List of shibboleths

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Below are listed various examples of shibboleths. Note that many apocryphal shibboleths exist, and that since, by definition, shibboleths rely on stereotypical pronunciation traits, they may not accurately describe the speech of all members of the group in question.

Shibboleths used in war and persecution[edit]


  • Schild en vriend: On 18 May 1302, the people of Bruges killed the French occupiers of the city during a nocturnal surprise attack. According to a famous legend, they stormed into the houses where they knew the tenants were forced to board and lodge French troops serving as city guards, roused every male person from his bed and forced them to repeat the challenge "schild en vriend" (shield and friend). The Flemings pronounced "schild" with a separate "s" /s/ and "ch" /x/" (see also "Scheveningen", later in this section). Flemings would pronounce "vriend" with a voiced v whereas French would render those as a voiceless f.

Every Frenchman who failed the test was stabbed on the spot, still in his nightgown. Because the signal for the uprising was the matins bells of the city's churches and monasteries, this became known as the Bruges Matins or Brugse Metten. Like the name of the massacre, the story may have been influenced by the Sicilian uprising mentioned below.

  • The problem with this legend is that in Medieval manuscripts of that time, a shield is referred to as "skilde" as in Norse and Norse-influenced English words. Therefore it is sometimes said that the words must have been "'s gilden vriend" meaning "friend of the guilds." The combination of the 's and the g in "'s gilden" would be pronounced /sx/.[1]


  • Ciciri (chickpeas): This was used by native Sicilians to ferret out Angevin French soldiers in the late 1200s during the Sicilian Vespers, the uprising which freed the island from Angevin rule. Both the Italian soft c /tʃ/, and the Italian r, were (and are still) difficult for the French to pronounce; also French tend to stress words on the final syllable.[2]

Castilian Spanish – Latin-American Spanish and Portuguese[edit]


  • The Peasants' Revolt of AD 1381 (also Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising) was used by the merchants of London in an attempt to get a competitive edge in the trade with the Low Countries by reducing the number of competitors. A massacre among the Flemings in London – not just the Flemish merchants – ensued. "And many fflemmynges loste hir heedes at that tyme and namely they that koude nat say Breede and Chese, but Case and Brode."[4]


  • Yksi: Finnish for "one", used by the White Guard to separate Russians from Finns in the Finnish Civil War during the invasion of Tampere. Many of the Russians caught had changed to civilian clothing, so suspected people were rounded up, even from hospitals, and asked to say yksi. If the prisoner pronounced it [juksi], mistaking the front vowel 'y' for an iotated 'u', he was considered a Russian foreign fighter and was shot on the spot. Any Slav or Balt, Communist or not, was killed, including some members of the White Guard.[5]

Spanish – French and Haitian Creole[edit]

  • Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo conducted a brutal massacre of undocumented Haitian settlers along the Dominican-Haitian border. The action is known as the Parsley Massacre. Suspects not fluent in Spanish either did not know or could not properly pronounce the Spanish word 'perejil' (parsley). The pronunciation of the word by Haitian citizens tended to be with an untrilled r and without the 'l' at the end of the word.[6]


  • The Azeri word for Hazelnut, fundukh, which Armenians typically pronounce with a [p] instead of an [f].[7]

Culture, religion and language-specific shibboleths[edit]

Shibboleths in fiction[edit]

English shibboleths for native speakers or local natives[edit]

  • Fish and chips: The accents of Australians and New Zealanders seem very similar, and the term fish and chips is sometimes evoked to illustrate a major difference between the two. In New Zealand pronunciation short i is a central vowel, [ɘ]. This vowel sound is sometimes caricatured as "fush and chups" by Australians. The Australian pronunciation has the front vowel [ɪ] (which is more common in most varieties of English) which, due to an overall vowel shift in New Zealand, sounds like "feesh and cheeps" to New Zealand ears.[14][15]
  • Pronunciation of letters of the alphabet:
  • In Highland Dress, for anyone who has ever served in a Scottish Regiment, or even played in a pipe band, or whenever said by any Scot, should ‘plaidactually be used to refer to tartan cloth, it could be pronounced: /ˈplæd/ (to rhyme with ‘had’). (NB: This usage, as a synonym for ‘tartan’, is generally only ever found in North America). More often, however, when referring to the cape-like garment – in its various forms – worn over the left shoulder as part of the traditional or formal Scottish dress, the pronunciation is: /ˈpld/ (to rhyme with ‘made’); (although the OED accepts both pronunciations in this usage). To further stress the pronunciation of the garment versus the cloth, the garment has an alternative spelling ‘plaide’, although rarely used. Thus: belted-plaid, drummer's plaid, evening-plaid, fly-plaid, full-plaid, piper's plaid, et al., are pronounced ‘pleɪd’ by those who have worn, or are familiar, with the same. Etymology: plaide Scots Language via Scottish Gaelic meaning ‘blanket’ or ‘cloak’, (albeit usually made of tartan; most often the same tartan as the wearer's kilt or trews).[17]
  • Regional vowels

Place-name pronunciations[edit]

In Australia[edit]

In Canada[edit]

In the Netherlands[edit]

  • Gorinchem: Pronounced as the alternative spelling of its name: Gorkum Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɣɔrkəm].
  • "Charlois": Neighbourhood in Rotterdam. A Rotterdammer will pronounce it as "Sjaarloos" (emphasis on the first vowel), while outsiders will be more likely to pronounce it as spelled - sounding more French and with the emphasis on the last vowel.

In New Zealand[edit]

  • Charleston is pronounced with three syllables, as /ˈɑːləstən/, unlike its better-known namesake in the United States.
  • Two of the main streets in Christchurch are local shibboleths. One, Barbadoes Street, is pronounced /bɑrˈbdɒs/ the same as the Caribbean country but spelt with an added "e"; the other, Antigua Street, is spelt the same way as its Caribbean namesake but pronounced with a shortened "i" and prominent "u" (/ænˈtɪɡjuːə/ rather than æ).
  • Dunedin: Pronounced locally with E as the only stressed vowel, the others either replaced by a schwa (the U) or elided (the I, sometimes also the U) – /dəˈndən/. Non-locals usually pronounce all three vowels clearly /dʌˈndɪn/.
  • Kumara: pronounced with the stress on the second syllable /kʉˈmɑrə/, unlike the vegetable (which has the stress on the first syllable).
  • Levin: pronounced with the stress on the second syllable as /ləˈvɪn/, not – as is sometimes thought by non-New Zealanders – with a first-syllable stress (as in the more common pronunciation of the surname).
  • Oamaru: Pronounced locally, and by other natives of the Otago region, as /ˌɔːməˈr/, a pronunciation borrowed from the local dialect of Māori. Most Māori speakers from farther north in New Zealand pronounce both initial vowels separately, as [ˈɔamarʉ], while non-Māori-speakers will pronounce it /ˌməˈr/.
  • Omaha: A Maori term meaning "Place of pleasure", pronounced with the stress on the second syllable /ˌˈmɑːhɑː/, not - as visiting non-New Zealanders tend to - with the stress on the first and last syllables as in the American city.
  • Otago: Pronounced locally with a schwa replacing the first O and sometimes – especially by older residents – with a schwa also replacing the final O (/əˈtɑːɡ/ or /əˈtɑːɡə/); other New Zealanders tend to pronounce both the first and last letters similarly as long Os /ˈtɑːɡ/.

