List of selected stars for navigation

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The selected stars for navigation are often used for sextant observations

Fifty-eight selected navigational stars are given a special status in the field of celestial navigation. Of the approximately 6,000 stars visible to the naked eye under optimal conditions, the selected stars are among the brightest and span thirty-eight constellations of the celestial sphere from the declination of 70° south to 89° north. Many of the selected stars were named in antiquity by the ancient Arabs, Greeks, Romans, and Babylonians.

The star Polaris, often called the "North Star", is treated specially due to its proximity to the north celestial pole. When navigating in the northern hemisphere, special techniques can be used with Polaris to determine latitude or gyrocompass error. The other 57 selected stars have daily positions given in nautical almanacs, aiding the navigator in efficiently performing observations on them. A second group of 115 "tabulated stars" can also be used for celestial navigation, but are often less familiar to the navigator and require extra calculations.

For purposes of identification, the positions of navigational stars — expressed as declination and sidereal hour angle — are often rounded to the nearest degree. In addition to tables, star charts provide an aid to the navigator in identifying the navigational stars, showing constellations, relative positions, and brightness.

Background[edit]

Selected navigation stars (except Polaris) listed on a U.S. Nautical Almanac page for May 1995

Under optimal conditions, approximately 6,000 stars are visible to the naked eye of an observer on Earth.[1] Of these, 58 are known in the field of navigational astronomy as "selected stars", including 19 stars of the first magnitude, 38 stars of the second magnitude, and Polaris.[1] The selection of the stars is made by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office and the US Naval Observatory, in the production of the yearly Nautical Almanac which the two organizations have published jointly since 1958.[2] Criteria in the choice of stars includes their distribution across the celestial sphere, brightness, and ease of identification.[3] Information for another 115 stars, known as "tabulated stars", is also available to the navigator.[1] This list provides information on the name, approximate position in the celestial sphere, and apparent magnitude of the 58 selected stars in tabular form and by star charts.

These stars are typically used in two ways by the navigator. The first is to obtain a line of position by use of a sextant observation and the techniques of celestial navigation.[4] Multiple lines of position can be intersected to obtain a position known as a celestial fix. The second typical use of the navigational stars is to determine gyrocompass error by computing the azimuth of a star and comparing it to an azimuth measured using the ship's gyrocompass.[5] Numerous other applications also exist.

Navigators typically refer to stars using one of two naming systems for stars: common names and Bayer's designations.[1] All of the selected stars have had a common name since 1953, and many were named in antiquity by the Arabs, Greeks, Romans, and Babylonians.[1] Bayer's naming convention has been in use since 1603, and consists of a Greek letter combined with the possessive form of the star's constellation.[1] Both names are shown for each star in the tables and charts below.

Each star's approximate position on the celestial sphere is given using the equatorial coordinate system. The celestial sphere is an imaginary globe of infinite size with the Earth at its center.[6] Positions on the celestial sphere are often expressed using two coordinates: declination and sidereal hour angle, which are similar to latitude and longitude on the surface of the Earth. To define declination, the Earth's equator is projected out to the celestial sphere to construct the celestial equator, and declination is measured in degrees north or south of this celestial equator.[6] Sidereal hour angle is a measurement between 0 and 360 degrees, indicating how far west a body is from an arbitrarily chosen line on the celestial sphere called the vernal equinox.

The final characteristic provided in the tables and star charts is the star's brightness, expressed in terms of apparent magnitude. Magnitude is a logarithmic scale of brightness, designed so that a body of one magnitude is approximately 2.512 times brighter than a body of the next magnitude.[Note 1][7] Thus, a body of magnitude 1 is 2.5125, or 100 times brighter than a body of magnitude 6.[7] The dimmest stars that can be seen through a 200-inch terrestrial telescope are of the 20th magnitude, and very bright objects like the Sun and a full Moon have magnitudes of −26.7 and −12.6 respectively.[7]

Table[edit]

Key to the table
Column title Description
No. The number used to identify stars in navigation publications and star charts.[Note 2]
Common name The name of the star commonly used navigation publications and star charts.
Bayer designation Another name of the star which combines a Greek letter with the possessive form of its constellation's Latin name.
Etymology of
common name
Etymology of the common name.[8]
SHA Sidereal hour angle (SHA), the angular distance west of the vernal equinox.
Dec. Declination, the angular distance north or south of the celestial equator.
App.
magnitude
Apparent magnitude, an indicator of the star's brightness.

