List of seaweeds of South Africa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of seaweeds recorded from the oceans bordering South Africa. This list comprises locally used common names, scientific names with author citation and recorded ranges. Ranges specified may not be the entire known range for the species, but should include the known range within the waters surrounding the Republic of South Africa.

List ordering and taxonomy complies where possible with the current usage in Algaebase, and may differ from the cited source, as listed citations are primarily for range or existence of records for the region. Sub-taxa within any given taxon are arranged alphabetically as a general rule. Details of each species may be available through the relevant internal links. Synonyms may be listed where useful.

Map of the Southern African coastline showing some of the landmarks referred to in species range statements
Bioregions of the South African exclusive economic zone

Contents

Kingdom: Plantae — Division: Chlorophyta — Green seaweeds[edit]

Class: Bryopsidophyceae[edit]

Order: Bryopsidales[edit]

Family: Bryopsidaceae[edit]
Family: Caulerpaceae[edit]
  • Caulerpa bartoniae G. Murray, 1896,[9] (Rare in Western Cape, Cape Hangklip and Muizenberg. Mainly from south coast. endemic)[2]
  • Caulerpa brachypus f. parvifolia (Harvey) A.B.Cribb 1958,[10] (extending into KwaZulu-Natal as far south as Protea Banks)[6]
  • Caulerpa cupressoides (West) C.Agardh 1817, syn. Fucus cupressoides H.West 1802, Chauvinia cupressoides (M.Vahl) Trevisan 1849,[11] (KwaZulu Natal from Mabibi northwards)[6]
  • Strap caulerpa Caulerpa filiformis (Suhr) Hering 1841, syn.Amphibolis filiformis Suhr 1834, Himandactylius filiformis (Suhr) Trevisan 1849,[12] (False Bay to northern KwaZulu-Natal)[2][6]
  • Feathery caulerpa Caulerpa holmesiana G. Murray, 1891,[13] (Mainly a south coast species. the westernmost records at Cape of Good Hope, endemic)[2]
  • Caulerpa mexicana Sonder ex Kützing 1849, syn. Caulerpa crassifolia f. mexicana (Sonder ex Kützing) J.Agardh 1873, Caulerpa pinnata f. mexicana (Sonder ex Kützing) Weber-van Bosse 1898,[14] (KwaZulu-Natal coast from Aliwal shoal northwards)[6]
  • Caulerpa nummularia Harvey ex J.Agardh 1873, syn. Caulerpa peltata var. nummularia (Harvey ex J.Agardh) Weber-van Bosse 1898, Caulerpa racemosa var. nummularia (Harvey ex J.Agardh) D.Dixit 1926,[15] (Sodwana Bay)[6]
  • Caulerpa peltata J.V.Lamouroux 1809, syn. Ahnfeldtia peltata (J.V.Lamouroux) Trevisan, Chauvinia peltata (J.V.Lamouroux) Kützing 1849, Caulerpa racemosa var. peltata (J.V.Lamouroux) Eubank 1944, Caulerpa laetevirens Montagne 1842, Chauvinia laetevirens (Montagne) Trevisan 1849, Caulerpa racemosa var. laetevirens (Montagne) Weber-van Bosse 1898,[16] (as C.racemosa var. laetevirens. Port Alfred northwards. As C.racemosa var. peltata, Durban northwards)[6]
  • Caulerpa racemosa var. lamourouxii (Turner) Weber-van Bosse 1898, Ahnfeldtia lamourouxii (C.Agardh) Trevisan 1849, Fucus lamourouxii Turner 1811, Chauvinia clavifera var. lamourouxii (Turner) Kützing 1849,[17] (St Lucia northwards)[6]
  • Caulerpa scalpelliformis var. intermedia Weber-van Bosse 1898, syn. Caulerpa scalpelliformis f. intermedia (Weber-van Bosse) Svedelius 1906,[18] (KwaZulu-Natal from Mission Rocks northward)[6]
  • Caulerpa serrulata var. hummii (Díaz-Piferrer) Farghaly 1980, syn. Caulerpa hummii Díaz-Piferrer 1969,[19] (Sodwana Bay northwards)[6]
  • Caulerpa taxifolia f. asplenoides (Greville) Weber-van Bosse 1898, syn. Caulerpa asplenioides Greville 1853,[20] (KwaZulu-Natal coast from Aliwal shoal northwards)[6]
  • Caulerpa webbiana Montagne 1837, syn. Chauvinia webbiana (Montagne) Kützing 1849,[21] (Sodwana Bay northwards)[6]
  • Caulerpa zeyheri Kützing 1857, syn. Caulerpa racemosa var. zeyheri (Kützing) Weber-van Bosse 1898,[22] (Haga Haga north of East London northwards into Mozambique)[6]
Family: Codiaceae[edit]
  • Codium capitatum P.C.Silva 1959,[23] (Port St. Johns northward)[6]
  • Duthie's upright codium Codium duthieae Silva in Silva & Womersley, 1956,[24] (Mainly a south and east coast species, westwards as far as Langebaan logoon.)[2](From Namibia along the entire South African coast)[6]
  • Hairy upright codium Codium extricatum Silva 1959a,[25] (Cape Agulhas to southern KwaZulu-Natal, endemic)[2]
  • Fragile upright codium Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot 1889, synCodium fragile (Suringar) Hariot subsp. capense Silva 1959a, Acanthocodium fragile Suringar 1867,[26] (Whole of Cape west coast and most of Namibia, Eastward as far as Robberg, Plettenberg Bay)[2]
  • Codium isaacii Silva, 1959a,[27] (Namibia to Cape Peninsula, endemic)[2]
  • Lucas' codium Codium lucasii Setchell subsp. capense Silva 1959a,[28] (Strand, False Bay to southern Mozambique)[2][6]
  • Codium megalophysum P.C.Silva 1959,[29] (Port Elizabeth to Isipingo, endemic)[6]
  • Codium mozambiquense P.C.Silva 1959,[30] (Port Edward northward into Mozambique, Southern African endemic)[6]
  • Codium papenfussii Silva, 1959a,[31] (West coast of Cape Peninsula to southern KwaZulu-Natal, single specimen from Sodwana Bay, endemic)[2][6]
  • Flat-lobed codium Codium platylobium Areschoug 1854,[32] (False Bay to mouth of Mtwalume river in KwaZulu-Natal)[2][6]
  • Codium prostratum Levring 1938,[33] (Dwesa, south of Port St. Johns northward into Mozambique)[6]
  • Stephens' codium Codium stephensiae Dickinson 1932,[34] (St Helena Bay to Transkei, endemic)[2]
Family: Derbesiaceae[edit]
  • Derbesia hollenbergii Taylor 1945,[35] (Muizenberg and Strandfontein, False Bay, and Eastern Cape and Transkei)[2]
  • Derbesia marina (Lyngbye) Solier 1846, syn. Vaucheria marina Lyngbye 1819,[36] (Muizenberg, False Bay, and Eastern Cape and Transkei)[2]
Family Halimedaceae[edit]
Family: Udoteaceae[edit]

