List of solar thermal power stations

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity even when the sun isn't shining.[1]
The first three units of Solnova in the foreground, with the two towers of the PS10 and PS20 solar power stations in the background.

This is a list of solar thermal power stations. These include the 354 megawatt (MW) Solar Energy Generating Systems power installation in the USA, Solana Generating Station (USA, 280 MW) and Solaben Solar Power Station (Spain, 200 MW). The 392 MW Ivanpah Solar Power Facility, located in California's Mojave Desert, is the world’s largest solar thermal power plant project currently in operation. There are plans to build many other large solar thermal plants.

The solar thermal power industry was growing, planned with about 1.17 gigawatts (GW) of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants online as of 2011.[2] 582 megawatts of them are located in Spain, and the United States has 507 MW of capacity. About 17 GW of CSP projects are under development worldwide, and the United States leads with about 8 GW. Spain ranks second with 4.46 GW in development, followed by China with 2.5 GW.[2]

Operational[edit]

Operational Solar Thermal Power Stations
Capacity
(MW)
Name Country Location Coordinates Technology type Notations and references
392 Ivanpah Solar Power Facility  USA San Bernardino County, California 35°34′N 115°28′W / 35.567°N 115.467°W / 35.567; -115.467 (Ivanpah Solar Power Facility) solar power tower [3][4]

Completed in February 13, 2014 [5]