In the United Kingdom[edit]

In the United States[edit]

  • Many US cities and towns are named after larger cities elsewhere, yet have a locally different pronunciation of their name. Outsiders generally pronounce them as their more famous counterparts. For example, Havana, Florida, locally /heɪˈvænə/; assorted American locations named Cairo (locally /ˈkeɪroʊ/); Lima, Ohio, Lima, New York, and Lima, Pennsylvania (all locally /ˈlaɪmə/ LY-mə), Berlin, New Hampshire (locally /ˈbɛərlɨn/ BAIR-lin), while New Berlin, Pennsylvania is distinctively pronounced by Central Pennsylvanians as New /ˈbɜrlɨn/ BUR-lin (similar to New Berlin, Wisconsin and Berlin, Connecticut). Natives of Iowa, Louisiana pronounce the town's name as /ˈaɪ.oʊ.eɪ/ EYE-oh-ay. Natives of Versailles, Ohio pronounce the town's name as "ver-SALES." Similarly, residents of Milan, Ohio pronounce the town's name as "MAI-lan".
  • Alachua County, Florida: Frequently pronounced by non-locals with the stress on the third syllable. This Native American word is pronounced by locals with the stress on the second syllable. Oddly, the town of the same name is frequently pronounced by locals as /əˈlætʃəweɪ/, perhaps to distinguish between reference to the town versus the county.
  • Albany, New York: The first syllable is frequently pronounced by non-locals as /æl/ (as in Alfred), while locals pronounce it /ɔːl/ (like "all").
  • Albany, Georgia: The stress is on the second syllable, pronounced by locals as "all-BEN-nee".
  • Aloha, Oregon, is pronounced /əˈloʊ.ə/ by locals, with the "h" silent, instead of like the Hawaiian greeting aloha (/əˈloʊhɑː/).
  • Amherst, Massachusetts: The name of this town (and its namesake colleges) is pronounced with a silent "h" by locals (/ˈæmərst/), and with a pronounced "h" by outsiders (/ˈæmhɜrst/).
  • Andreas, Pennsylvania: located in the SE corner of Schuylkill County and locally pronounced "ANN-dreez."
  • Appalachia: pronounced /æpəˈlætʃə/ within the central portion of the region, particularly between North Carolina and West Virginia; usually pronounced /æpəˈleɪʃə/ elsewhere.
  • Arab, Alabama: Unlike the conventional pronunciation, this city's name is pronounced as if it were two separate words – /ˈeɪræb/ ("AY-rab").
  • Arvada, Colorado and Arvada, Wyoming: The city in Colorado is pronounced by locals as "are-vad-uh", while the town in Wyoming is pronounced by locals there as "are-vay-da".
  • Arkansas River: While in most places the name of this river is pronounced the same way as the name of the state of Arkansas (/ˈɑrkənsɔː/), Kansas and Colorado residents typically pronounce it as if the "Ar-" were a prefix added to the name of the state of Kansas.[citation needed]
  • Baltimore, Maryland: The placename is often pronounced as 'ball-tee-more' or 'ball-tuh-more' (3 syllables) by outsiders, locals pronounce it 'ball-more' (2 syllables).
  • Beaufort, North Carolina, is pronounced /ˈboʊfərt/ ("BOH-furt"); Beaufort, South Carolina, is pronounced /ˈbjuːfərt/ ("BYOO-furt").
  • Bellefontaine, Ohio, instead of being pronounced as it's spelled—bell-fon-TAIN—is instead said as bel-FOWN-tin.
  • Beloit, Wisconsin: Those used to speaking French will usually pronounce this [belwa],[citation needed] while people in Wisconsin tend to pronounce it /bəˈlɔɪt/ according to the spelling.
  • Billerica, Massachusetts is pronounced BILL'ricka, not in such a fashion that rhymes with America, nor as in the London, UK, location Billericay (see United Kingdom shibboleths, above).
  • Bogota, New Jersey: New Jersey residents pronounce as /bəˈɡoʊtə/ instead of the pronunciation used for the Colombian capital.
  • Boise, Idaho, is generally pronounced by locals as /bɔɪsiː/. Most Americans, especially those far removed from Idaho, pronounce it /ˈbɔɪziː/. In contrast, Boise City, Oklahoma is pronounced /ˈbɔɪs/ "Boyce".
  • Bronson, Michigan is locally pronounced /ˈbrʌnsən, and not */ˈbrɒnsən. But Bronson Hospital in Kalamazoo, Michigan roughly 50 miles away is pronounced /ˈbrɒnsən.
  • Buena, New Jersey; Buena Vista, Virginia; Buena Vista, Colorado and Buena Vista, Georgia: "Buena" is pronounced /ˈbjuːnə/ BEW-nə by locals rather than its native Spanish pronunciation, which is approximated as /ˈbweɪnə/ in Lake Buena Vista, Florida or Buena Park, California.
  • Cairo, Georgia; Cairo, Illinois; Cairo, Missouri; Cairo, West Virginia: Pronounced KAY-roh, rather than the way the Egyptian capital is pronounced.
  • Cairo, New York: Pronounced "KA-ro" (like Caro Syrup)
  • Calais, Maine: Pronounced KAL-lass, rather than ka-LAY, as with Calais, France.
  • Campbell, Ohio: Pronounced Camel, like the animal, not Campbell, like the soup.
  • Chalybeate, Tennessee is pronounced by locals as /ˈkliːbɨt/ whereas outsiders may refer to it as /ˈtʃælɨˈbiːti/ or /ˈtʃælɨbaɪt/.
  • Charlotte, Vermont, Charlotte, Michigan and Charlotte, New York are all pronounced by locals as shar-LOT where outsiders refer to them as SHAR-lət, as in the far larger and better known Charlotte, North Carolina.
  • Cherryville, North Carolina is pronounced by locals as /'tʃɛɹ(ə)vʊl where outsiders are likely to say ˈtʃɛɹivɪl.
  • Chili, New York is pronounced by locals as /ˈtʃaɪlaɪ/ CHY-ly, not like the food.
  • Colorado: Pronounced kah-lə-RAD-oh by locals, not kah-lə-RAH-doh.
  • Concord, Massachusetts and Concord, New Hampshire are pronounced by locals as /ˈkɒŋkərd/, indistinguishable from the word "conquered," whereas Concord, North Carolina is pronounced as the word "concord."
  • Copley Square, Boston is named after John Singleton Copley, and thus pronounced like his name, [ˈkʰɒpli] COP-lee, non-locals usually pronounce it /ˈkʰoʊpli/ COPE-lee.
  • Corolla, North Carolina is pronounced by locals as /kəˈrɑːlə/, or kar-AH-lah, often mispronounced as core-OH-lah, as for the Toyota Corolla.
  • Darien, Connecticut is pronounced by locals as /dɛəriˈæn/.
  • Dubois, Wyoming: Locals pronounce it /dᵿˈbɔɪz/.
  • DuBois, Pennsylvania: Locals pronounce it /dᵿˈbɔɪz/. Dubois County, Indiana is pronounced /dᵿˈbɔɪs/. Non-locals usually pronounce both /duːˈbwɑː/, an approximation of the French.
  • Estes Park, Colorado: Locals pronounce the first word /ˈɛstəs/ (ESS-tess). Visitors often pronounce it /ˈɛstiz/ (ESS-teez).
  • Forest City, North Carolina: Locals tend to pronounce the city's name as "Far City", while visitors or new residents will pronounce the city's name the way it is spelled.
