List of solar storms

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Solar storms are caused by disturbances on the Sun, most often coronal clouds associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) produced by solar flares emanating from active sunspot regions, or less often from coronal holes. Most living stars produce disturbances in space weather with the field of heliophysics the science that studies such phenomena; itself primarily an interdisciplinary combination of stellar astronomy and planetary science. In the Solar System, the Sun can produce intense geomagnetic and proton storms capable of causing severe damage to technology including but not limited to large scale power power outages, disruption or blackouts of radio communications (including GPS systems), and temporary or permanent disabling of satellites and other spaceborne technology. Intense solar storms may also be hazardous to high-latitude, high-altitude aviation and to human spaceflight.[1] Geomagnetic storms are the cause of auroras.[2] The most significant known solar storm occurred in September 1859 and is known as the "Carrington event".[3] The damage from the most potent solar storms is capable of threatening the stability of modern human civilization.[4]

Notable events[edit]

Electromagnetic, geomagnetic, and/or proton storms[edit]

Events not affecting Earth[edit]

The above events affected Earth (and its vicinity, known as the magnetosphere), whereas the following events occurred elsewhere in the solar system and were detected by monitoring spacecraft or other means.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Phillips, Tony (21 Jan 2009). "Severe Space Weather--Social and Economic Impacts". NASA Science News. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2014-05-07. 
  2. ^ "NOAA Space Weather Scales". NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center. 1 Mar 2005. Retrieved 2014-05-07. 
  3. ^ Bell, Trudy E.; T. Phillips (6 May 2008). "A Super Solar Flare". NASA Science News. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2014-05-07. 
  4. ^ Kappenman, John (2010). Geomagnetic Storms and Their Impacts on the U.S. Power Grid. META-R 319. Goleta, CA: Metatech Corporation for Oak Ridge National Laboratory. OCLC 811858155. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Usoskin, Ilya G.; Gennady A. Kovaltsov (2012). "Occurrence of Extreme Solar Particle Events: Assessment from Historical Proxy Data". The Astrophysical Journal 757 (92): 1–6. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/757/1/92. 
  6. ^ Melott, Adrian L.; B. C. Thomas (2012). "Causes of an AD 774–775 14C increase". Nature 491 (7426). arXiv:1212.0490. Bibcode:2012Natur.491E...1M. doi:10.1038/nature11695. 
  7. ^ Fusa, Miyake; Kimiaki Masuda; Toshio Nakamura (2013). "Another rapid event in the carbon-14 content of tree rings". Nature Communications 4 (1748): 1–4. doi:10.1038/ncomms2783. 
  8. ^ Deffree, Suzanne (16 Aug 2013). "Solar flare impacts microchips, August 16, 1989". EDN. 
  9. ^ Weaver, Michael; W. Murtagh et al. (2004). Halloween Space Weather Storms of 2003. NOAA Technical Memorandum. OAR SEC-88. Boulder, CO: Space Environment Center. OCLC 68692085. 
  10. ^ Thomson, Neil R.; C. J. Rodger; R. L. Dowden (2004). "Ionosphere gives size of greatest solar flare". Geophysical Research Letters 31 (6). Bibcode:2004GeoRL..31.6803T. doi:10.1029/2003GL019345. 
  11. ^ Thomson, Neil R.; C. J. Rodger; M. A. Clilverd (2005). "Large solar flares and their ionospheric D region enhancements". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 110 (A6). Bibcode:2005JGRA..110.6306T. doi:10.1029/2005JA011008. 
  12. ^ Brodrick, David; S. Tingay; M. Wieringa (2005). "X-ray magnitude of the 4 November 2003 solar flare inferred from the ionospheric attenuation of the galactic radio background". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 110 (A9). Bibcode:2005JGRA..110.9S36B. doi:10.1029/2004JA010960. 
  13. ^ Sanders, Robert (8 March 2014). "Fierce Solar Magnetic Storm Barely Missed Earth in 2012". Retrieved 2014-07-26. 
  14. ^ Baker, D. N.; X. Li; A. Pulkkinen; C. M. Ngwira; M. L. Mays; A. B. Galvin; K. D. C. Simunac (2013). "A major solar eruptive event in July 2012: Defining extreme space weather scenarios". Space Weather 11 (10): 585–91. Bibcode:2013SpWea..11..585B. doi:10.1002/swe.20097. 
  15. ^ Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; A. Pulkkinen2; M. Leila Mays; M. M. Kuznetsova; A. B. Galvin; K. Simunac; D. N. Baker; X. Li; Y. Zheng; A. Glocer (2013). "Simulation of the 23 July 2012 extreme space weather event: What if this extremely rare CME was Earth directed?". Space Weather 11 (12): 671–9. Bibcode:2013SpWea..11..671N. doi:10.1002/2013SW000990. 
  16. ^ Ying D. Liu, J. G. Luhmann, P. Kajdič, E. K.J. Kilpua, N. Lugaz, N. V. Nitta, C. Möstl, B. Lavraud, S. D. Bale, C. J. Farrugia, A. B. Galvin (2014). "Observations of an extreme storm in interplanetary space caused by successive coronal mass ejections". Nature Communications 5 (3481). arXiv:1405.6088. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E3481L. doi:10.1038/ncomms4481. 
  17. ^ Phillips, Tony (2 May 2014). "Carrington-class CME Narrowly Misses Earth". NASA Science News. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved 2014-05-07. 
  18. ^ Phillips, Dr. Tony (23 July 2014). "Near Miss: The Solar Superstorm of July 2012". NASA. Retrieved 26 July 2014. 

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