354 Solar Energy Generating Systems  USA Mojave Desert, California 35°01′54″N 117°20′53″W / 35.03167°N 117.34806°W / 35.03167; -117.34806 (Solar Energy Generating Systems) parabolic trough Collection of 9 units[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]
280 Solana Generating Station  USA Gila Bend, Arizona 32°55′N 112°58′W / 32.917°N 112.967°W / 32.917; -112.967 (Solana Generating Station) parabolic trough Completed in October 2013, with 6h thermal energy storage[15][16]
200 Solaben Solar Power Station[17]  Spain Logrosán 39°13′29″N 5°23′26″W / 39.22472°N 5.39056°W / 39.22472; -5.39056 (Solaben Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Solaben 3 completed June 2012[18]
Solaben 2 completed October 2012[18]
Solaben 1 and 6 completed September 2013[19]
150 Solnova Solar Power Station  Spain Sanlúcar la Mayor 37°25′00″N 06°17′20″W / 37.41667°N 6.28889°W / 37.41667; -6.28889 (Solnova Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Solnova 1 completed May 2010
Solnova 3 completed May 2010
Solnova 4 completed August 2010[20][21][22][23][24]
150 Andasol solar power station  Spain Guadix 37°13′42.70″N 3°4′6.73″W / 37.2285278°N 3.0685361°W / 37.2285278; -3.0685361 (Andasol solar power station) parabolic trough Andasol 1 completed, 2008, with 7.5h thermal energy storage
Andasol 2 completed, 2009, with 7.5h thermal energy storage
Andasol 3 completed, 2011, with 7.5h thermal energy storage[25][26]
150 Extresol Solar Power Station  Spain Torre de Miguel Sesmero 38°39′N 6°44′W / 38.650°N 6.733°W / 38.650; -6.733 (Extresol Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Extresol 1 completed February 2010, with 7.5h thermal energy storage
Extresol 2 completed December 2010, with 7.5h thermal energy storage
Extresol 3 completed August 2012, with 7.5h thermal energy storage[18][27][28]
100 Palma del Rio Solar Power Station  Spain Palma del Río 37°38′N 5°15′W / 37.633°N 5.250°W / 37.633; -5.250 (Palma del Rio Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Palma del Rio 2 completed December 2010[18]
Palma del Rio 1 completed July 2011[18]
100 Manchasol Power Station  Spain Alcázar de San Juan 39°11′N 3°18′W / 39.183°N 3.300°W / 39.183; -3.300 (Manchasol Power Station) parabolic trough Manchasol-1 completed January 2011, with 7.5h heat storage[18]
Manchasol-2 completed April 2011, with 7.5h heat storage[18]
100 Valle Solar Power Station  Spain San José del Valle 36°39′N 5°50′W / 36.650°N 5.833°W / 36.650; -5.833 (Valle Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Completed December 2011, with 7.5h heat storage[18][29]
100 Helioenergy Solar Power Station  Spain Écija 37°34′43″N 5°9′24″W / 37.57861°N 5.15667°W / 37.57861; -5.15667 (Helioenergy Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Helioenergy 1 completed September 2011[30][31]
Helioenergy 2 completed January 2012[18][30][31]
100 Aste Solar Power Station  Spain Alcázar de San Juan 39°10′22″N 3°15′58″W / 39.17278°N 3.26611°W / 39.17278; -3.26611 (Helioenergy Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Aste 1A Completed January 2012, with 8h heat storage[18]
Aste 1B Completed January 2012, with 8h heat storage[18]
100 Solacor Solar Power Station  Spain El Carpio 37°54′54″N 4°30′9″W / 37.91500°N 4.50250°W / 37.91500; -4.50250 (Solacor Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Solacor 1 completed February 2012[18]
Solacor 2 completed March 2012[18][32]
100 Helios Solar Power Station  Spain Puerto Lápice 39°14′24″N 3°28′12″W / 39.24000°N 3.47000°W / 39.24000; -3.47000 (Helios Solar Power Station) parabolic trough Helios 1 completed May 2012[18]
Helios 2 completed August 2012[18]
100 Shams  UAE Abu Dhabi Madinat Zayad 23°34′N 53°42′E / 23.567°N 53.700°E / 23.567; 53.700 (Shams solar power station) parabolic trough Shams 1 completed March 2013 [33]
100 Termosol Solar Power Station  Spain Navalvillar de Pela parabolic trough Both Termosol 1 and 2 completed in 2013[18]
75 Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center  USA Indiantown, Florida 27°03′11″N 80°33′00″W / 27.05306°N 80.55000°W / 27.05306; -80.55000 (Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center) ISCC steam input into a combined cycle[34]
64 Nevada Solar One  USA Boulder City, Nevada 35°48.0′N 114°58.6′W / 35.8000°N 114.9767°W / 35.8000; -114.9767 (Nevada Solar One) parabolic trough Operational since 2007
50 Puertollano Solar Thermal Power Plant  Spain Puertollano, Ciudad Real 38°39′N 3°58′W / 38.650°N 3.967°W / 38.650; -3.967 (Puertollano) parabolic trough Completed May 2009[35]
50 Alvarado I  Spain Badajoz 38°49′37″N 06°49′34″W / 38.82694°N 6.82611°W / 38.82694; -6.82611 (Alvarado I) parabolic trough Completed July 2009[36][37][38]
50 La Florida  Spain Alvarado (Badajoz) parabolic trough Completed July 2010[18][39]
50 Majadas de Tiétar  Spain Caceres parabolic trough Completed August 2010[18][40]
50 La Dehesa  Spain La Garrovilla (Badajoz) parabolic trough Completed November 2010[18]
50 Lebrija-1  Spain Lebrija parabolic trough Completed July 2011[18][41]