Class: Chlorophyceae[edit]

Order: Chaetophorales[edit]

Family: Chaetophoraceae[edit]
Family: Chroolepidaceae[edit]

Class Dasycladophyceae[edit]

Order Dasycladales[edit]

Family Dasycladaceae[edit]

Class Siphonocladophyceae[edit]

Order Siphonocladales[edit]

Family Siphonocladaceae[edit]
Family Boodleaceae[edit]
  • Boodlea composita (Harvey) F.Brand 1904, syn. Conferva composita Harvey 1834, Cladophora composita (Harvey) Kützing 1849, Aegagropila composita (Harvey) Kützing 1854,[52] (Sodwana Bay)[6]
  • Phyllodictyon anastomosans (Harvey) Kraft & M.J.Wynne 1996, syn. Cladophora anastomosans Harvey 1859, Pterodictyon anastomosans (Harvey) J.E.Gray 1866, Struvea anastomosans (Harvey) Piccone & Grunow ex Piccone 1884,[53] (Sodwana Bay)[6]
Family Valoniaceae[edit]

Class: Ulvophyceae[edit]

Order: Cladophorales[edit]

Family Anadyomenaceae[edit]
Family: Cladophoraceae[edit]
  • Chaetomorpha antennina (Bory de Saint-Vincent) Kützing 1847, syn. Conferva antennina Bory de Saint-Vincent 1804,[58] (Port Edward northwards)[6]
  • Chaetomorpha aerea (Dillwyn) Kützing 1849, syn. Conferva aerea Dillwyn 1806, Chloronitum aerea (Dillwyn) Gaillon 1828,[59] (False Bay to Cape Agulhas)[2]
  • Chaetomorpha capillaris (Kützing) Børgesen 1925, syn. Rhizoclonium capillare Kützing 1847,[60] (Kraalbaai, Langebaan lagoon)[2]
  • Chaetomorpha ligustica (Kützing) Kützing 1849, syn. Conferva ligustica Kützing 1843, Rhizoclonium lubricum Setchell & Gardner in Gardner 1919,[61] (Kraalbaai, Langebaan Lagoon)[2]
  • Hair weed Chaetomorpha linum (O.F.Müller) Kützing 1845, syn. Conferva linum O.F.Müller 1778, Lychaete linum (O.F.Müller) Areschoug 1851,[62] (Kalk Bay and Simon's Town harbours)[2]
  • Robust hair-weed Chaetomorpha robusta (Areschoug) Papenfuss 1940, syn. Lychaete robusta Areschoug 1851,[63] (Namibia to Hermanus)[2]
  • Chaetomorpha sp. indet, (Clovelly, False Bay)[2]
  • Cape cladophora Cladophora capensis (C.Agardh) De Toni 1889, syn. Conferva capensis C.Agardh 1824,[64] (Namibia to southern Cape Peninsula)[2]
  • Turf cladophora Cladophora contexta Levring 1938,[65] (Olifantsbos to Lüderitz)[2]
  • Cladophora dalmatica Kuetzing 1843,[66] (Glencairn, False Bay)[2]
  • Blue whip cladophora Cladophora flagelliformis (Suhr) Kützing 1849, syn. Conferva flagelliformis Suhr 1840, Lychaete flagelliformis (Suhr) Areschoug 1851,[67] (Brandfontein to Namibia)[2]
  • Cladophora herpestica (Montagne) Kützing 1849, syn. Conferva herpestica Montagne 1842, Aegagropila herpestica (Montagne) Kützing 1854, Cladophoropsis herpestica (Montagne) M.A.Howe 1914,[68] (as Cladophoropsis herpestica, sporadically in South African east coast north of Trafalgar in south KwaZulu-Natal)[6]
  • Cladophora horii Hoek & M.Chihara 2000,[69] (The Bluff in Durban, northwards)[6]
  • Cladophora isaacii Simons 1960,[70] (Port Nolloth to Cape Hangklip)[2]
  • Cladophora mirabilis (C.Agardh) Rabenhorst in Hohenacker 1852, syn. Conferva mirabilis C.Agardh 1820,[71] (Cape Hangklip to Cape Fria, Namibia)[2]
  • Cladophora ordinata (Børgesen) C.Hoek 1982, syn. Willeella ordinata Børgesen 1930,[72] (Mkambati (north of Port St Johns) northwards)[6]
  • Cladophora prolifera (Roth) Kützing 1843, syn. Conferva prolifera Roth 1797, Chloronitum proliferum (Roth) Gallion 1828, Chantransia prolifera (Roth) Chevalier 1836, Cladophora rugulosa G.Martens 1866,[73] (Port Alfred northwards)[6]
  • Cladophora radiosa (Suhr) Kützing 1889, syn. Conferva radiosa Suhr 1834,[74] (Table Bay eastwards to Cape Morgan)[2]
  • Cladophora sericia (Hudson) Kützing 1843, syn. Conferva sericea Hudson 1762, Chloronitum sericeum (Hudson) Gallion 1928,[75] (Cape Peninsula north to Melkbosstrand, east to De Hoop nature reserve)[2]
  • Cladophora vagabunda (Linnaeus) Hoek 1963, syn. Conferva vagabunda Linnaeus 1753, Ceramium vagabundum (Linnaeus) Roth 1800,[76] (Sodwana Bay and Bhanga Neck in northern KwaZulu-Natal)[6]
  • Cladophora sp. indet. (Clovelly to Buffels Bay, Cape Peninsula)[2]
  • Rhizoclonium implexum (Dillwyn) Kützing 1845, SYN. Conferva implexa Dillwyn 1809, Rhizoclonium riparium var. implexum (Dillwyn) Rosenvinge 1893,[77] (Kraalbaai, Langebaan lagoon and Clovelly, Cape Peninsula)[2]
  • Rhizoclonium riparium (Roth) Harvey 1849, syn. Conferva riparia Roth 1806, Tiresias riparia (Roth) Areschoug 1851,[78] (Kraalbaai and Kowie estuary)[2]

