List of sovereign states by date of formation
Below is a list of sovereign states and their formation dates, sorted by continent. This list includes only the 195 sovereign states currently in existence; it does not include former sovereign states. For proposed states or various indigenous nations which consider themselves still under occupation, see list of active autonomist and secessionist movements. Micronations are not included in this list.
Nation-building is a long evolutionary process. It is therefore practically impossible to come up with a single date for a nation's "birth". However, most nations have accepted some dates in their respective histories as their symbolic starting points. This is usually done more for nationalistic propaganda than for scientific reasons. For many ancient and medieval nations these starting points are usually the dates when a nation was mentioned in a written document for the first time or simply a date from their national mythology. In Europe, this often coincides with the ruler's conversion to Christianity. For post-colonial nations, starting with the United States, the beginning of statehood is usually considered to be the date when independence was declared, granted and/or recognised.
Independence dates for widely recognised states, earlier than 1919, should be treated with caution, since prior to the founding of the League of Nations, there was no international body to recognise nationhood, and independence had no meaning beyond mutual recognition of de facto sovereigns (the role of the League of Nations was effectively taken over by the United Nations after the Second World War). See also: disputed territories.
The situation is further complicated by the confusion between two terms commonly used as synonym: nation (generally considered an ethnic or cultural grouping) and state (an independent political entity). Taking this into account a declaration of being the "oldest country" in the world is not fruitful and will inevitably be disputed. The following list contains the formation dates of countries with a short description of those events. For a more detailed description of a country's formation and history please see the main article for each country.
|Country||Date||Birth of current form of government||Date||Date of acquisition of sovereignty||Date||Date of most recent significant territorial modification|
|Algeria||1963||Adoption of the present constitution.||July 3, 1962||French recognition of Algerian referendum on independence held two days earlier||July 5, 1962||Algeria gains sovereignty over the entire Algerian territory upon independence from France.|
|Angola||November 11, 1975||Independence from Portugal|
|Benin||August 1, 1960||Independence from France||January 15, 1894||Borders of French Protectorate of Dahomey set at conclusion of Second Franco-Dahomean War|
|Botswana||March 31, 1885||Establishment of the Bechuanaland Protectorate by the United Kingdom||1894||Extended north into Ngamiland|
|September 30, 1966||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Burkina Faso||December 11, 1958||Self-government achieved and republic within Franco-African Community||September 4, 1947||Restoration of colonial boundaries used from 1919–1932|
|August 5, 1960||Independence from France|
|Burundi||November 28, 1966||Monarchy replaced by republic||July 1, 1962||Independence from Belgium|
|Cameroon||January 1, 1960||Independence from France||October 1, 1961||Merger of part of British Cameroons with Cameroon|
|Cape Verde||July 5, 1975||Independence from Portugal|
|Central African Republic||September 21, 1979||Monarchy replaced by republic||December 1, 1958||Central African Republic becomes autonomous territory in French Republic|
|August 13, 1960||Independence from France|
|Chad||August 11, 1960||Independence from France||February 3, 1994||Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad|
|Comoros||July 6, 1975||Independence from France declared|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||April 22, 1884||Congo Free State recognized as an independent state|
|June 30, 1960||Independence from Belgium|
|Congo, Republic of the||August 15, 1960||Independence from France|
|Côte d'Ivoire||December 4, 1958||Autonomous republic within French Community|
|August 7, 1960||Independence from France|
|Djibouti||June 27, 1977||Independence from France|
|Equatorial Guinea||October 12, 1968||Independence from Spain|
|Eritrea||May 24, 1993||Independence from Ethiopia declared||April 1, 2002||Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean–Ethiopian War). Contested by Ethiopia|