  • Forked River, New Jersey: Residents of the area pronounce the first word with two syllables (FOR-ked or FORK-ed). Pronouncing the first word with one syllable (forkt) is a sign of a new resident or outsider.
  • Gettysburg, Pennsylvania: Though most people in the US pronounce the location of the famous Civil War battle as GET-tees-burg, with a long 'e' in the middle, locals often pronounce it with a short 'i': GET-tis-burg.
  • Gough Street in San Francisco is pronounced "goff" by locals, but any of several alternative ways by visitors.
  • Greenwich Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania: Natives and locals in Berks and other adjacent counties will pronounce it as /ˈɡrnwɪ/ GREEN-wich rather than the more common /ˈɡrɛnɪtʃ/ GREN-ich. This often confuses tourists and visitors.
  • Halema'uma'u: The placename is often pronounced as "hail-mau-mau" (3 syllables) or "hah-leh-mau-mau" (4 syllables) by outsiders, while locals pronounce it "hah-leh-mah-u-mah-u" (6 syllables)
  • Havre de Grace, Maryland: is often pronounced as "hav-er-de-grace" (4 syllables) by outsiders, while locals pronounce it "hahv-de-grace" or "hahv-de-grahs" (3 syllables) the latter being closest to its French pronunciation (the city being named by Marquis de Lafayette).
  • Hilo, Hawaii: The city is often pronounced as "high-low" when locals pronounce it "hee-low". Many native Hawaiian names abound on the Big Island of Hawai'i, and are cause of many shibboleths. The town of Hawi, Hawaii is often pronounced as "hah-wee" by outsiders, when locals will pronounce it "huh-vee". Similarly, the state name of Hawaii is often pronounced as "huh-why-ee" by outsiders, when locals tend to pronounce it "huh-vye-ee" (with or without the glottal break in the coda).
  • Holyoke, Massachusetts: Locals pronounce it as 2 syllables,[citation needed] sometimes omitting the "l" (either HOLE-yoke or HO-yoke). Outsiders pronounce it "Holy Oak"
  • Honolulu, Hawai'i: The Likelike Highway, derived from the Hawai'ian Princess Miriam Kapili Kekāuluohi Likelike, is often mispronounced by tourists due to the differences in pronunciations between Hawai'ian and English alphabets. In Hawai'ian, the letter 'i' is pronounced 'ee' whereas the 'e' is pronounced as 'eh'. Many outsiders pronounce it as it looks in English (e.g., 'laik-laik highway') as opposed to the proper Hawaiian pronunciation of 'lee-kay-lee-kay'.
  • Houston Street, New York City: Locals pronounce the first syllable identically with "house" (/ˈhaʊstən/), while most visitors will employ the same pronunciation as in Houston, Texas (/ˈhjuːstən/). Houston Street is actually a corruption of the original name of Houstoun Street, named after Continental Congress Delegate William Houstoun, who pronounced his name in this way.[22]
  • Hurricane, Utah; Hurricane, West Virginia: both pronounced by locals as /ˈhʌrəkɨn/, identical to the British pronunciation of the word 'hurricane'. Others pronounce it as the American pronunciation of the word.
  • Jordan, Georgia; as well as the surname Jordan: pronounced by Georgians as /ˈdʒɜː(ɹ)dən/ with the first syllable using the er sound as in jerk (/dʒɜːk/). These same people though, use the standard pronouciation for Jordan (/ˈdʒɔːrdən/) the country or river.
  • Kelayres, Pennsylvania: located in NE Schuylkill County and locally pronounced "Clairs."
  • Kona, Hawai'i: Locals pronounce the city name 'ko-nuh' while tourists tend to pronounce it 'kou-na' (e.g., locals do not pronounce the 'o' as a diphthong).
  • Lafayette, Tennessee: Locals stress the second syllable (/ləˈfeɪ.ɨt/) as opposed to the more standard pronunciation (/lɑːfeɪˈɛt/) used for most towns with this name.
  • Lanai, Hawai'i: Outsiders tend to pronounce this island and city as 'luh-nye' (ləˈnaɪ), while locals will retain the native Hawaiian pronunciation of 'la-nuh-ee' (laːˈnɐʔi).
  • Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Locals stress the first syllable, /ˈlæŋ.kɨs.tər/ (LAN-kis-ter), rather stressing the second syllable as in the wider American pronunciation of /læn'kæs.tər/ (lan-KAS-ter).
  • Lebanon, Pennsylvania: Although the country of the same name is generally pronounced "Leb-a-non" locals tend to pronounce the Pennsylvania city's name "Leb-a-nin," and frequently shorten it to two syllables—"Leb-nin" or even "Lep-nin." The latter is particularly identified with Pennsylvania Dutch heritage.[23]
  • Loogootee, Indiana: Locals pronounce the name of the town as /ləˈɡt/ )la-GOAT-ee).
  • Los Gatos, California: Locals do not use the proper Spanish pronunciation of this town, which means "the cats", but rather pronounce the town "las gattis" /lɔːs ˈɡætəs/ lawss-GAT-əs.
  • Louisiana: Most Northern and Central residents tend to use four syllables ("LOOZ-i-a-na"), not five like the rest of the U.S. ("Loo-EEZ-i-a-na")
  • Louisville: Most natives of Louisville pronounce the city's name as Listeni/ˈləvəl/, which is sometimes shortened to Listeni/ˈlʌvəl/. The pronunciation Listeni/ˈlvɪl/, however, is often used by political leaders, the media and outsiders. In all but the most anglicized pronunciations, the "s" is silent due to the name's French origin.
  • Mantua, Utah; Mantua, Ohio: Outsiders will pronounce it as the Italian city, where locals will say /ˈmænəweɪ/.
  • Miami, Arizona and Miami, Oklahoma: Pronounced locally as /maɪˈæmə/ "My-AM-uh" rather than /maɪˈæmi/ "my-AM-ee", the most common pronunciation for the city in Florida.
  • Micanopy, Florida: Pronounced locally as /mɪkəˈnoʊpi/, visitors mispronounce the town's name in a variety of ways, perhaps most commonly "MY-canopy".
  • Milan, Indiana, Milan, Michigan, Milan, Illinois, and Milan, Tennessee: Pronounced locally as "MY-lin" /ˈmaɪlən/ rather than "Mee-LAHN" like the Italian city Milan.
  • Missouri: Perhaps the most famous of all place-name shibboleths in the USA, natives may pronounce the last syllable as "-ee" as most Americans do, or "-a" (like zebra) depending on the part of the state they hail from.
  • Mobile, Alabama: Locals pronounce this as pronounced /moʊˈbiːl/ moh-BEEL, whereas non-locals often pronounce it MOH-bəl[citation needed] as in "mobile home", or use the local pronunciation but stress the first syllable instead of the second.