50 Astexol 2  Spain Badajoz parabolic trough Completed November 2011, with 7.5h thermal energy storage[18][42]
50 Morón  Spain Morón de la Frontera parabolic trough Completed May 2012[18]
50 La Africana  Spain Posada parabolic trough Completed July 2012, with 7.5h thermal energy storag[18]
50 Guzman  Spain Palma del Río parabolic trough Completed July 2012[18]
50 Olivenza 1  Spain Olivenza parabolic trough Completed July 2012[18]
50 Orellana  Spain Orellana la Vieja parabolic trough Completed August 2012[18]
50 Godawari Green Energy Limited  India Nokh 27°36′01″N 72°13′25″E / 27.60028°N 72.22361°E / 27.60028; 72.22361 (Godawari) parabolic trough 2013[43][44][45]
50 Enerstar Villena Power Plant  Spain Villena parabolic trough Completed 2013[18][46]
31.4 Puerto Errado  Spain Murcia 38°16′42″N 01°36′01″W / 38.27833°N 1.60028°W / 38.27833; -1.60028 (Puerto Errado) fresnel reflector Puerto Errado 1 completed April 2009[18][47]
Puerto Errado 2 completed February 2012[18][48]
25 Hassi R'Mel integrated solar combined cycle power station  Algeria Hassi R'mel 33°07′29″N 03°21′07″E / 33.12472°N 3.35194°E / 33.12472; 3.35194 (Hassi R'Mel) ISCC Completed June 2011[49][50]
22.5 Termosolar Borges  Spain Borges Blanques parabolic trough Completed December 2012[18]
20 PS20 solar power tower  Spain Seville 37°26′38″N 06°15′34″W / 37.44389°N 6.25944°W / 37.44389; -6.25944 (PS20 solar power tower) solar power tower Completed April 2009
20 Kuraymat Plant  Egypt Kuraymat ISCC Completed December 2010[50][51][52]
20 Ain Beni Mathar Integrated Thermo Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant  Morocco Ain Bni Mathar ISCC [53][54][55]
19.9 Gemasolar  Spain Fuentes de Andalucia (Seville) 37°33′38.17″N 05°19′53.61″W / 37.5606028°N 5.3315583°W / 37.5606028; -5.3315583 (Gemasolar solar power tower) solar power tower Completed May 2011[56] With 15h heat storage[18]
17 Yazd integrated solar combined cycle power station  Iran Yazd 31°57′5″N 54°5′30″E / 31.95139°N 54.09167°E / 31.95139; 54.09167 (Yazd integrated solar combined cycle power station) ISCC World's first solar combined cycle power plant, to be constructed
11 PS10 solar power tower  Spain Seville 37°26′36.42″N 06°15′14.28″W / 37.4434500°N 6.2539667°W / 37.4434500; -6.2539667 (PS10 solar power tower) solar power tower World's first commercial solar tower
10 Delingha Solar Power Plant  China Delingha solar power tower Phase 1 of project completed in July 2013,[57] total 50 MW planned[58][59]
5 Kimberlina Solar Thermal Energy Plant  USA Bakersfield, California 35°34′06″N 119°12′06″W / 35.56833°N 119.20167°W / 35.56833; -119.20167 (Kimberlina) fresnel reflector AREVA Solar, formerly Ausra demonstration plant[60]
5 Sierra SunTower  USA Lancaster, California 34°46′0.0″N 118°8′0.0″W / 34.766667°N 118.133333°W / 34.766667; -118.133333 (Sierra SunTower) solar power tower North America's first solar tower, completed August 2009[61][62][63]
5 Archimede solar power plant  Italy Syracuse, Sicily 37°8′0″N 15°12′58″E / 37.13333°N 15.21611°E / 37.13333; 15.21611 (Archimede solar power plant) parabolic trough ISCC with heat storage
Completed July 2010[64][65]
5 Thai Solar Energy (TSE) 1  Thailand Huaykrachao parabolic trough Completed November 2011[66]
9 Liddell Power Station Solar Steam Generator  Australia New South Wales 32°22′26″S 150°58′40″E / 32.37389°S 150.97778°E / -32.37389; 150.97778 (Liddell Power Station, New South Wales) fresnel reflector electrical equivalent steam boost for coal station[67][68]
2.5 Acme Solar Thermal Tower  India solar power tower Completed 2012[69]
2 Keahole Solar Power  USA Hawaii 19°42′54″N 156°2′7″W / 19.71500°N 156.03528°W / 19.71500; -156.03528 (Keahole Solar Power, Keahole Point) parabolic trough [70][71]
1.5 Jülich Solar Tower  Germany Jülich 50°54′54″N 06°23′16″E / 50.91500°N 6.38778°E / 50.91500; 6.38778 (Jülich) solar power tower Completed December 2008[72]
1.5 Beijing Badaling Solar Tower  China Beijing 40°40′N 116°30′E / 40.667°N 116.500°E / 40.667; 116.500 (Beijing Badaling Solar Tower) solar power tower Completed August 2012[73][74]
1 Saguaro Solar Power Station  USA Red Rock, Arizona parabolic trough [75]
1 Yanqing Solar Power Station  China Yanqing County 40°27′24″N 115°58′30″E / 40.45667°N 115.97500°E / 40.45667; 115.97500 (Yanqing Solar Power Station) solar power tower Completed August 2010[76]
0.5 Shiraz solar power plant  Iran Shiraz 31°56′N 54°02′E / 31.933°N 54.033°E / 31.933; 54.033 (Shiraz solar power plant) parabolic trough Iran's first solar power plant
0.25 Augustin Fresnel Solar Power Station[77]  France Targassonne fresnel reflector prototype, completed 2012, 0.25h thermal energy storage
3650.8 Overall operational capacity
Solar thermal power stations
Part of the 354 MW SEGS solar complex in northern San Bernardino County, California
Solar Towers from left: PS10, PS20
The PS10 concentrates sunlight from a field of heliostats onto a central tower. 
View of Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System from Yates Well Road, San Bernardino County, California. The Clark Mountain Range can be seen in the distance. 