Order: Codiolales[edit]

Family: Acrosiphoniaceae[edit]

Order: Ulotrichales[edit]

Family: Ulotrichaceae[edit]
  • Ulothrix flacca (Dillwyn) Thuret in Le Jolis 1863, syn. Conferva flacca Dillwyn 1805, Lyngbya flacca (Dillwyn) Harvey 1849,[80] (Cape Peninsula and False Bay)[2]
  • Ulothrix speciosa (Carmichael) Kützing 1849, syn Ulothrix zonata var. speciosa (Carmichael) Stockmayer, Lyngbya speciosa Carmichael 1833, Hormotrichum speciosum (Carmichael) P.L.Crouan & H.M.Crouan 1852, Urospora speciosa (Carmichael) Leblond ex G.Hamel 1931,[81] (Known from a single collection at Kalk Bay)[2]

Order: Ulvales[edit]

Family: Ulvaceae[edit]
  • Blidingia marginata (J.Agardh) P.J.L.Dangeard 1958, syn. Enteromorpha marginata J.Agardh 1842, Enteromorpha nana var. marginata (J.Agardh) V.J.Chapman 1956,[82] (Kraalbaai, Langebaan lagoon)[2]
  • Blidingia minima (Nägeli ex Kützing) Kylin 1947, syn. Enteromorpha minima Nägeli ex Kützing 1849, Enteromorpha compressa var. minima (Nägeli ex Hauck) Hamel 1931, Enteromorpha nana var. minima (Nägeli ex Hauck) Sjøstedt 1939,[83] (Kraalbaai, Langebaan lagoon to False Bay, and Eastern Cape)[2]
  • Chloropelta caespitosa Tanner 1980,[84] (Kalk Bay and Cape Hangklip)[2]
  • Enteromorpha atroviridis (Levring) M.J.Wynne 1986, syn. Ulva atroviridis Levring 1938,[85] (Namibia to Oudekraal, Cape Peninsula)[2]
  • Percursaria percursa (C.Agardh) Rosenvinge 1893, syn. Zignoa percursa (C.Agardh) Trevisan, Conferva percursa C.Agardh 1817, Enteromorpha percursa (C.Agardh) J.Agardh 1842,[86] (Cape Peninsula - Glencairn, Scarborough, Mouille Point)[2]
  • Ulva flexuosa Wulfen 1803, syn. Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen) J.Agardh 1883,[87] (Muizenberg and Dalebrook, False Bay and Eastern Cape)[2]
  • Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus 1753, syn. Conferva intestinalis (Linnaeus) Roth 1797, Tetraspora intestinalis (Linnaeus) Desvaux 1818, Scytosiphon intestinalis (Linnaeus) Lyngbye 1819, Enteromorpha intestinalis (Linnaeus) Nees 1820, Fistularia intestinalis (Linnaeus) Greville 1824, Solenia intestinalis (Linnaeus) C.Agardh 1824, Ilea intestinalis (Linnaeus) Leiblein 1827, Hydrosolen intestinalis (Linnaeus) Martius 1833, Ulva enteromorpha var. intestinalis (Linnaeus) Le Jolis 1863, Ulva bulbosa var. intestinalis (Linnaeus) Hariot 1889, Enteromorpha compressa var. intestinalis (Linnaeus) Hamel 1931,[88] (Widespread on west and south coasts, along entire South African coast)[2][6]
  • Ulva lactuca Linnaeus 1753, syn. Phyllona lactuca (Linnaeus) F.H.Wiggers 1780, Ulva fasciata Delile 1813,[6][89] (Saldanha Bay, False Bay eastwards into Mozambique)[2]
  • Ulva linza Linnaeus 1753, syn. Solenia linza (Linnaeus) C.Agardh 1824, Enteronia linza (Linnaeus) Chevallier 1836, Phycoseris linza (Linnaeus) Kützing 1843, Enteromorpha linza (Linnaeus) J.Agardh 1883,[90] (Namibia to False Bay)[2]
  • Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller 1778, syn. Ulva enteromorpha f. prolifera (O.F.Müller) Van Heurck, Ulva compressa var. prolifera (O.F.Müller) C.Agardh 1823, Enteromorpha compressa var. prolifera (O.F.Müller) Greville 1830, Enteromorpha prolifera (O.F.Müller) J.Agardh 1883,[91] (Namibia to Eastern Cape)[2]
  • Ulva rhacodes (Holmes) Papenfuss 1960, syn. Enteromorpha rhacodes Holmes 1894,[92] (False Bay to Eastern Cape)[2]
  • Rigid sea lettuce Ulva rigida C.Agardh 1823, syn. Phycoseris rigida (C.Agardh) Kützing 1843, Ulva lactuca var. rigida (C.Agardh) Le Jolis 1863,[93] (Cape Peninsula to tropical East Africa)[2][6]
  • Ulva uncialis (Kützing) Montagne 1850, syn. Phycoseris uncialis Kützing 1849, Ulva capensis Areschoug 1851,[94] (Namibia to Cape Agulhas)[2]
Family: Ulvellaceae[edit]