  • Moscow, Idaho is pronounced by locals and natives as Mos'KOE (unlike the usual American pronunciation of the Russian capital as Mos'COW).
  • Morea, Pennsylvania is located in Schuylkill County and locally pronounced "Maria."
  • Natchitoches, Louisiana: Pronounced /ˈnækətəʃ/.
  • Nevada: Nevadans say /nɨˈvædə/ nə-VAD-ə, pronouncing the first A as in 'dad'. Visitors often say /nɨˈvɑːdə/ nə-VAH-də, pronouncing the first A as in 'bra'. A similar phenomenon is also true of Colorado. Additionally, there are a number of smaller towns in other states bearing the name Nevada where locals frequently use the latter pronunciation, and in Missouri, pronounced Neh-VAY-dah. In Nevada County, Arkansas, it is pronounced with the first A as long.[24]
  • Noe Street in San Francisco is pronounced "no-ee" by locals, however it's typically pronounced simply as "no" by perplexed visitors.
  • Norfolk, Virginia: Longtime residents tend to say /nɑːfək/, while other locals will say /noʊrfɨk/. Non-locals may pronounce it /nɔrfɔːlk/. See Norfolk, England.
  • New Tripoli, Pennsylvania: Located in NW Lehigh County and pronounced "nu tri-POLE-ee."
  • Newark, New Jersey; Newark, California; and Newark, Delaware: Locals in New Jersey and California pronounce their cities' names as NEW-ərk (/ˈnuː.ərk/) whereas locals of Newark, Delaware pronounce their city's name as /ˈnɑrk/ (derived directly from "New Ark of the Covenant," the town's original name). This sometimes causes confusion for individuals traveling between the city in New Jersey and the one relatively nearby in Delaware.
  • Oregon: Many non-locals pronounce the last syllable, "gon," the same way as they pronounce the word "gone." Residents of the state pronounce it like the second syllable of "begun." Some also turn the middle syllable into a long e ("ORE-ee-gon") or drop the middle syllable altogether (making it sound like "organ" or "argon").
  • Ouachita is a region in southwest Arkansas that lends its name to a mountain range as well as a local university. It's pronounced /ˈwɑːʃɨtɑː/ by Arkansans, whereas non-locals may say /uːˈtʃɪtɑː/ or /ˈoʊtʃɨtɑː/.
  • Palestine, Texas: The name of this small East Texas town (and the nearby lake) is typically pronounced as /ˈpælɛstn/, like the region in the Middle East by non-natives, but is pronounced "Pales-TEEN" /pæləsˈtn/ by natives.
  • Pawtucket, Rhode Island: native Rhode Islanders pronounce the name of the city as /pəˈtʌkət/ whereas non-natives will pronounce as /pɔːˈtʌkɨt/.
  • Peabody, Massachusetts: Located on Boston's North Shore and pronounced /ˈpiːbədi/.
  • Pierre, South Dakota, is locally pronounced like pier /ˈpɪər/. Non-locals will pronounce it like the French name of the same spelling, (/piːˈɛər/).
  • Ponce de Leon Avenue, Atlanta: Non-locals (especially those familiar with Spanish) will at first tend to pronounce this as the name of the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, while locals drop final vowel of "Ponce" and pronounce "León" much as the common Anglo given name (/pɒns də ˈliː.ɒn/).
  • Prescott, Arizona: Northern Arizonans prefer to pronounce the name "PRESS-kit" in a way that rhymes with "biscuit."
  • Progress, Pennsylvania is a census-designated place just NE of Harrisburg and is pronounced "PRO-gres."
  • Refugio, Texas was settled by the Spanish, who pronounce the name "Re-fu-hi-yo." It did not grow for many years until an influx of Irish immigrants in the 1800s, who had trouble with the Spanish word. The town is now generally pronounced "Re-fury-o," even by local Spanish speakers.
  • Sans Souci Parkway is a thoroughfare in Hanover Township, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania connecting Wilkes-Barre and Nanticoke. It is locally pronounced "San Suey."
  • San Pedro, California is pronounced by English and Spanish speaking locals alike as if spelled "pee-dro" rather than conforming to the proper Spanish pronunciation
  • Swarthmore, Pennsylvania: home of the famous college is locally referred to as Swah-thmore (dropping the 'r' sound), or even 'Swatty' or 'Swatty-more'
  • Terre Haute, Indiana is pronounced 'Tare Hote', 'Tara Hote' or 'Terry Hut' and never the proper French way.
  • state of Washington: Many place names in Washington have Native American roots and are difficult for non-locals to pronounce. Examples are: Tulalip, Washington Locally pronounced /tʊˈleɪlɨp/; out-of-towners may pronounce it as /ˈtuːləlɪp/, Puyallup, Washington Pronounced /puːˈjæləp/ by non-local speakers, but is pronounced by native Washingtonians as /pjuːˈɑːləp/, and Chehalis, Washington pronounced tʃəˈhɑːˌlɪs by non-locals, but /ʃəˈheɪˌlɪs/ by native Washingtonians. Other notable examples are Pysht, Washington, Steilacoom, Washington, Sequim, Washington, Skamokawa, Washington, Suquamish, Washington, and S'kallallam, Washington.
  • Versailles, Kentucky, Versailles, Ohio, Versailles, Missouri, Versailles, New York and North Versailles, Pennsylvania: all /vərˈseɪlz/ locally, rather than /vɛərˈsaɪ/ as approximated for France.
  • Weimar, California, an unincorporated area east of Sacramento, is pronounced /ˈwiːmɑr/ "WEE-mar", while non-locals will pronounce it like /ˈvaɪmɑr/, as Weimar in Germany.
  • Weber County, Utah (also Weber State University): Most Utahns pronounce this as /ˈwiːbər/ ("WEE-bur"), with the same vowel sound as "bead", whereas out-of-towners usually pronounce it /ˈwɛbər/ ("webber"). This was parodied by a commercial for a ski resort offering a locals-only discount, using the pronunciation as a test for whether one was a Utah resident.
  • Wisconsin has its first syllable pronounced /ˈwɪs/ by locals but often as /ˈwɛs/ by non-locals.
  • Worcester, Massachusetts: The local pronunciation of this city name is /ˈwʊstäː/; non-natives will often pronounce it /ˈwɒrsɛstər/ or /ˈwɒrtʃɛstər/. Some non-natives with rhotic accents who are aware of the local pronunciation will use /ˈwɜrstər/ or /ˈwʊrstər/.
  • Worcester Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania is pronounced out with three syllables as "WOR-ses-ter."
  • Yocona, Mississippi: Most locals refer to the river and community as /ˈjæknə/ or /ˈjɒkniː/. Non-locals may refer to it as /jəˈkoʊnə/.
  • For the Thames river in Connecticut, the "th" is pronounced as in the word "thick" as opposed to the English river of the same name; the word itself rhymes with "names" or "games".