Under construction[edit]

Solar Thermal Power Stations under construction
Capacity (MW) Name Country Location Co-
ordinates
Expected
completion
Technology Notes
280 Mojave Solar Project  USA Barstow, California 35°00′40″N 117°19′30″W / 35.01111°N 117.32500°W / 35.01111; -117.32500 (Mojave Solar Project) 2014 parabolic trough [78][79]
250 Genesis Solar Energy Project  USA Blythe, California 33°38′37.68″N 114°59′16.8″W / 33.6438000°N 114.988000°W / 33.6438000; -114.988000 (Genesis Solar) 2014 parabolic trough [80]
160 Ouarzazate solar power station  Morocco Ouarzazate 2015 parabolic trough with 3h heat storage[81]
121 Ashalim power station 1  Israel Negev desert 30°58′N 34°42′E / 30.967°N 34.700°E / 30.967; 34.700 (Ashalim power station) 2017 solar power tower [82][83][84]
110 Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project  USA Nye County, Nevada 38°14′N 117°22′W / 38.233°N 117.367°W / 38.233; -117.367 (Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project) 2013/14 solar power tower with 10h heat storage[85]
100 KaXu Solar One  South Africa Pofadder, Northern Cape 2014 parabolic trough with 2.5h heat storage[86][87]
100 El Reboso 2+3  Spain El Puebla del Rio (Seville) 2015 parabolic trough [88][89]
100 Dhursar  India 2014 fresnel reflector [90][91]
100 Diwakar  India Askandra 2014 parabolic trough with 3h heat storage[92]
100 KVK Energy Solar Project  India Askandra 2014 parabolic trough with 4h heat storage[93]
50 Arenales PS  Spain Moron de la Frontera (Seville) 2013 parabolic trough [18][42][94]
50 Casablanca  Spain Casablanca 2013 parabolic trough [18]
50 Erdos Solar Power Plant  China Hanggin Banner 2013 parabolic trough [95]
50 Khi Solar One  South Africa Upington 2014 power tower with 2h heat storage[86][87]
50 Megha Solar Plant  India Anantapur 2013 parabolic trough [96]
50 Bokpoort  South Africa Groblershoop 2015 parabolic trough with 9h heat storage[97][98]
44 Kogan Creek Solar Boost  Australia Chinchilla 2015 fresnel reflector [99]
27.5 Jinshawan  China China solar updraft tower

Operations underway at 200 kW.[100]

25 Gujarat Solar One  India Kutch 23°22.233′N 70°41.988′E / 23.370550°N 70.699800°E / 23.370550; 70.699800 (Gujarat Solar One) 2013 parabolic trough with 9h heat storage[101]
12 Alba Nova 1  France Corsica 2013 Fresnel First utility-scale solar thermal plant in France[102]
3 Airlight Energy Ait Baha Plant  Morocco Ait Baha 2013 parabolic trough with 12h heat storage[103]
1.5 Tooele Army Depot  USA Tooele 2013 dish [104]
1.4 THEMIS Solar Power Tower  France Pyrénées-Orientales 42°30′5″N 1°58′27″E / 42.50139°N 1.97417°E / 42.50139; 1.97417 (Themis (solar power plant)) solar power tower Hybrid solar/gas power plant[105]
1 e-Cube 1  China Hainan 2013 Modular Heliostat First Modular Heliostat solar thermal plant in the world[106]
1 Renovalia  Spain Albacete dish [18]
2463.9 Overall capacity under construction

Announced[edit]

Announced — USA[edit]