Kingdom: Chromalveolata — Division: Heterokonta — Class: Phaeophyceae — Brown seaweeds[edit]

Order: Cutleriales[edit]

Family Cutleriaceae[edit]

  • Aglaozonia sp. (Muizenberg, False Bay. Brandfontein. Bird Island, eastern Cape)[2]

Order: Desmarestiales[edit]

Family Desmarestiaceae[edit]

  • Acid weed Desmarestia firma (C.Agardh) Skottsberg in Nordenskjöld 1907, syn. Sporochnus herbaceus var. firma C.Agardh 1824,[95] (Möwe Bay, Namibia to Betty's Bay. Doubtful record for Cape Agulhas)[2]

Order: Dictyotales[edit]

Family Dictyotaceae[edit]

  • Canistrocarpus cervicornis (Kützing) De Paula & De Clerck in De Clerck et al. 2006, syn. Dictyota cervicornis Kützing 1859,[96] (Mission Rocks northwards into Mozambique)[97]
  • Dictyopteris delicatula J.V.Lamouroux 1809, syn. Neurocarpus delicatulus (J.V.Lamouroux) Kuntze, Haliseris delicatula (J.V.Lamouroux) C.Agardh 1820.[98] (Isipingo northwards)[97]
  • Smooth-tongued dictyopteris Dictyopteris ligulata (Suhr) O.C.Schmidt 1938, syn. Haliseris ligulata Suhr 1834,[99] (Black Rock (Umpangazi?), Natal to Koppie Allen, De Hoop Nature Reserve. Rare on west coast, only collected from Brandfontein)[2][97]
  • Dictyopteris macrocarpa (Areschoug) O.C.Schmidt 1938, syn. Haliseris macrocarpa Areschoug 1847, Neurocarpus macrocarpus (Areschoug) Kuntze 1891,[100] (Port Alfred northwards to Mozambique)[97]
  • Dictyota ciliolata Sonder ex Kützing 1859,[101] (Mabibi northwards into Mozambique)[97]
  • Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux 1809, syn. Ulva dichotoma Hudson 1762, Zonaria dichotoma (Hudson) C.Agardh 1817, Fucus dichotomus (Hudson) Bertolini 1819, Haliseris dichotoma (Hudson) Sprengel 1827, Dichophyllium dichotomum (Hudson) Kützing 1843,[102](Langebaan and False Bay to Natal. D. dichotoma var. intricata (C.Agardh) Greville 1830, common at Kalk Bay and Dalebrook, and occurring more or less throughout the range of the species)[2]
  • Dictyota friabilis Setchell 1926,[103] (Northern KwaZulu-Natal)[97]
  • Dictyota humifusa Hörnig, Schnetter & Coppejans in Hörnig et al. 1992,[104] (Isipingo northwards into Mozambique)[97]
  • Dictyota liturata J.Agardh 1848,[105] (Kommetjie on Cape Peninsula to Umhlali in KwaZulu-Natal)[2][97]
  • Spotted dictyota Dictyota naevosa (Suhr) Montagne 1840, syn. Zonaria naevosa Suhr 1834, Cutleria naevosa (Suhr) Hering ex Krauss 1846,[106] (Die Walle to Umhlali, KwaZulu-Natal)[2](Cape Peninsula eatward into KwaZulu-Natal as far as Mission Rocks)[97]
  • Distromium skottsbergii Levring 1940,[107] (Protea banks in southern KwaZulu-Natal)[97]
  • Multi-fanned zonaria Exallosorus harveyanus (Pappe ex Kützing) J.A.Phillips, 1997. Syn. Zonaria harveyana (Pappe ex Kützing) Areschoug 1851,[108] (Platbank, False Bay to KwaZulu-Natal as far north as Park Rynie. Endemic)[2][97]
  • Lobophora variegata (J.V.Lamouroux) Womersley ex E.C.Oliveira 1977, syn. Dictyota variegata J.V.Lamouroux 1809, Zonaria variegata (J.V.Lamouroux) C.Agardh 1817, Gymnosorus variegatus (J.V.Lamouroux) J.Agardh 1894, Pocockiella variegata (J.V.Lamouroux) Papenfuss 1943,[109] (East London eastward into Mozambique)[97]
  • Padina boryana Thivy in W.R. Taylor 1966,[110] (The Haven about 150km west of Port St. Johns eastward into Mozambique)[97]
  • Rugulopteryx suhrii (Kützing) De Clerck & Coppejans in De Clerck et al. 2006, syn. Dictyota marginata Areschoug 1851, Dictyota suhrii G.Murray 1888, Stoechospermum suhrii Kützing 1859,[111] (Algoa Bay eatwards into KwaZulu-Natal as far north as Isipingo)[97]
  • Spatoglossum asperum J.Agardh 1894,[112] (Isipingo northward)[97]
  • Stoechospermum polypodioides (J.V.Lamouroux) J.Agardh 1848, syn. Dictyota polypodioides J.V.Lamouroux 1809,[113] (Mapelane near St. Lucia northward into Mozambique)[97]
  • Stypopodium multipartitum (Suhr) P.C.Silva in P.C.Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, syn. Zonaria multipartita Suhr 1834, Cutleria multipartita (Suhr) Hering 1846, Orthosorus multipartitus (Suhr) Trevisan 1849, Spatoglossum multipartitum (Suhr) Kützing 1849,[114] (Arniston eastward into Mozambique)[97]
  • Articulated zonaria Zonaria subarticulata (J.V.Lamouroux) Papenfuss 1944, Dictyota subarticulata J.V.Lamouroux 1809, Padina interrupta (Lamouroux) Bory de Saint-Vincent 1827, Phycopteris interrupta (Lamouroux) Kützing 1849, Orthosorus interruptus (Lamouroux) Trevisan 1849,[115] (False Bay eastward to Mozambique)[2][97]