Place-name terms[edit]

  • The city of Derry or Londonderry in Northern Ireland is a notable placename shibboleth. With some exceptions, nationalists prefer Derry, and unionists prefer Londonderry.
  • Northern Ireland is referred to as The North or The Six Counties by nationalists, and Ulster by unionists (to nationalists, "Ulster" connotes the six counties of Northern Ireland and Counties Donegal, County Cavan and Monaghan in the Republic)
  • New Jersey is often referred to as "Jersey" by residents. Also residents will usually never say they are "on the beach" but "down the shore". However, there is an exception in that residents who live near the beach will say "on the beach". The use of "down the shore" denotes someone from New Jersey who doesn't live near the beach. This holds true for the greater Delaware Valley.i.e. Philadelphia and environs.
  • Las Vegas, NV is referred to as "Las Vegas" by its natives and long-time locals. Only tourists and recent arrivals refer to it as "Vegas".
  • Natives of Charlotte, North Carolina typically refer to the center city area inside I-277 as uptown while most visitors will use the term downtown as is more common throughout the rest of the United States.
  • Locals refer to San Francisco as "SF", or simply "the City" within the context of the San Francisco Bay Area. Only tourists say "San Fran" or "Frisco". [25][26]
  • A distinction between Northern California and Southern California lies in the way residents refer to freeways. Southern Californians will always insert the article "the" in usage such as "I was driving down the 405" but a Northern Californian would say "I was driving down 280."
  • On a similar note, Oregonians would say "I was driving down I-405" and Washingtonians would say "I was driving down 405".
  • The U.S. state of Oregon is home to a county, city, river, bay, state forest, museum, Native American tribe, and ice cream company called Tillamook. Residents pronounce "ook" in the word similar to the American pronunciation of "took", "cook," or "hook," while nonresidents often mistake the pronunciation for being similar to "spook" or "fluke".[27]
  • People from New York City will typically give the borough they live in, rather than saying "New York" or "New York City." Many will refer to Manhattan as "the city," as opposed to other boroughs. Similarly, people from surrounding communities generally use "the city" to refer exclusively to Manhattan.
  • In New York City, Long Island is just "the island". Local drivers never refer to the Long Island Expressway as I-495, instead they will call it the L.I.E. or "the Expressway".
  • Although Sixth Avenue in Manhattan was officially renamed “Avenue of the Americas” in 1945, New Yorkers seldom call it by that name.[28][29]
  • The Minneapolis-Saint Paul area of Minnesota, US is usually referred to as "The Twin Cities" by longtime residents or natives and Minneapolis usually refers to the city itself. Many outsiders refer to the entire area including the nearby and longer established city of Saint Paul as "Minneapolis". Natives of outstate (non-metro) Minnesota tend to truncate Twin Cities to "The Cities."
  • Long-term residents of the Boston area will refer to the inner beltway around the city as Route 128 even though most of the road signs now refer to it as I-95 (see Massachusetts Route 128).
  • Native Coloradans from the Front Range refer to Colorado Springs as just "the Springs", which also includes the neighboring town of Manitou Springs.
  • Philadelphians, and residents of that metropolitan area, refer to their city's downtown commercial core as Center City. Only tourists or infrequent visitors call it downtown.
  • Out-of-towners to Philadelphia can become confused when listening to a local traffic report. Area roads and bridges are often referred to by local names, such as: "The Schuylkyll" (skoo-kull) or "Schuylkyll Expressway" (for I-76), where traffic often gets backed up en route to "KOP" (King of Prussia, Pennsylvania) at "The Conshy Curve", (a bend in the road near Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, where I-76 junctions I-476—aka "The Blue Route". Local bridges are sometimes referred to as "The Ben" (Ben Franklin Bridge), "The Betsy" (Betsy Ross Bridge)and "The Walt" (Walt Whitman Bridge).
  • Portland, Oregon's Couch Street rhymes with "pooch," unlike the identically-spelled sofa synonym which rhymes with "pouch." [30]
  • Residents of the Washington, DC area refer to the city as "DC" or "The District," rarely using the term "Washington." Tourists generally refer to the city as "Washington."
  • New Zealand's South Island and North Island are always referred to by New Zealanders using the definite article, and unlike most islands, people are said to be in them, not on them. Thus a New Zealander may live in the South Island, never on South Island. In the South Island, "The Coast" almost always means the West Coast Region unless context makes another meaning more likely.
  • Residents of metropolitan Chicago – primary Cook County and within the bounds of the Tri-State Tollway/I-294 – refer to Interstates by name: The Eisenhower, the Dan Ryan, the Kennedy, the Stevenson, and so on. In the suburbs Interstates are referred to by number (no "the" or "I" preceding): 290, 90/94, 55, and the like. Locals refer to Roosevelt Road in Chicago's Near-South and West Sides as ROOZ-avelt as opposed to the standard ROSE-avelt.
  • In metropolitan St. Louis, natives and long-time residents refer to I-64 as "Highway 40," the road's former designator as a U.S. Highway.
  • Residents of Buffalo and its suburbs refer to the interstates and expressways in and around the city (other than those part of the New York State Thruway system) by name (the Youngmann for I-290, the Kensington for NY 33, the Scajaquada for NY 198 and the "Niagara Section" for I-190. If they do use the number it is also preceded by "the". They refer to the expressway linking Buffalo and Toronto, Canada, as "the Queen E" whereas Canadians call it the QEW.
  • Natives of Helsinki, Finland call their town Stadi (Swedish for The Town). Non-natives call it Hesa. Natives of Espoo call Helsinki as Kaupunki (Town).
  • Natives of Bremen call their town "Prim".
  • Long-term residents of the Ross-shire town Alness refer to it as "OL-niss", whereas visitors call it "Al-NESS".
  • Malaysians typically pronounce the first syllable of "Genting Highlands" with a hard G, whereas foreigners tend to use a soft G.[31]