Solar Thermal Power Stations Announced in the USA
Capacity
(MW)
Name Location Coordinates Technology Notes
500 Palen Solar Power Project [107] Riverside County, California solar power tower Bought by Brightsource [108]
340 Hualapai Valley Solar Project Mohave County, Arizona parabolic trough [109][110]
300 Unnamed Florida fresnel reflector [111]
250 Beacon Solar Energy Project Kern County, California parabolic trough [3]
250 Harper Lake Solar San Bernardino County, California parabolic trough [3]
200 Unnamed Kingman solar project Mohave County, Arizona parabolic trough [112]
200 EnviroMission Arizona solar updraft tower [113]
200 BrightSource PPA5 Mojave, California solar power tower [3]
200 BrightSource PPA6 Mojave, California solar power tower [3]
200 BrightSource PPA7 Mojave, California solar power tower [3]
150 Rice Solar Energy Project Riverside County, California 34°04′N 114°48′W / 34.067°N 114.800°W / 34.067; -114.800 (Rice Solar) solar power tower with 7h heat storage[3]
150 Crossroads Solar Energy Project Maricopa County, Arizona solar power tower with 10h heat storage[114][115]
92 Suntower Doña Ana County, New Mexico solar power tower [116][117]
84 eSolar 1 Los Angeles County, California solar power tower [3]
66 eSolar 2 Los Angeles County, California solar power tower [3]
62 City of Palmdale Hybrid Power Project Palmdale, California parabolic trough steam input for hybrid gas plant [3]
50 Victorville 2 Hybrid Power Project Victorville, California parabolic trough steam input for hybrid gas plant [3]
50 Sound Hybrid G Unannounced hybrid [118]
5 Kalaeloa Solar One MicroCSP Power Project Barbers Point Naval Air Station, Hawaii MicroCSP parabolic trough steam input for power generation with thermal storage [119]
3949 Overall capacity announced in the USA

Announced — Spain[edit]

Solar Thermal Power Stations Announced in Spain
MW Name Location Coordinates Technology Notes
200 Andasol 4–7 Granada parabolic trough with heat storage [27]
100 Solnova 2, 4–5 Sevilla 37°25′00″N 06°17′20″W / 37.41667°N 6.28889°W / 37.41667; -6.28889 (Solnova Solar Power Station) parabolic trough with heat storage [120]
50 Ibersol Badajoz Fuente de Cantos parabolic trough [121]
50 Ibersol Valdecaballeros 1–2 Valdecaballeros parabolic trough [121]
50 Ibersol Sevilla Aznalcollar parabolic trough [121]
50 Ibersol Almería Tabernas parabolic trough [121]
50 Ibersol Albacete Almansa parabolic trough [121]
50 Ibersol Murcia Lorca parabolic trough [121]
50 Ibersol Zamora Cubillos parabolic trough [121]
100 Aste 3, 4 Alcázar de San Juan
(Ciudad Real)
parabolic trough [42]
50 Astexol 1 Extremadura parabolic trough [42]
50 AZ 20 Sevilla solar power tower [120]
50 Alcázar Solar Thermal Power Project Alcázar de San Juan solar power tower [122]
20 Almaden Plant Albacete solar power tower [123]
10 Gotasol Gotarrendura linear fresnel [124]
0.08 Aznalcollar TH Sevilla dish sterling [120]
930.08 Overall capacity announced in Spain

Announced — other countries[edit]

Solar Thermal Power Stations Announced In Other Countries
Capacity MW Name Country Location Coordinates Technology Notes
2000 Ordos  China Mongolian desert, China solar power tower [125]
1540 Solar Energy Project  Morocco Ain Beni Mathar, Foum Al Quad, Boujdour, Sebkhat Tah - Morocco unknown [126]
200 Noor II CSP Project  Morocco Ouarzazate - Morocco parabolic trough [127]
100 Noor III CSP Project  Morocco Ouarzazate - Morocco solar power tower [127]
280 Al-Abdaliya  Kuwait  ?? parabolic trough [128]
120 Shneur Solar Power Station  Israel Tze'elim, Israel parabolic trough [129]
100 CAP SunEdison  Chile Atacama Desert, Chile [130]
72 Mashhad solar-thermal power station  Iran Mashhad, Iran Parabolic dish with tracer system [131]
60 Mashavei Sadde solar-thermal power station  Israel Mashavei Sadde(Negev), Israel CSP [132]
30 Archetype SW 550 solar power plant  Italy Passo Martino(CT), Sicily Parabolic trough with heat storage, biomass integration and cogenerating desalination [133][134]
14 Agua Prieta II integrated solar combined cycle power station  Mexico Agua Prieta(Sonora), Mexico ISCC [135][136]
30 São Francisco power plant  Brazil Santa Maria da Boa Vista, Pernambuco, Brazil unknown [137][138]
5 Fonte Solar I  Brazil Tacaratu, Pernambuco, Brazil unknown [137][138]
5 Fonte Solar II  Brazil Tacaratu, Pernambuco, Brazil unknown [137][138]
29.25 São Pedro e Paulo I  Brazil Flores, Pernambuco, Brazil unknown [137][138]
22.82 Cone Energia  Brazil Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Pernambuco, Brazil unknown [137][138]
29.75 Força Verde Pernambuco Energia  Brazil Joaquim Nabuco, Pernambuco, Brazil unknown [137][138]
4637.82 Overall capacity announced in other countries