The table of navigational stars provides several types of information. In the first column is the identifying index number, followed by the common name, the Bayer designation, and the etymology of the common name. Then the star's approximate position, suitable for identification purposes, is given in terms of declination and sidereal hour angle, followed by the star's magnitude. The final column presents citations to the sources of the data, The American Practical Navigator and the star's entry at the SIMBAD database, a project of the Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center or CDS.

No.[Note 2] Common
name
Bayer
designation
Etymology of common name SHA Declination App.
magnitude
References
-100 a a a -100 -100 -100 -100
1 Alpheratz Andromedae αα Andromedae the horse's navel 358 29N 29° 2.06 [8][9]
2 Ankaa Phoenicis αα Phoenicis coined name 354 -42S 42° 2.37 [8][10]
3 Schedar Cassiopeiae αα Cassiopeiae the breast (of Cassiopeia) 350 56N 56° 2.25 [8][11]
4 Diphda Ceti ββ Ceti the second frog (Fomalhaut was once the first) 349 -18S 18° 2.04 [8][12]
5 Achernar Eridani αα Eridani end of the river (Eridanus) 336 -57S 57° 0.50 [8][13]
6 Hamal Arietis αα Arietis full-grown lamb 328 23N 23° 2.00 [8][14]
7 Acamar Eridani θθ Eridani another form of Achernar 316 -40S 40° 3.2 [8][15]
8 Menkar Ceti α α Ceti nose (of the whale) 315 4N 04° 2.5 [8][16]
9 Mirfak Persei α α Persei elbow of the Pleiades 309 50N 50° 1.82 [8][17]
10 Aldebaran Tauri αα Tauri follower (of the Pleiades) 291 16N 16° 0.85 var[Note 3] [8][18]
11 Rigel Orionis β β Orionis foot (left foot of Orion) 282 -8S 08° 0.12 [8][19]
12 Capella Aurigae α α Aurigae little she-goat 281 46N 46° 0.71 [8][20]
13 Bellatrix Orionis γγ Orionis female warrior 279 6N 06° 1.64 [8][21]
14 Elnath Tauri ββ Tauri one butting with the horns 279 29N 29° 1.68 [8][22]
15 Alnilam Orionis εε Orionis string of pearls 276 -1S 01° 1.70 [8][23]
16 Betelgeuse Orionis αα Orionis the arm pit (of Orion) 271 7N 07° 0.58 var[Note 3] [8][24]
17 Canopus Carinae αα Carinae city of ancient Egypt 264 -53S 53° −0.72 [8][25]
18 Sirius Canis Majoris αα Canis Majoris the scorching one (popularly, the dog star) 259 -17S 17° −1.47 [8][26]
19 Adhara Canis Majoris εε Canis Majoris the virgin(s) 256 -29S 29° 1.51 [8][27]
20 Procyon Canis Minoris αα Canis Minoris before the dog (rising before the dog star, Sirius) 245 5N 05° 0.34 [8][28]
21 Pollux Geminorum β β Geminorum Zeus' other twin son (Castor, α Gem, is the first twin) 244 28N 28° 1.15 [8][29]
22 Avior Carinae εε1 Carinae coined name 234 -59S 59° 2.4 [8][30]
23 Suhail Velorum λλ Velorum shortened form of Al Suhail, one Arabic name for Canopus 223 -43S 43° 2.23 [8][31]
24 Miaplacidus Carinae ββ Carinae quiet or still waters 222 -70S 70° 1.70 [8][32]
25 Alphard Hydrae α α Hydrae solitary star of the serpent 218 -9S 09° 2.00 [8][33]
26 Regulus Leonis α α Leonis the prince 208 12N 12° 1.35 [8][34]
27 Dubhe Ursae Majoris αα1 Ursae Majoris the bear's back 194 62N 62° 1.87 [8][35]
28 Denebola Leonis β β Leonis tail of the lion 183 15N 15° 2.14 [8][36]
29 Gienah Corvi γ γ Corvi right wing of the raven 176 -17S 17° 2.80 [8][37]
30 Acrux Crucis αα1 Crucis coined from Bayer name 174 -63S 63° 1.40 [8][38]
31 Gacrux Crucis γγ Crucis coined from Bayer name 172 -57S 57° 1.63 [8][39]
32 Alioth Ursae Majoris ε ε Ursae Majoris another form of Capella 167 56N 56° 1.76 [8][40]
33 Spica Virginis α α Virginis the ear of corn 159 -11S 11° 1.04 [8][41]
34 Alkaid Ursae Majoris η η Ursae Majoris leader of the daughters of the bier 153 49N 49° 1.85 [8][42]
35 Hadar Centauri β β Centauri leg of the centaur 149 -60S 60° 0.60 [8][43]
36 Menkent Centauri θ θ Centauri shoulder of the centaur 149 -36S 36° 2.06 [8][44]
38 Rigil Kentaurus Centauri αα1 Centauri foot of the centaur 140 -61S 61° −0.01 [8][45]
37 Arcturus Bootis αα Bootis the bear's guard 146 19N 19° −0.04 var[Note 3] [8][46]
39 Zubenelgenubi Librae α α Librae southern claw (of the scorpion) 138 -16S 16° 3.28 [8][47]
40 Kochab Ursae Minoris β β Ursae Minoris shortened form of "north star" (named when it was that,[Note 4] ca. 1500 BC – AD 300). 137 74N 74° 2.08 [8][48]
41 Alphecca Corona Borealis α α Corona Borealis feeble one (in the crown) 127 27N 27° 2.24 [8][49]
42 Antares Scorpii αα Scorpii rival of Mars (in color) 113 -26S 26° 1.09 [8][50]
43 Atria Trianguli Australis αα Trianguli Australis coined from Bayer name 108 -69S 69° 1.92 [8][51]
44 Sabik Ophiuchi η η Ophiuchi second winner or conqueror 103 -16S 16° 2.43 [8][52]
45 Shaula Scorpii λ λ Scorpii cocked-up part of the scorpion's tail 097 -37S 37° 1.62 [8][53]
46 Rasalhague Ophiuchi α α Ophiuchi head of the serpent charmer 096 13N 13° 2.10 [8][54]
47 Eltanin Draconis γ γ Draconis head of the dragon 091 51 N 51° 2.23 [8][55]
48 Kaus Australis Sagittarii ε ε Sagittarii southern part of the bow (of Sagittarius) 084 -34S 34° 1.80 [8][56]
49 Vega Lyrae α α Lyrae the falling eagle or vulture 081 39N 39° 0.03 [8][57]
50 Nunki Sagittarii σ σ Sagittarii constellation of the holy city (Eridu) 076 -26S 26° 2.06 [8][58]
51 Altair Aquilae α α Aquilae flying eagle or vulture 063 9N 09° 0.77 [8][59]
52 Peacock Pavonis α α Pavonis Coined from the English name of the constellation 054 -57S 57° 1.91 [8][60]
53 Deneb Cygni αα Cygni tail of the hen 050 45N 45° 1.25 [8][61]
54 Enif Pegasi εε Pegasi nose of the horse 034 10N 10° 2.40 [8][62]
55 Al Na'ir Gruis αα Gruis bright one (of the southern fish's tail) 028 -47S 47° 1.74 [8][63]
56 Fomalhaut Piscis Austrini α α Piscis Austrini mouth of the southern fish 016 -30S 30° 1.16 [8][64]
57 Markab Pegasi α α Pegasi saddle (of Pegasus) 014 15N 15° 2.49 [8][65]
99* [Note 2] Polaris[8] Ursae Minoris αα Ursae Minoris the pole (star) 319 89N 89° 2.01 var[Note 3] [8][66]