  • In Budapest, Hungary, many streets and localities were renamed during the time of the Communist regime. Some of those reverted to their original names or received completely new names after 1989. Especially in the nineties it used to be possible (and, to a lesser extent, it remains possible now) to recognize people who had lived in the city before 1950 (as they would use the old, original names and be over 50); people who moved into (or were born in) the city between 1950 and 1989 (they would use the Communist names); and people who were born after the mid-eighties or moved in after 1989, especially from farther away, as they would use the new, post-Communist names and would not even know the Communist ones. Referring to "Élmunkás tér" (approximately "Foreworker square"), now known as "Lehel tér" (named after the Hungarian chieftain Lehel), would just get a blank look from a newcomer.. Interestingly, in at least one case using the Communist name was what gave the visitor away: the square known both in pre-Communist and post-Communist times as "Oktogon" was officially called "November hetedike tér" ("Square of 7 November"), but this name never really caught on; thus, if someone called the square that, they probably did not know the city well and had gotten the name from a map.
  • Also, Hungarians, especially people living in the capital city often call it simply Pest instead of Budapest. They also tend to use the phrase "felmegyek Pestre" (in English: I'm going up to Pest) instead of "elmegyek Pestre" (in English: I'm going to Pest). Foreign speakers of the language, no matter their proficiency, are unlikely to use these conventions.
  • Krai kai kai gai (ใครขายไข่ไก่) or Kai kai kai: This phrase is used to teach Thai children the subtleties of their tonal language. When each word is pronounced with the proper tone, the phrase means, "Who sells chicken eggs?"
  • Rødgrød med fløde [ˈʁœðˀɡʁœðˀ mɛ ˈfløːð̩]: The definitive test of one's mastery of the Danish language. No non-native is likely to pronounce the sentence (which means 'red pudding with cream' in English) correctly due to the overwhelming number of Danish phonemes.
  • Rugbrød : Danish for Rye bread, almost impossible for non-Scandinavians to pronounce due to the "soft" g and d and the Scandinavian letter ø.
  • A æ u å æ ø i æ å : a well-known Danish vowels-only way of judging someone's ability to speak Jysk, the general dialect of Jutland. Often/usually practiced on visitors from Copenhagen. In standard Danish, the sentence would be Jeg er ude på øen i åen ("I'm on the island in the stream").
  • Chirurgien [ʃiʁyʁʒjɛ̃], French for "surgeon"; very hard for English-speakers to pronounce correctly, due to its containing, in quick succession, several French sounds not found in English: [ʁ], [y], [ɛ̃]).
  • Chuchichäschtli [ˈχʊχːiˌχæʃtli] in Swiss German, meaning "little kitchen cupboard" is nearly unpronounceable for outsiders because of the frequent /χ/; (note that the middle one is geminated) however, unlike German, the [æ] sound does exist in Standard English as well. Most Swiss would pronounce it /ˈxʊxɪxɛʃtli/ with velar fricatives.
  • "Es vergäid käi Tag im Jahr, wo der Fux am Schwanz nid het Haar" in Swiss German, meaning "There's not one day in a year, when the fox has no hair on his tail". This is usually used to verify whether someone is drunk or not. It is difficult because the word order is not the normal way and the measure of the verse is broken.
  • The sentence a o'agnehm grean agstrichns Gartatihrle (a garden door painted in an awful shade of green) serves as a Swabian shibboleth. The consecutive nasal sounds are almost unpronounceable for other German speakers.
  • A Czech or Slovak shibboleth is Strč prst skrz krk, meaning "stick the finger through the throat". This is usually used to verify whether someone is drunk or not.
  • Another Czech shibboleth is basically any word containing the Raised alveolar non-sonorant trill represented by the grapheme ř, often in the form of the dialogue -Mařeno, řekni ř! (Mařena, say ř!) -Neřeknu, ty vořechu! (I won't, you rascal!) or simply by asking to say řeřicha (Garden cress)
  • Estamos de huelga is a Spanish phrase meaning "We are on strike". The majority of Spaniards pronounce "huelga" (strike) as [ˈwelɣa]. Andalusians and Extremadurans, though, often pronounce the elsewhere silent /h/ and intermix /l/ and /ɾ/, pronouncing "huelga" like the Spanish word "juerga", as [ˈxweɾɣa]. This will change the meaning of the sentence to "We are having fun". The same happens in the Southwestern region of the Dominican Republic, where for example "mal" (bad) [mal] is pronounced "mar" (sea) [maɾ]. Similarly, Puerto Ricans change the sound of a mid-word /ɾ/ to an /l/, thus a Puerto Rican will say "I come from Puelto Rico".
  • In Spanish spoken in Loreto, Peru and San Martín, Peru, most people will say "El fez y el juiscal feron a tomar cajué el feves con don Juederico en San Fan después del ficio" instead of "El juez y el fiscal fueron a tomar café el jueves con don Federico en San Juan después del juicio" (The Judge and the Prosecutor went to drink coffee on Thursday with Don Federico in San Juan after the trial).
  • In Spanish, most Argentinians and Uruguayans near the Río de la Plata pronounce /ʝ/ as [ʒ] or [ʃ]. This for example turns arroyo ([aˈroʝo], stream) into [aˈroʒo] or [aˈroʃo].
  • Businesses in the United States sometimes tout the bi-linguality of their workers with the advertisement "Hablamos español," literally meaning "we speak Spanish." However, the proper and grammatical phrasing "Se habla español," is often used by customers to distinguish between establishments that employ native and non-native speakers.
  • Northern-Italian dialects have ü and ö sounds as French or German, which are not present in standard Italian language or southern dialects. Words like föra [ˈføra] (out) may be used to discern whether one is from the north. Comedians Aldo, Giovanni and Giacomo presented a whole scene about a similar shibboleth in their first movie, the Lombard word cadrega: a guest, suspected to be a southerner, would be shown a table with many sorts of fruit, and offered to take a cadrega ([kaˈdreɡa]), unaware he was actually being offered just a chair (in Italian, sedia [ˈsɛdja]).