Out of commission[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Edwin Cartlidge (18 November 2011). "Saving for a rainy day". Science (Vol 334). pp. 922–924. 
  2. ^ a b Wang, Ucilia (6 June 2011). "The Rise of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power". Renewable Energy World. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Large Solar Energy Projects, California Government
  4. ^ PG&E and BrightSource Sign Contracts for Over 1,300 MW of Solar Thermal
  5. ^ World’s Largest Solar Thermal Power Project at Ivanpah Achieves Commercial Operation
  6. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station I
  7. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station II
  8. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station III
  9. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station IV
  10. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station V
  11. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station VI
  12. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station VII
  13. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station VIII
  14. ^ Solar Electric Generating Station IX
  15. ^ Abengoa Solar: Abengoa’s Solana, the US’s first large-scale solar plant with thermal energy storage system, begins commercial operation
  16. ^ SolarServer: Concentrating solar power: Solana CSP plant begins commercial operation
  17. ^ Abengoa Solar begins construction on Extremadura’s second solar concentrating solar power plant
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Lokalizacion de Centrales Termosolares en Espana
  19. ^ CSP World: Abengoa closes financing and begin operation of Solaben 1 & 6 CSP plants in Spain - See more at: http://www.csp-world.com/news/20130930/001204/abengoa-closes-financing-and-begin-operation-solaben-1-6-csp-plants-spain
  20. ^ Abengoa Rakes in $426M for 4 Solar Power Plants
  21. ^ "Abengoa Begins Operation of 50MW Concentrating Solar Power Plant". SustainableBusiness.com News. May 6, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  22. ^ Abengoa Solar begins commercial operation of Solnova 1
  23. ^ Abengoa Solar begins commercial operation of Solnova 3
  24. ^ Abengoa Solar Reaches Total of 193 Megawatts Operating
  25. ^ Andasol 1 has started test run
  26. ^ The Construction of the Andasol Power Plants
  27. ^ a b Solar Thermal Power Generation - A Spanish Success Story
  28. ^ ACS Launches the Operation Phase of its Third Dispatchable 50 MW Thermal Power Plant in Spain, Extresol-1
  29. ^ VALLE 1 and VALLE 2
  30. ^ a b Renewable Energy Magazine: Abengoa-E.ON joint solar thermal electric plant comes online
  31. ^ a b Abengoa Projects in Andalucia
  32. ^ CSP World Solacor 2 comes on-line
  33. ^ World’s Largest Concentrating Solar Power Plant Launches In Abu Dhabi
  34. ^ Here comes the sun! FPL's Next Generation Solar Energy Center to be world's first hybrid solar plant, first utility-scale solar facility in Florida
  35. ^ José María Barreda and Ignacio Galán open Iberdrola Renovables’ first solar termal power plant
  36. ^ Acciona Status Solarpaces 2008 p.25
  37. ^ ACCIONA Energía develops 900-million-euro renewables projects in the region of Extremadura
  38. ^ ACCIONA opens its first CSP plant in Spain, in Extremadura
  39. ^ Spain - A Solar Thermal Powerhouse
  40. ^ Acciona starts work on its €237 million CSP plant in Spain
  41. ^ Solel Begins Construction on New 50 MW Solar Field in Spain using Advanced SunField LP Technology
  42. ^ a b c d Concentrated Solar Power(CSP)
  43. ^ CSP World: Godawari Green Energy
  44. ^ NREL: Godawari Solar Project
  45. ^ Bloomberg: Godawari Starts Asia’s Biggest Solar-Thermal Power Plant