Star charts[edit]

Key to the Star charts
Item Description
UPPERCASE TEXT Constellation names are indicated in uppercase text.
star of magnitude 1.5 and brighter
Selected star of magnitude 1.5 and brighter. Labeled with common name, star number, and Greek letter to indicate Bayer designation.
star of magnitude 1.6 and fainter
Selected star of magnitude 1.6 and fainter. Labeled with common name, star number, and Greek letter to indicate Bayer designation.
star of magnitude 2.5 and brighter
Tabulated star of magnitude 2.5 and brighter. Labeled with Greek letter to indicate Bayer designation.
star of magnitude 2.6 and fainter
Tabulated star of magnitude 2.6 and fainter. Labeled with Greek letter to indicate Bayer designation.
untabulated star
Untabulated star. Not labeled.
Dotted line Constellation outline.

Navigators often use star charts to identify a star by its position relative to other stars. References like the Nautical Almanac and The American Practical Navigator provide four star charts, covering different portions of the celestial sphere. Two of these charts are azimuthal equidistant projections of the north and south poles. The other two cover the equatorial region of the celestial sphere, from the declination of 30° south to 30° north. The two equatorial charts are mercator projections, one for the eastern hemisphere of the celestial sphere and one for the western hemisphere. Note that unlike familiar maps, east is shown to the left and west is shown to the right. With this orientation, the navigator can hold the star chart overhead, and the arrangement of the stars on the chart will resemble the stars in the sky.[1]

In the star charts, constellations are labelled with capital letters and indicated by dotted lines collecting their stars. The 58 selected stars for navigation are shown in blue and labelled with their common name, star number, and a Greek letter to indicate their Bayer designation. The additional 115 tabulated stars that can also be used for navigation are shown in red and labelled with a Greek letter to indicate their Bayer designation. Some additional stars not suitable for navigation are also included on the charts to indicate constellations, they are presented as unlabelled small red dots.