  • Italians travelling abroad and wishing to dine at an Italian restaurant often check the menu's grammar to verify whether the restaurant can be trusted to be authentic. Common errors are missing prepositions as in "spaghetti bolognese" instead of "spaghetti alla bolognese", missing accents, such as "tiramisu" instead of "tiramisù" and spelling errors.[citation needed]
  • In Chile, the pronunciation of "ch" – which in standard Spanish sounds /tʃ/ – as /ʃ/ is often associated with the lower classes. Hence, humorous phrases like "el shansho con shaleco" (corruption of "el chancho con chaleco", the pig with a sweater) denotes a person with a genuine lower class pronunciation, or just somebody impersonating it, in jest. It is a major problem for English teachers to make their Chilean students pronounce both sounds correctly.[32]
  • The West Flemish dialect does not know the Dutch "ch" (/x/ as in the Scottish 'Loch') Instead West-Flemmings pronounce both the Dutch 'g' and the 'ch' as 'h'. For instance they would pronounce the term "een gouden hart" (a heart of gold) as "een houden hart". Today, most West Flemings are sufficiently exposed to standard Dutch as to know there is a difference between the pronunciation of a 'ch' or 'g' and a 'h'. Folk tales however are full of examples of elder generation West-Flemmings, raised without much exposure to standard Dutch, who tried to speak 'civilized' ABN Dutch instead of 'peasant' dialect. Invariably they would just imitate the way they think Dutch should be spoken by pronouncing both 'ch', 'g' and 'h' as /x/ alike. When trying to pronounce the term "een gouden hart" above in Dutch, they now pronounce it as "Een gouden gart". Although they might succeed in convincing some equally ignorant countrymen that their talk is 'what the civilized people speak', more than often they would just amuse their listeners by pronouncing a word with a 'h' as a word with a /x/, completely altering its meaning. For instance they would ask "Geef mij mijn goed, ik ga naar de gaven." (Give me my good, I'm going to the gifts) instead of "Geef mij mijn hoed, ik ga naar de haven." (Give me my hat, I'm going to the harbor).
  • The German words Streichholzschächtelchen (small box of matches), Eichhörnchen (squirrel), Fachhochschule (University of Applied Sciences) and Strickstrumpf (knitted sock) serve as shibboleths for distinguishing native speakers from foreigners, due to their many ch sounds and the large number of consonants. In Bavarian German dialect, the word Oachkatzlschwoaf (squirrel tail) is also used for differentiation.
  • In Mandarin Chinese, the sentence sì shì sì, shí shì shí, shísì shì shísì, sìshí shì sìshí (四是四,十是十,十四是十四,四十是四十; four is four, ten is ten, fourteen is fourteen, forty is forty) is used to distinguish between native speakers of northern varieties of Mandarin from northern China, and native speakers of other Chinese varieties from central and southern China, including Jianghuai Mandarin, Southwestern Mandarin, Cantonese, Wu, Min Nan, and so forth, most of which lack the retroflex consonant sh /ʂ/.
  • A Polish shibboleth is W Szczebrzeszynie chrząszcz brzmi w trzcinie (in Szczebrzeszyn the beetle skirls in the reed).
  • Estonian "Jüriöö ülestõus" (St. George's Night Uprising) includes many difficult vowels for foreigners, who are sometimes put to the test of pronouncing it.[33]
  • In Finnish, shibboleths include höyryjyrä /ˈhøyryˌjyræ/ (steam roller) and the loanword öljylamppu /ˈøljyˌlampːu/ (oil lamp).
  • In Quebec French, the phrase Je m'en câlisse (loosely: I don't give a fuck) is sometimes used as a shibboleth, distinguishing natives of France from Québécois.
  • The Mid and Northern Norwegian dialogue fragment "Æ e i a." "Æ e i a, æ å." ("I'm in A." "I'm in A, too." – proper Norwegian: "Jeg er i A." "Jeg er også i A." "A" refers either to the Norwegian naming of different classes of the same grade, or to the Labor Party) is near-impossible to reproduce for a non-Scandinavian, due to the use of the vowels Æ and Å. It is also very hard for a native speaker of another dialect to reproduce with the correct enunciations and pitch, often sounding grotesquely exaggerated. Middle Norwegian dialects also use the phrase "Hannhund i bånd" (Male dog on a leash) as a shibboleth. The phrase is pronounced "Hainnhoinn i bainn" in Middle Norway, which due to palatalization is difficult for speakers of other dialects to pronounce. Northern Norwegians also sometimes use "Fersk fisk, rakfisk" [ˈfæʂk fesk ˈrakfesk] to distinguish between natives and "pretenders" - in particular, between people from Nordland and other parts of Northern Norway, where the word "fisk" (fish) may be pronounced [ ˈfæsk].
  • Native speakers of the Indonesian language generally use Indonesian as the name for the Indonesian language in English, whereas non-Indonesians often name it Bahasa Indonesia or, worse Bahasa—being either redundant or plain wrong since the word bahasa means "language" in Indonesian.
  • In French, the place name "La Roche sur Foron" can be used to distinguish English speakers who have not mastered the French "R" sound.
  • Still in French, the city of Metz, located in the north-western region of Lorraine in France (and thus close to Germany) is pronounced [mɛs] ("mess") by the locals but [mɛts] ("met-ss") in the rest of France (which actually follows the German pronunciation). However, the nearby city of Yutz ought to be pronounced "yut-ss" which can be confusing for non-locals.
  • It is possible to distinguish European Portuguese from Brazilian Portuguese by asking the speaker to pronounce the word "excelente" (excellent). A Portuguese speaker will pronounce it [ɛʃsɯlẽⁿtɯ], which sounds to a Brazilian as one or two syllables ("[ʃlẽⁿt]"), whereas a Brazilian speaker will say [ˈlẽ.tʃɪ], which sounds less clipped.[citation needed]
  • In Afrikaans, the pronunciation of the word "jakkals" (Jackal) can be used to test whether a person is from the Cape Flats. Residents of the Cape Flats would pronounce the word as "dzakkals", whereas non-residents pronounce the word as "Yackals".