  46. ^ Enerstar homepage
  47. ^ World First in Solar Power Plant Technology
  48. ^ NREL: Puerto Errado 2 Thermosolar Power Plant
  49. ^ Abengoa Annual Information 2007
  50. ^ a b ISCC's outlook brightens with wave of projects
  51. ^ First parabolic trough solar field in Egypt is under construction
  52. ^ Egypt’s first solar-thermal plant goes into operation in Kuraymat
  53. ^ King Mohamed VI Launches Thermo-Solar Energy Plant in Morocco
  54. ^ World Bank: Nurturing Low Carbon Economy in Morocco
  55. ^ Centrale Thermo-Solaire à Cycle Combine Integre d'Ain Beni Mathar
  56. ^ Torresol Energy commissions Gemasolar Power Plant in Spain
  57. ^ MeetingChina: China’s First Solar-thermal Power Project Achieved Grid-connected Power Generation
  58. ^ SUPCON: Delingha 50 MW Solar Power Plant Succeed in Producing Steam
  59. ^ NREL: Supcon Solar Project
  60. ^ Ausra’s first solar thermal plant starts up
  61. ^ eSolar Flips the Switch on First Solar Power Tower in U.S.
  62. ^ eSolar Ushers in New Era of Solar Energy with Unveiling of Sierra Power Plant
  63. ^ SciAm - First U.S. "Power Tower" Lights Up California
  64. ^ The Thermodynamic Solar Project p.14-18 (dead link)
  65. ^ At Priolo Enel Inaugurates the "Archimede" Power Plant
  66. ^ Weekly Intelligence Brief: November 28 – December 5
  67. ^ CLFR
  68. ^ Solar thermal plant at the Liddell Power Station gets government support
  69. ^ Solar Thermal
  70. ^ Sopogy Wins Innovative Company of the Year 2008
  71. ^ Aloha, MicroCSP: Sopogy 2MW solar thermal system inaugurated on big island of Hawaii
  72. ^ Salt-Free Solar: CSP Tower Using Air
  73. ^ NAFSTE: Beijing Badaling CSP Tower Plant Succeeded in its first power generation test
  74. ^ NREL: Beijing Badaling Solar Tower
  75. ^ Saguaro Solar Trough (dead link)
  76. ^ CSP World: China's first megawatt-size power tower is complete and operational
  77. ^ NREL: Augustin Fresnel 1
  78. ^ Abengoa: Plants under construction - United States
  79. ^ CSP World: Abengoa closes $1.2 billion financing for the Mojave Solar Project and starts construction
  80. ^ CSP World
  81. ^ Saudi Power Developer Gives Spanish Firms Work in Morocco
  82. ^ Israel to hold tender for solar energy plants
  83. ^ Ministry of Energy and Water Resources: Electricity Generation
  84. ^ BrightSource takes solar thermal energy home to Israel
  85. ^ Tonopah Solar Energy
  86. ^ a b Abengoa: Plants under construction - South Africa
  87. ^ a b CSP World: Abengoa kicks off South Africa's first CSP plants construction
  88. ^ Boragis: El Reboso II
  89. ^ Boragis: El Reboso III
  90. ^ NREL: Dhursar
  91. ^ Power Today: R-Power posts Q3 net profit RS 266 crore
  92. ^ NREL: Diwakar
  93. ^ NREL: KVK Energy Solar Project
  94. ^ Solar Millennium AG and OHL Industrial jointly take over planned Spanish 50 megawatt power plant Arenales from Fotowatio Renewable Ventures
  95. ^ Project 6835 : Inner Mongolia Erdos 50MWp Groove Type Solar Thermal Project
  96. ^ NREL: Megha Solar Plant
  97. ^ Project 7841 : Bokpoort CSP (Concentrating Solar Power) Project, South Africa
  98. ^ CSP World: Groundbreaking ceremony for Bokpoort CSP plant in South Africa has been held - See more at: http://www.csp-world.com/news/20130925/001189/groundbreaking-ceremony-bokpoorts-csp-plant-south-africa-has-been-held
  99. ^ NREL: Kogan Creek Solar Boost
  100. ^ China's first solar chimney plant starts operating in desert
  101. ^ NREL: Gujarat Solar One
  102. ^ Helionoticias - Authorities award construction permit for the first CSP plant in France
  103. ^ NREL: Airlight Energy Ait Baha Plant
  104. ^ NREL: Tooele Army Depot