Equatorial stars[edit]

Equatorial stars of the eastern hemisphere

The equatorial region of the celestial sphere's eastern hemisphere includes 16 navigational stars from Alpheratz in the constellation Andromeda to Denebola in Leo. It also includes stars from the constellations Cetus, Aries, Taurus, Orion, Canis Major and Minor, Gemini, and Hydra. Of particular note among these stars are "the dog star" Sirius, the brightest star in the sky, and four stars of the easily identified constellation Orion.

Diphda (#4) SHA 349 Dec. S 18 Hamal (#6) SHA 328 Dec. N 23 Menkar (#8) SHA 315 Dec. N 04 Aldebaran (#10) SHA 291 Dec. N 16 Rigel (#11) SHA 282 Dec. S 08 Bellatrix (#13) SHA 279 Dec. N 06 Elnath (#14) SHA 279 Dec. N 29 Alnilam (#15) SHA 276 Dec. S 01 Betelgeuse (#16) SHA 271 Dec. N 07 Sirius (#18) SHA 259 Dec. S 17 Adhara (#19) SHA 256 Dec. S 29 Procyon (#20) SHA 245 Dec. N 05 Pollux (#21) SHA 244 Dec. N 28 Alphard (#25) SHA 218 Dec. S 09 Alpheratz (#1) SHA 358 Dec. N 29 Regulus (#26) SHA 208 Dec. N 12 Denebola (#28) SHA 183 Dec. N 15Equatorial stars with SHA from 180 to 360
About this image


Equatorial stars of the western hemisphere

The equatorial region of the celestial sphere's western hemisphere includes 13 navigational stars from Gienah in the constellation Corvus to Markab in Pegasus. It also includes stars from the constellations Virgo, Bootes, Libra, Corona Borealis, Scorpio, Ophiuchus, Sagittarius, and Aquila. The variable star Arcturus is the brightest star in this group.

Geinah (#29) SHA 165 Dec. S 19 Spica (#33) SHA 159 Dec. S 11 Arcturus (#37) SHA 146 Dec. N 19 Zubenelgenubi (#39) SHA 138 Dec. S 16 Alphecca (#41) SHA 127 Dec. N 27 Antares (#42) SHA 113 Dec. S 26 Sabik (#44) SHA 103 Dec. S 16 Rasalhague (#46) SHA 096 Dec. N 13 Nunki (#50) SHA 076 Dec. S 26 Altair (#51) SHA 063 Dec. N 19 Enif (#54) SHA 034 Dec. N 10 Fomalhaut (#56) SHA 016 Dec. S 30 Markab (#57) SHA 014 Dec. N 15 Alpheratz (#1) SHA 358 Dec. N 29Equatorial stars with SHA from 0 to 180
About this image

Northern stars[edit]

Schedar (#3) SHA 350 Dec. N 56 Mirfac (#9) SHA 309 Dec. N 50 Capella (#12) SHA 281 Dec. N 46 Dubhe (#27) SHA 194 Dec. N 62 Alioth (#32) SHA 167 Dec. N 56 Alkaid (#34) SHA 153 Dec. N 49 Kochab (#40) SHA 137 Dec. N 74 Eltanin (#47) SHA 091 Dec. N 51 Vega (#49) SHA 081 Dec. N 39 Deneb (#53) SHA 050 Dec. N 45 Polaris SHA 319 Dec. N 89Northern navigational stars
About this image

The 11 northern stars are those with a declination between 30° north and 90° north. They are listed in order of decreasing sidereal hour angle, or from the vernal equinox westward across the sky. Starting with Schedar in the Cassiopeia constellation, the list includes stars from the constellations Auriga, the Great and Little Bears, Draco, Lyra and Cygnus. The two brightest northern stars are Vega and Capella.

In the star chart to the right, declination is shown by the radial coordinate, starting at 90° north in the center and decreasing to 30° north at the outer edge. Sidereal hour angle is shown as the angular coordinate, starting at 0° at the left of the chart, and increasing counter-clockwise.