Shibboleths in occupational, sporting or other interest groups[edit]

Within some occupational groups and some social, cultural, sporting, or hobby-related groups, there are terms within the jargon of these groups which could be said to be shibboleths.

Shibboleths in sports[edit]

  • While the term "innings" is used in both cricket and baseball, in baseball it is treated solely as a plural form, with the singular form "inning." In cricket, "innings" is both a singular and a plural. Thus, a batter (baseball) has an at-bat during an inning, whereas a batsman (cricket) has an innings. It is therefore easy to spot someone talking about one of these sports if they have more experience talking about the other.
  • In the United States spelunking community, use of the words "spelunker" or "spelunking" is seen as an indicator of inexperience or ignorance. The word "caver" is preferred to "spelunker" and "caving" is preferred to "spelunking." The phrase "cavers rescue spelunkers" is commonly used to illustrate the difference.[citation needed]
  • The name of Scottish football team Hibernian F.C. is frequently shortened by football fans in general to "Hibs" (pronounced to rhyme with "bibs"), but local fans of the club itself are more likely to refer to the team with the nickname "Hibees" (pronounced "High-bees").
  • In Spanish, most association football team names are commonly preceded by the corresponding article (e.g. "el Real Madrid", "el Pachuca", "la Liga Deportiva Universitaria"). In Argentina, however, this practice is never used. Saying "el River" or "el Vélez" identifies the speaker as non-Argentine. The same happens with Italian teams, with differences between genres, due to Italian language tendency to attribute a gender also to genderless names. A.C. Milan thus becomes "il Milan" (male), while Juventus F.C. is called "la Juve" (female.)
  • Team handball, known as just "handball" in French, is pronounced in this language by people who've played at school or in a club, respecting the origin of this sport, following the German sound for "ball", instead of all other "ball" ending sports pronounced the English way.
  • In Gun culture in the United States, particularly online, using the term clip when meaning magazine is used as a way to identify those who do not know much about guns. [34][35][36]
  • Sailors always speak of "port" and "starboard" sides of the vessel, never the "left side" or "right side". Likewise, the speed of the boat is expressed as "knots", not "knots per hour" (which would be an unit of acceleration, not velocity).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Phil Lee, The rough guide to Bruges & Ghent, pp. 22–3 
  2. ^ McNamara, Timothy; Carsten Roever (2006). Language testing: the social dimension. John Wiley and Sons. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-4051-5543-4. 
  3. ^
  4. ^ Chronicles of London; Oxford University Press, 1905; ed. C. L. Kingsford; p. 15
  5. ^ Heikki Ylikangas, Tie Tampereelle, ref. at
  6. ^ A 20th-century Shibboleth Story
  7. ^ Shahmuratian. Sumgait Tragedy, Interview with Vanya Bazyan, p. 159; also: Vahagn Martirosyan, interview (Alexandre Billette, Hervé Dez (2014) - Transkraïna, online, retrieved 2014.02.13,
  8. ^ Ambrose, Stephen E. (1994). D-Day. New York: Touchstone. p. 191. ISBN 0-684-80137-X. 
  9. ^ "Nairobi siege: What we know". BBC News. Retrieved 22 September 2013. An Indian man who was standing next to him was asked for the name of the Prophet's mother and when he was unable to answer, he was shot dead, the witness told him. 
  10. ^ "Explosions inside mall as stand-off nears end". The New Zealand Herald. Agence France-Presse. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  11. ^ Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (27 September 2013). "Peace groups warn of empty victory in Zambo siege". The PCIJ Blog (in English). The Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. Retrieved 31 March 2015. 
  12. ^ John D. Barrow, Pi in the Sky, Penguin 1993, p. 26
  13. ^ Dactylonomy, Laputan Logic
  14. ^ Ilka Ludwig (2007), Identification of New Zealand English and Australian English based on stereotypical accent markers, p. 22 
  15. ^ Laurie Bauer, Paul Warren (2008), New Zealand English: phonology, ISBN 978-3-11-019637-5 
  16. ^ Ab(h)ominable (H)aitch by Frederick Ludowyk, Australian National Dictionary Centre
  17. ^ "[1]", Collins English Dictionary.
  18. ^ Macquarie Dictionary, Fourth Edition. Melbourne: The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. 2005. ISBN 1-876429-14-3. 
  19. ^ The Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Springfield: Merriam-Webster. 2004. ISBN 087779930X. 
  20. ^ Merriam-Webster, Regina 
  21. ^ Merriam-Webster Audio File, Regina 
  22. ^ "New York Bookshelf; An Oddly Named Street, A Dark Night, a Gamy Club". The New York Times. Feb 8, 2004. p. CY12. 
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^ Connelly, Dolly (Mar 1, 1970). "Mush!...And Then Some: A Tour Of The Great Northwest". Los Angeles Times West Magazine (Los Angeles: Los Angeles Times): 20–30. 
  28. ^ Moscow, Henry. The Street Book: An Encyclopedia of Manhattan's Street Names and Their Origins. New York: Hagstrom, 1978. ISBN 0823212750, p.24
  29. ^ Finnegan, Jack (2007). Newcomer's Handbook For Moving to and Living in New York City. First Books. p. 43. Avenue of the Americas, a name rarely used by New Yorkers 
  30. ^ Greiner, Tony; Bridgewater, Rachel (2014). "Portland: An eclectic introduction". College & Research Libraries News 75 (8): 422–426. 
  31. ^ Casino shuffles the pack with revamp - Blackpool Gazette
  32. ^ Chilean Spanish#Phonetics and phonology
  33. ^ Estonian Tongue-Twisters
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^