  105. ^ Production d'Electricité par turbine à GAz et énergie SolairE
  106. ^ 光热发电:新能源产业创新转型捷径
  107. ^ BrightSource seeks change of ownership
  108. ^ BrightSource buys Palen Solar project
  109. ^ Adams, Suzanne (May 13, 2009). "Another solar plant on tap". Kingman Daily Miner. Retrieved 2009-05-15. 
  110. ^ Dong, Mitchell (April 1, 2009). "Mitchell Dong - Alternative Energy Entrepreneur" (slideshow). Mohave Sun Power. Retrieved 2009-05-15. 
  111. ^ Big Solar Thermal Power Plants Planned for Florida, California
  112. ^ Chilton, James (April 21, 2009). "Massive solar complex planned near Kingman". Kingman Daily Miner. Retrieved 2009-05-15. 
  113. ^ "Arup Engineering Services Engaged by EnviroMission". Enviromission. April 21, 2009. Retrieved 2010-11-09. 
  114. ^ Prior, Brett (February 9, 2011). "As One Solar Thermal Project Dies, Another is Born". Greentech Media. Retrieved 2011-02-10. 
  115. ^ "Project Overview". Crossroads Solar Energy Project. Retrieved 2011-02-10. 
  116. ^ Major Holmes, Sue (June 2009). "Nation's largest solar plant to be built in NM". Associated Press (AP). Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  117. ^ Souder, Elizabeth (June 12, 2009). "NRG Energy's solar plant plans could stretch into Texas". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  118. ^ Sound Gallagher (dead link) 26 July 2007.
  119. ^ KSP and the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands partner to build Hawaii's largest Concentrating Solar Power project
  120. ^ a b c Solúcar Platform
  121. ^ a b c d e f g Madrid, Spain: Iberdrola Proceeds with Nine Solar Thermal Electric Plants
  122. ^ "SolarReserve and Preneal Receive Environmental Permit for 50 Megawatt Solar Energy Project in Spain". Business Wire. November 17, 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-18. 
  123. ^ Abengoa Projects in Castilla la Mancha
  124. ^ Solar Power Group: First commercial Solar-thermal power plant in Spain
  125. ^ Woody, Todd (2010-01-09). "Pasadena's ESolar lands 2,000-megawatt deal in China". Los Angeles Times. 
  126. ^ "Update 1- Morocco to invite bids for solar station in Feb". Reuters. 2010-01-06. 
  127. ^ a b "Morocco expands solar capacity". Zawya. 2013-09-23. 
  128. ^ PV-Tech: Kuwait’s first solar park to be built for US$3.27 billion
  129. ^ Project 4444 : Shneur Solar Thermal Grid-Connected Power Plant in Ze'elim
  130. ^ CAP y SunEdison firman acuerdo para construir en Chile la mayor planta solar de Latinoamérica
  131. ^ Iran's biggest solar power plant
  132. ^ Two Sigma and Hezzi Kogler plan to build solar thermal power station with a budget worth 300 Million NIS
  133. ^ EGP realizza in Italia la prima centrale solare termodinamica
  134. ^ Demonstration of innovating parabolic solar trough using an alternative heat transfer fluid producing electricity and fresh water: ARChimede Hot Energy TYPology Enhanced Water Solar 550
  135. ^ Realizará CFE proyecto de campo solar
  136. ^ Abengoa to build Mexico’s first hybrid solar-gas plant
  137. ^ a b c d e f "Leilão define que Pernambuco terá 6 usinas solares" (in Portuguese). JC online. 2013-12-28. Retrieved 2014-02-17. 
  138. ^ a b c d e f "Pernambuco promove primeiro leilão de energia solar do País, que atrai investimentos de R$ 597 milhões" (in Portuguese). Pe.gov.br. 2013-12-27. Retrieved 2014-02-17. 
  139. ^ Making solar thermal power generation in India a reality – Overview of technologies, opportunities and challenges
  140. ^ Wilson, Alex (April 29, 2010). "Building Green's Product of the Week". Stirling SunCatcher with "Heat Engine" Technology. Building Green.com. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 

External links[edit]