Order: Ectocarpales[edit]

Family: Acinetosporaceae[edit]

  • Acinetospora crinita (Carmichael) Sauvageau 1899, syn. Acinetospora pusilla var. crinita (Carmichael) Batters, Ectocarpus crinitus Carmichael 1833,[116] (False Bay, Eastern Cape)[2]
  • Feldmannia irregularis (Kützing) G.Hamel 1939, syn. Ectocarpus irregularis Kützing 1845, Giffordia irregularis (Kützing) Joly 1965, Hincksia irregularis (Kützing) Amsler 1991,[117] (Cape Peninsula, Langebaan lagoon and Eastern Cape)[2]
  • Hincksia granulosa (Smith) P.C.Silva in P.C.Silva, E.G.Meñez & R.L.Moe 1987, Conferva granulosa Smith 1811, Ectocarpus granulosus (Smith) C.Agardh 1828, Giffordia granulosa (Smith) G.Hamel 1939,[118] (Muizenberg and Oudekraal, also Namibia)[2]

Family Chordariaceae[edit]

Family Chordariopsidaceae[edit]

  • Cape cord weed Chordariopsis capensis (C.Agardh) Kylin 1940, syn. Chordaria flagelliformis var. capensis C.Agardh 1824,[130] (Cape Frio, Namibia to at least Arniston)[2]

Family Ectocarpaceae[edit]

  • Ectocarpus acutus Setchell & Gardner 1922c,[131] (Olifantsbos to Hondeklipbaai)[2]
  • Ectocarpus fasciculatus Harvey 1841,[132] (Melkbosstrand to De Hoop)[2]
  • Ectocarpus siliculosus (Dillwyn) Lyngbye 1819, syn. Conferva siliculosa Dillwyn 1809, Ceramium siliculosum (Dillwyn) C.Agardh 1811, Ectocarpus confervoides f. siliculosus (Dillwyn) Kjellman 1872, Ectocarpus confervoides var. siliculosus (Dillwyn) Farlow 1881,[133] (Port Nolloth to Eastern Cape)[2]

Family: Pylaiellaceae[edit]

  • Bachelotia antillarum (Grunow) Gerloff 1959, syn. Ectocarpus antillarum Grunow 1867, Pylaiella antillarum (Grunow) De Toni 1895,[134] (False Bay to KwaZulu-Natal)[2]

Family Scytosiphonaceae[edit]