Southern stars[edit]

Ankaa (#2) SHA 354 Dec. S 42 Achernar (#5) SHA 336 Dec. S 57 Acamar (#7) SHA 316 Dec. S 40 Canopus (#17) SHA 264 Dec. S 53 Avior (#22) SHA 234 Dec. S 59 Suhail (#23) SHA 223 Dec. S 43 Miaplacidus (#24) SHA 222 Dec. S 70 Acrux (#30) SHA 174 Dec. S 63 Gacrux (#31) SHA 172 Dec. S 57 Hadar (#35) SHA 149 Dec. S 60 Menkent (#36) SHA 149 Dec. S 60 Rigel Kentaurus (#38) SHA 140 Dec. S 61 Atria (#43) SHA 108 Dec. S 69 Shaula (#45) SHA 097 Dec. S 34 Kaus Australis (#48) SHA 084 Dec. S 34 Peacock (#52) SHA 054 Dec. S 57 Al Na'ir (#55) SHA 028 Dec S 47 Fomalhaut (#56) SHA 016 Dec. S 30Southern navigational stars
About this image

The 18 southern stars are those with a declination between 30° south and 90° south. They are listed in order of decreasing sidereal hour angle, or from the vernal equinox westward across the sky. Starting with Ankaa in the Phoenix constellation, the list includes stars from the constellations Eridanus, Carina, Crux, Centaurus, Libra, Triangulum Australe, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Pavo, and Grus. Canopus, Rigil Kentaurus, Achernar, and Hadar are the brightest stars in the southern sky.

In the star chart to the right, declination is shown by the radial coordinate, starting at 90° north in the center and decreasing to 30° north at the outer edge. Sidereal hour angle is shown as the angular coordinate, starting at 0° at the right of the chart, and increasing clockwise.

Footnotes[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ The value is actually the fifth root of 100, an irrational number known as Pogson's Ratio. See Australian Science Teachers' Association (2006). Teaching science, Volumes 52–53. Australian Science Teachers' Association. p. 44. Retrieved 2010-09-06. 
  2. ^ a b c This list uses the assigned numbers from the nautical almanac, which includes only 57 stars. Polaris, which is included in the list given in The American Practical Navigator, is listed here without a number.
  3. ^ a b c d The suffix var after the numeric value denotes a variable star whose magnitude changes over time.
  4. ^ For more information, see the article changing pole stars.
Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Bowditch, 2002, p. 249.
  2. ^ "History of the Nautical Almanac". US Naval Observatory. Retrieved 2011-01-23. 
  3. ^ Wright and Whitney, 1992, p. 273.
  4. ^ Bowditch, 2002, pp. 301–303.
  5. ^ Bowditch, 2002, pp. 271–274.
  6. ^ a b Bowditch, 2002, p. 234.
  7. ^ a b c Bowditch, 2002, p. 219.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh Bowditch, 2002, p. 248.
  9. ^ "Alpheratz". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  10. ^ "Alpha Phe". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  11. ^ "Schedar". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  12. ^ "Beta Ceti". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  13. ^ "Achernar". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  14. ^ "Hamal". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  15. ^ "Acamar". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  16. ^ "Menkar". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  17. ^ "Mirfak". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  18. ^ "Aldebaran". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  19. ^ "Rigel". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  20. ^ "Capella A". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  21. ^ "Bellatrix". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  22. ^ "bet Tau". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  23. ^ "Alnilam". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  24. ^ "Betelgeuse". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  25. ^ "Canopus". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  26. ^ "Sirius". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  27. ^ "Adara". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  28. ^ "Procyon". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  29. ^ "Pollux". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  30. ^ "Eps Car". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  31. ^ "lam Vel". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  32. ^ "Beta Car". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  33. ^ "Alphard". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  34. ^ "Regulus". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  35. ^ "Dubhe". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  36. ^ "Denebola". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  37. ^ "Gienah Corvi". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  38. ^ "Acrux A". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  39. ^ "Gacrux". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  40. ^ "Alioth". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  41. ^ "Spica". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  42. ^ "Alkaid". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  43. ^ "Agena". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  44. ^ "Menkent". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  45. ^ "Alpha Centauri". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  46. ^ "Arcturus". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  47. ^ "Alpha Librae". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  48. ^ "Kochab". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  49. ^ "Alphecca". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  50. ^ "Antares". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  51. ^ "Atria". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  52. ^ "Sabik". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  53. ^ "Shaula". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  54. ^ "Rasalhague". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  55. ^ "Etamin". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  56. ^ "Kaus Australis". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  57. ^ "Vega". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  58. ^ "Nunki". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  59. ^ "Altair". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  60. ^ "Peacock". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  61. ^ "Deneb". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  62. ^ "Enif". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  63. ^ "Alpha Gruis". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  64. ^ "Fomalhaut". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  65. ^ "Markab". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  66. ^ "Polaris". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 

References[edit]