Valence Castle Ruins 0912th century Sutton Valence 51°12′44″N 0°35′53″E / 51.212313°N 0.597973°E / 51.212313; 0.597973 (Sutton Valence Castle) The remains of a 12th-century square keep built of rag-stone and standing on an artificial mound. It is about 12 metres (39 ft) square and the remains stand about 7 metres (23 ft) high, although the tower may originally have been almost three times that. A wall once surrounded the mound but disappeared long ago. [46][47]
Teston Bridge Stone bridge 2315th century Teston 51°15′11″N 0°26′51″E / 51.252983°N 0.447388°E / 51.252983; 0.447388 (Teston Bridge) A medieval stone bridge over the River Medway with the centre three spans built in the 15th century or earlier. The rest was rebuilt in the 19th century. The bridge has substantial cutwaters on each side and is also Grade I listed. [48][49]
Binbury Castle Ruins and earthworks 05Norman/
Medieval
Thurnham 51°18′44″N 0°35′53″E / 51.312206°N 0.598017°E / 51.312206; 0.598017 (Binbury Castle) The remains of a motte-and-bailey castle of which the enclosing ditch of the motte is fairly well defined. Remains of a tower, part of a medieval manor house abut the castle site. The site is on the Heritage at Risk register due to its poor condition. [50][51][52]
Corbier Hall Below ground remains 18Late 14th century Thurnham 51°17′03″N 0°34′55″E / 51.284301°N 0.582057°E / 51.284301; 0.582057 (Corbier Hall) Believed to be the site of Corbier Hall. Foundations and a cellar were discovered in 1862 with traces of a moat. Ploughing since the 19th century has removed all surface evidence and the remains are now only detectable as a crop mark. [53][54]
Thurnham Roman Villa Below ground remains 03Roman Thurnham 51°17′08″N 0°34′36″E / 51.285535°N 0.576676°E / 51.285535; 0.576676 (Thurnham Roman Villa) Remains of buildings associated with a Roman villa, the main structure of which is undiscovered. Excavations in 1833, 1933 and 1958 found tessellated floors and rag-stone and flint walls. The site is located in a cutting of the M20 motorway. [55][56]
Thurnham Castle Ruins 06Norman/
Medieval
Thurnham 51°17′38″N 0°35′30″E / 51.293983°N 0.591594°E / 51.293983; 0.591594 (Thurnham Castle) The remains of a motte-and-bailey castle located on a spur of the North Downs. The bailey is approximately 55 × 35 metres (180 × 115 ft). Parts of the flint walls remain in places with the largest section about 22 metres (72 ft) long and 3.5 metres (11 ft) high. [57][58]
Laddingford Bridge Stone bridge 1614th century Yalding 51°12′49″N 0°25′10″E / 51.213742°N 0.419345°E / 51.213742; 0.419345 (Laddingford Bridge) A medieval stone bridge over the River Teise with two pointed arches built in the 14th century. The brick parapets are later additions. [59][60]
Twyford Bridge Stone bridge 1714th century Yalding 51°13′20″N 0°25′11″E / 51.222162°N 0.419686°E / 51.222162; 0.419686 (Twyford Bridge) A 40-yard (37 m) long medieval stone bridge with four arches over the River Medway and a causeway over the low ground next to the river. The bridge has massive cutwaters on each side. [61][62]
Yalding Bridge Stone bridge 2415th century Yalding 51°13′25″N 0°25′46″E / 51.223725°N 0.429322°E / 51.223725; 0.429322 (Yalding Bridge) A medieval stone bridge 455 feet (139 m) long across the River Beult and the adjacent flood plain in six arches up to 25 feet (7.6 m) span. The bridge is the longest medieval bridge in Kent. [63][64]
White Horse Stone is a megalith which possibly formed part of a neolithic burial chamber.
The College of All Saints (gateway shown), Maidstone contains a number of intact and ruined structures.
The Tithe Barn in Maidstone was constructed to serve the Archbishop's Palace.
The Gatehouse to the Archbishop's Palace is in use today as an office building.
The Workhouse mortuary, Lenham, has also been used as the village gaol.
The remains of Sutton Valence Castle stand on an artificial mound.
Teston Bridge, one of a number of medieval crossings over the River Medway and its tributaries that are scheduled monuments.