  • Chnoospora minima (Hering) Papenfuss 1956, syn. Fucus minimus Hering 1841,[135] (Dwesa (about 80 km west of Poert St. Johns) eastward into Mozambique)[97]
  • Oyster thief Colpomenia sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) Derbès & Solier in Castagne 1851, syn. Ulva sinuosa Mertens ex Roth 1806, Encoelium sinuosum (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh 1820, Stilophora sinuosa (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh 1827, Asperococcus sinuosus (Mertens ex Roth) Bory de Saint-Vincent 1832, Asperococcus sinuosus (C.Agardh) Zanardini 1841, Hydroclathrus sinuosus (Mertens ex Roth) Zanardini 1843,[136] (Throughout South Africa)[2][97]
  • Compsonema cf. sessile Setchell & Gardner 1922a, (Oudekraal)[2]
  • Endarachne Endarachne binghamiae J.Agardh 1896'[137] (False Bay eastwards to KwaZulu-Natal as far as Port Edward)[2][97]
  • Hydroclathrus clathratus (C.Agardh) M.A.Howe in N.L.Britton & C.F.Millspaugh 1920, syn. Encoelium clathratum C.Agardh 1823, Stilophora clathrata (C.Agardh) C.Agardh 1827, Asperococcus clathratus (C.Agardh) J.Agardh 1848,[138] (Northern KwaZulu-Natal from Sodwana northward)[97]
  • Starred cushion Iyengaria stellata (Børgesen) Børgesen 1939, syn. Rosenvingea stellata Børgesen 1928, Colpomenia stellata (Børgesen) Børgesen 1930,[139] (Southern Cape Peninsula to KwaZulu-Natal)[2]
  • Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze 1898, syn. Fucus fascia O.F.Müller 1778, Laminaria fascia (O.F.Müller) C.Agardh 1817, Ulva fascia (O.F.Müller) Lyngbye 1819, Ilea fascia (O.F.Müller) Fries 1835, Phyllitis fascia (O.F.Müller) Kützing 1843, Saccharina fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze 1891,[140] (Yzerfontein to Soetwater)[2]
  • Scytosiphon lomentaria (Lyngbye) Link 1833, Chorda lomentaria Lyngbye 1819, Scytosiphon filum var. lomentarius (Lyngbye) C.Agardh 1820, Fucus lomentarius (Lyngbye) Sommerfelt 1826, Scytosiphon simplicissimus (Clemente) Cremades 1990, Ulva simplicissima Clemente 1807,[141][142] (Simon's Town to Lüderitz)[2]
  • Sausage skins Scytosiphon simplicissimus (Clemente) Cremades in Cremades et Perez-Cirera 1990, syn. Ulva simplicissima Clemente 1807,[143] (Simon's Town in False Bay to Lüderitz in Namibia)[2]

Order: Fucales[edit]

Family Bifurcariopsidaceae[edit]

Family Sargassaceae[edit]

  • Long-leafed sargassum Anthophycus longifolius (Turner) Kützing, 1849 syn. Fucus longifolius Turner 1809, Sargassum longifolium (Turner) C.Agardh 1820, Carpophyllum longifolium (Turner) De Toni 1895,[145] (Platboombaai eastwards as far as Uvongo in southern KwaZulu-Natal)[2][97]
  • Constricted axils Axillariella constricta (J.Agardh) P.C.Silva 1959b, syn. Fucodium constrictum J.Agardh 1848, Ascophyllum constricta (J.Agardh) Kuntze 1891, Ascophylla constricta (Kützing) Kuntze 1891,[146] (Cape Peninsula to Cape Columbine)[2]
  • Hanging wrack Brassicophycus brassicaeformis (Kützing) Draisma, Ballesteros, F.Rousseau & T.Thibaut 2010, syn. Pycnophycus brassicaeformis Kützing 1860, Bifurcaria brassicaeformis (Kützing) E.S.Barton 1893,[147] (Cape Agulhas to Sea Point)[2]
  • Cystophora fibrosa Simons, 1970,[148] (De Walle to Koppie Allen, and Platboom)[2]
  • Hormophysa cuneiformis (J.F.Gmelin) P.C.Silva in P.C. Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987, syn. Fucus cuneiformis J.F.Gmelin 1792,[149] (Rabbit Rock in northern KwaZulu-Natal northwards)[97]
  • Polycladia myrica (S.G.Gmelin) Draima, Ballesteros, F.Rousseau & T.Thibaut 2010, syn. Fucus myrica S.G.Gemlin 1768, Cystoseira myrica (S.G.Gmelin) C.Agardh 1820,[150] (as C.myrica, Mission Rocks in KwaZulu-Natal northwards into Mozambique)[97]
  • Sargassum aquifolium (Turner) C.Agardh 1820, syn. Fucus aquifolius Turner 1807, Sargassum crassifolium J.Agardh 1848,[151] (Sodwana northwards)[97]
  • Sargassum elegans Suhr, 1840,[152] (False Bay to Mozambique. Endemic to southern Africa)[2]
  • Sargassum incisifolium (Turner) C.Agardh 1820, syn. Fucus incisifolius Turner 1811, Sargassum heterophyllum (Turner) C.Agardh, 1820,[153] (False Bay eastward into Mozambique. Restricted to Southern Africa and Madagascar)[2][97]
  • Turbinaria ornata (Turner) J.Agardh 1848, syn. Fucus turbinatus var. ornata Turner 1807, Sargassum turbinatum var. ornatum (Turner) C.Agardh 1821,[154] (Common from Sodwana Bay northwards but extending south as far as Durban)[97]

Order: Laminariales[edit]

Family Laminariaceae[edit]

  • Split-fan kelp Laminaria pallida Greville in J. Agardh 1848, Hafgygia pallida (Greville) Areschchoug 1883, Saccharina pallida (Greville) Kuntze 1891,[155] (Danger Point to Cape Nolloth, as the schinzii form to at least Rocky Point in northern Namibia)[2]
  • Bladder kelp Macrocystis angustifolia Bory de Saint-Vincent 1826,[156] (Occasional in drift in False Bay. Attached from Cape Point to Paternoster)[2]