The ruins of Thurnham Castle on the North Downs

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Listed buildings are designated in accordance with three grades according to their architectural and historic importance. There are approximately 374,000 buildings on the list with about 2.5% designated Grade I (the most important status), 5.5% listed grade II* and the remaining 92% listed Grade II.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b What can be scheduled?. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012 
  2. ^ "Listed Buildings". English Heritage. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
  3. ^ Archaeological activities undertaken by English Heritage. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012 
  4. ^ "Neighbourhood Statistics". Office for National Statistics. 4 November 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  5. ^ Upper White Horse Stone (416372). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  6. ^ English Heritage. "White Horse Stone, Aylesford (1005181)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  7. ^ Coldbridge Farm (417684). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  8. ^ English Heritage. "Medieval moated site, fishpond and paddock boundary, Coldbridge Farm, Egerton (1013125)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  9. ^ Monument No. 415631. PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  10. ^ English Heritage. "Boughton Quarry camp (1005139)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  11. ^ Boxley Abbey (415060). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  12. ^ English Heritage. "Cistercian Abbey at Boxley (1012264)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  13. ^ English Heritage. "Barn at Boxley Abbey (1086229)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  14. ^ "Heritage at Risk: Boxley Abbey Barn". English Heritage. Retrieved 20 February 2012. 
  15. ^ East Farleigh Bridge (415833). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  16. ^ English Heritage. "East Farleigh Bridge (1249674)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  17. ^ East Sutton Manor (417751). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  18. ^ English Heritage. "Medieval moated site, East Sutton (1013081)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  19. ^ Sherway Bridge (417815). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  20. ^ English Heritage. "Sherway Bridge (1005133)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  21. ^ Ripple Manor (417922). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  22. ^ English Heritage. "Medieval moated site, Ripple Manor (1017548)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  23. ^ Leeds Priory (418118). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  24. ^ English Heritage. "Leeds Priory: Augustinian Priory of St Mary and St Nicholas with associated dovecotes and slype, and the site of the 18th century Meredith mansion (1011027)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  25. ^ "Heritage at Risk: Leeds Priory". English Heritage. Retrieved 20 February 2012. 
  26. ^ Monument No. 418107. PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  27. ^ English Heritage. "Lock-up, Lenham (1005138)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  28. ^ English Heritage. "The Lock-up or Mortuary (1186182)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  29. ^ College of All Saints (415127). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  30. ^ English Heritage. "The College of All Saints (1011029)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  31. ^ The Gatehouse (415244). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  32. ^ English Heritage. "The Gate House at the Archbishop's Palace (1086310)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  33. ^ Len Bridge (415241). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  34. ^ English Heritage. "Len Bridge, Mill Street (1005143)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  35. ^ English Heritage. "The Len Bridge (1266578)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  36. ^ The Tithe Barn (415163). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  37. ^ English Heritage. "Archbishop's Stables, Carriage Museum, The Tithe Barn (1336233)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  38. ^ Monument No. 412882. PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  39. ^ English Heritage. "Earthwork in Milbay's Wood (1005168)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  40. ^ Lovehurst Manor (414983). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  41. ^ English Heritage. "Medieval moated site, Lovehurst Manor (1013122)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  42. ^ Castle Bank (414968). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  43. ^ English Heritage. "Moot Mound 400m west of Knox Bridge (1013147)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  44. ^ Stockbury Castle (418627). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  45. ^ English Heritage. "Ringwork and baileys at Church Farm (1009949)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  46. ^ Sutton Valence Castle (417741). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  47. ^ English Heritage. "Tower keep castle at Sutton Valence (1013537)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  48. ^ Teston Bridge (415865). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  49. ^ English Heritage. "Teston Bridge (1262983)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  50. ^ Binbury Castle (418603). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  51. ^ English Heritage. "Binbury motte and bailey castle (1010713)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  52. ^ "Heritage at Risk: Binbury Motte and Bailey Castle". English Heritage. Retrieved 20 February 2012. 
  53. ^ Corbier Hall (417914). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  54. ^ English Heritage. "Building crop mark, possibly "Corbier Hall" (1004188)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  55. ^ Monument No. 415057. PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  56. ^ English Heritage. "Romano-British building W of Corbier Hall Wood (1005490)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  57. ^ Thurnham Castle (417929). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  58. ^ English Heritage. "Thurnham motte and bailey castle (1012226)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  59. ^ Laddingford Bridge (412304). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  60. ^ English Heritage. "Laddingford Bridge near Yalding (1005156)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  61. ^ Twyford Bridge (412297). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  62. ^ English Heritage. "Twyford Bridge in Yalding parish (1005186)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
  63. ^ Yalding Bridge (412839). PastScape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  64. ^ Otter, R. A. (1997) [1994]. Civil Engineering Heritage: Southern England. Institution of Civil Engineers/Thomas Telford Limited. p. 228. ISBN 0-7277-1971-8. Retrieved 6 February 2012.