Family Lessoniaceae[edit]

  • Sea bamboo Ecklonia maxima (Osbeck) Papenfuss 1940b, syn. Fucus maximus Osbeck 1757,[157] (Papenkuilsfontein 10 km west of Cape Agulhas to north of Lüderitz, Namibia)[2]
  • Spined kelp Ecklonia radiata (C.Agardh) J.Agardh 1848, Laminaria radiata C.Agardh 1817, Capea radiata (C.Agardh) Endlicher 1843,[158] (Forms with long stipes and rugose blades in False Bay, Spinose forms common at Die Dam, Otherwise species common from Koppie Allen to Southern Natal. Longer stiped smooth bladed form as far east as parts of Zululand)[2](Deep water populations extend to Sodwana Bay at depths up to 60m)[97]

Order: Ralfsiales[edit]

Family Neoralfsiaceae[edit]

  • Neoralfsia expansa (J.Agardh) P.-E.Lim & H.Kawai ex Kraft 2009, syn. Myrionema expansum J.Agardh 1847, Ralfsia expansa (J.Agardh) J.Agardh 1848,[159] (unclear distribution)[97]

Family Ralfsiaceae[edit]

  • Ralfsia Ralfsia verrucosa (Areschoug) J.Agardh 1848, syn. Cruoria verrucosa Areschoug 1843,[160] (Common on all west coast shores and probably throughout the Agulhas marine province)[2]

Order: Scytothamnales[edit]

Family Splachnidiaceae[edit]

  • Dead man's fingers Splachnidium rugosum (Linnaeus) Greville 1830,[161] (Dominant in mid-shore throughout west coast, Lüderitz, Namibia to eastern Cape)[2]

Order: Sphacelariales[edit]

Family Sphacelariaceae[edit]

Family Stypocaulaceae[edit]

Order: Sporochnales[edit]

Family Sporochnaceae[edit]

Kingdom: Protista — Subkingdom: Biciliata — Infraregnum: Incertae sedis — Phylum(?): Rhodophyta — Red seaweeds[edit]

Geographical position of places mentioned in species ranges[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=21218; searched on 26 February 2012
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd Stegenga, H., Bolton, J.J., & Anderson, R.J. 1997. Seaweeds of the South African West Coast. Contributions from the Bolus Herbarium, University of Cape Town. ISBN 0-7992-1793-X
  3. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3440; searched on 26 February 2012
  4. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=44; searched on 26 February 2012
  5. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=21225; searched on 12 March 2012
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay Coppejans, E., Leliaert, F and Verbruggen, H. in De Clerck, O., Bolton, J.J., Anderson, R. J. & Coppejans, E. 2005. Guide to the Seaweeds of KwazZulu-Natal. Scripta Botanica Belgica Volume 33. Joint publication of: National Botanical gardens of Belgium, VLIZ Flanders Marine Institute and Flemish Community. ISBN 90-72619-64-1
  7. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=10; searched on 26 February 2012
  8. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3743; searched on 12 March 2012
  9. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=21260; searched on 26 February 2012
  10. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=4451; searched on 12 March 2012
  11. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3746; searched on 12 March 2012
  12. ^ Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=1137; searched on 26 February 2012
  13. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3439; searched on 26 February 2012
  14. ^ Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=1409; searched on 13 March 2012
  15. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3755; searched on 13 March 2012
  16. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=14511; searched on 13 March 2012
  17. ^ Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3765; searched on 13 March 2012
  18. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3770; searched on 13 March 2012
  19. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=21593; searched on 13 March 2012
  20. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=11578; searched on 13 March 2012
  21. ^ Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=4537; searched on 13 March 2012
  22. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=21618; searched on 13 March 2012
  23. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=21623; searched on 13 March 2012
  24. ^ Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3432; searched on 26 February 2012
  25. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3433; searched on 26 February 2012
  26. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=133062; searched on 18 March 2012
  27. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=133062; searched on 27 February 2012
  28. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3435; searched on 27 February 2012
  29. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=21713; searched on 13 March 2012
  30. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=21715; searched on 13 March 2012
  31. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3436; searched on 27 February 2012
  32. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3437; searched on 27 February 2012
  33. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=21723; searched on 13 March 2012
  34. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3438; searched on 27 February 2012
  35. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3441; searched on 27 February 2012
  36. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=238; searched on 27 February 2012
  37. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=4544; searched on 14 March 2012
  38. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=19417; searched on 14 March 2012
  39. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=1223; searched on 14 March 2012
  40. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=4559; searched on 14 March 2012
  41. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=24317; searched on 14 March 2012
  42. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=11623; searched on 14 March 2012
  43. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3819; searched on 14 March 2012
  44. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3419; searched on 27 February 2012
  45. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3731; searched on 14 March 2012
  46. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=36726; searched on 14 March 2012
  47. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3738; searched on 14 March 2012
  48. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=21112; searched on 11 March 2012
  49. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=21113; searched on 11 March 2012
  50. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3722; searched on 11 March 2012
  51. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3723; searched on 11 March 2012
  52. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3710; searched on 11 March 2012
  53. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=1121; searched on 11 March 2012
  54. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=1218; searched on 11 March 2012
  55. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3682; searched on 11 March 2012
  56. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3677; searched on 10 March 2012
  57. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=24271; searched on 10 March 2012
  58. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3684; searched on 10 March 2012
  59. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=11475; searched on 27 February 2012
  60. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=13164; searched on 27 February 2012
  61. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=19273; searched on 27 February 2012
  62. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=222; searched on 27 February 2012
  63. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3424; searched on 27 February 2012
  64. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3425; searched on 27 February 2012
  65. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3426; searched on 27 February 2012
  66. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=227; searched on 27 February 2012
  67. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3427; searched on 27 February 2012
  68. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=96377; searched on 11 March 2012
  69. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=41565; searched on 10 March 2012
  70. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3428; searched on 27 February 2012
  71. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3429; searched on 27 February 2012
  72. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=16195; searched on 10 March 2012.
  73. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=232; searched on 10 March 2012
  74. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3430; searched on 27 February 2012
  75. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=235; searched on 27 February 2012
  76. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=236; searched on 10 March 2012
  77. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=13867; searched on 27 February 2012
  78. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=11511; searched on 27 February 2012
  79. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3431; searched on 27 February 2012
  80. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=208; searched on 27 February 2012
  81. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=210; searched on 27 February 2012
  82. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=213; searched on 27 February 2012
  83. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=33; searched on 27 February 2012
  84. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3420; searched on 27 February 2012
  85. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3422; searched on 27 February 2012.
  86. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=220; searched on 27 February 2012
  87. ^ Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=12999; searched on 27 February 2012
  88. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=12904; searched on 27 February 2012
  89. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=39; searched on 27 February 2012
  90. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=12905; searched on 27 February 2012
  91. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=13000; searched on 27 February 2012
  92. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=1069; searched on 27 February 2012
  93. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=40; searched on 27 February 2012
  94. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=14493; searched on 27 February 2012
  95. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3458; searched on 24 February 2012
  96. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=131792; searched on 16 March 2012
  97. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Tronchin, E.M. and De Clerk, O in De Clerck, O., Bolton, J.J., Anderson, R. J. & Coppejans, E. 2005. Guide to the Seaweeds of KwazZulu-Natal. Scripta Botanica Belgica Volume 33. Joint publication of: National Botanical gardens of Belgium, VLIZ Flanders Marine Institute and Flemish Community. ISBN 90-72619-64-1
  98. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=11368; searched on 15 March 2012
  99. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3454; searched on 24 February 2012
  100. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=20174; searched on 15 March 2012
  101. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=11375; searched on 16 March 2012
  102. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=60; searched on 24 February 2012
  103. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=4574; searched on 16 March 2012
  104. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=12247; searched on 16 March 2012
  105. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=867; searched on 24 February 2012
  106. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3455; searched on 24 February 2012
  107. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=11882; searched on 17 March 2012
  108. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=43277; searched on 24 February 2012
  109. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=27002; searched on 17 March 2012
  110. ^ Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=2501; searched on 17 March 2012
  111. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=131795; searched on 16 March 2012
  112. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=19061; searched on 17 March 2012
  113. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=69905; searched on 17 March 2012
  114. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=20233; searched on 17 March 2012
  115. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3457; searched on 24 February 2012
  116. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=246; searched on 27 February 2012
  117. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=951; searched on 27 February 2012
  118. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=251; searched on 27 February 2012
  119. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=293; searched on 24 February 2012
  120. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=12461; searched on 26 February 2012
  121. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3445; searched on 26 February 2012
  122. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3447; searched on 26 February 2012
  123. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3446; searched on 26 February 2012
  124. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=279; searched on 26 February 2012
  125. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3448; searched on 26 February 2012
  126. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3868; searched on 26 February 2012
  127. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=26042; searched on 26 February 2012
  128. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3443; searched on 26 February 2012
  129. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3444; searched on 26 February 2012
  130. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3449; searched on 24 February 2012
  131. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3442; searched on 27 February 2012
  132. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=248; searched on 27 February 2012
  133. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=1368; searched on 27 February 2012
  134. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=923; searched on 27 February 2012
  135. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3950; searched on 17 March 2012
  136. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=831; searched on 26 February 2012
  137. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3459; searched on 26 February 2012.
  138. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=832; searched on 17 March 2012
  139. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3460; searched on 26 February 2012
  140. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=75; searched on 26 February 2012
  141. ^ Silva, Basson & Moe 1996
  142. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=76; searched on 27 February 2012
  143. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=16639; searched on 26 February 2012
  144. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3467; searched on 24 February 2012
  145. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3469; searched on 24 February 2012
  146. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3465; searched on 24 February 2012
  147. ^ Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=138668; searched on 24 February 2012
  148. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3468; searched on 24 February 2012
  149. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=4072; searched on 17 March 2012
  150. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=138685; searched on 17 March 2012
  151. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=20503; searched on 17 March 2012
  152. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3470; searched on 24 February 2012
  153. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=20854; searched on 24 February 2012
  154. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=4130; searched on 17 March 2012
  155. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3461; searched on 24 February 2012
  156. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3464; searched on 24 February 2012
  157. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3462; searched on 24 February 2012
  158. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3463; searched on 24 February 2012
  159. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=132982; searched on 15 March 2012
  160. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=305; searched on 26 February 2012
  161. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3450; searched on 26 February 2012
  162. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3451; searched on 26 February 2012
  163. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=333; searched on 26 February 2012
  164. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3452; searched on 26 February 2012
  165. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=3453; searched on 26 February 2012
  166. ^ Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=63; searched on 26 February 2012
  167. ^ M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2012. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=64; searched on 26 February 2012