|Ethiopia||March 21, 1975||Monarchy abolished and replaced by republic||800 BC||Formation of the state of D'mt||April 1, 2002||Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean–Ethiopian War). Contested by Ethiopia|
|Gabon||August 17, 1960||Independence from France|
|Gambia||February 18, 1965||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Ghana||March 6, 1957||Independence from the United Kingdom||December 13, 1956||Union of British Togoland with Gold Coast|
|Guinea||October 2, 1958||Independence from France|
|Guinea-Bissau||September 24, 1973||Independence from Portugal declared|
|September 10, 1974||Independence from Portugal recognized|
|Kenya||December 12, 1963||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Lesotho||October 4, 1966||Independence from the United Kingdom||March 12, 1868||Area that is now present-day Lesotho placed under British rule|
|Liberia||July 26, 1847|
|Libya||September 1, 1969||Monarchy replaced by republic||December 24, 1951||Independence from UN Trusteeship (British and French administration after Italian governance ends in 1947)||February 13, 1984||Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad|
|Madagascar||October 14, 1958||The Malagasy Republic was created as autonomous state within French Community|
|June 26, 1960||France recognizes Madagascar's independence|
|Malawi||July 6, 1964||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Mali||November 25, 1958||French Sudan gains autonomy||August 20, 1960||Senegal secedes from Mali Federation|
|September 22, 1960||Independence from France|
|Mauritania||November 28, 1960||Independence from France||August 11, 1979||Mauritania withdraws from Tiris al-Gharbiyya (part of Western Sahara)|
|Mauritius||March 12, 1968||Independence from the United Kingdom||1965||Separation of Chagos Archipelago|
|Morocco||February 5, 789||Enthronement of Idris I in Volubilis||March 2, 1956||Independence from France||January 4, 1969||Internationally recognized :
Return of Ifni to Morocco
|1666||Enthronement of Al-Rashid ibn Sharif in Fez||April 7, 1956||Independence from Spain||April 1987||Disputed, de facto under Moroccan control :
Completion of the Moroccan Wall in Western Sahara
|Mozambique||June 25, 1975||Independence from Portugal|
|Namibia||March 21, 1990||Independence from South African rule||March 1, 1994||Walvis Bay integrated into Namibia|
|Niger||December 4, 1958||Autonomy within French Community|
|August 3, 1960||Independence from France|
|Nigeria||October 1, 1960||Independence from the United Kingdom||January 15, 1970||Biafra re-integrated into Nigeria|
|June 1, 1961||Northern Cameroons integrated in Nigeria|
|Rwanda||July 1, 1962||Independence from Belgium|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||July 12, 1975||Independence from Portugal|
|Senegal||August 20, 1960||Independence from France|
|Seychelles||June 29, 1976||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Sierra Leone||April 27, 1961||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Somalia||July 1, 1960||Merger of State of Somaliland (formerly British Somaliland) and Italian Somaliland|
|South Africa||May 31, 1910||Creation of the Union of South Africa from the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River||December 11, 1931||Statute of Westminster, which establishes a status of legislative equality between the self-governing dominion of the Union of South Africa and the UK||April 27, 1994||Reincorporation of the nominally independent bantustans into post-apartheid South Africa|
|May 31, 1961||Republic declared (South Africa no longer a Commonwealth realm)|
|South Sudan||July 9, 2011||Separation of Southern Sudan from Sudan|
|Sudan||January 1, 1956||Independence from Egyptian and British joint rule||July 9, 2011||South Sudan secedes from Sudan|
|Swaziland||September 6, 1968||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Tanzania||December 9, 1961||Independence of Tanganyika from the United Kingdom||April 26, 1964||Merger of Zanzibar with Tanganyika to form Tanzania|
|Togo||August 30, 1958||Autonomy within French Union|
|April 27, 1960||Independence from France|
|Tunisia||July 25, 1957||Declaration of Republic||March 20, 1956||Independence from France|
|Uganda||March 1, 1962||Self-government granted|
|October 9, 1962||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Zambia||October 24, 1964||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Zimbabwe||November 11, 1965||Unilateral declaration of independence by Southern Rhodesia||1901||BSAC separates North-Eastern Rhodesia from Southern Rhodesia|
|April 18, 1980||Recognized independence from the United Kingdom as Zimbabwe|
|Country||Date||Birth of current form of government||Date||Date of acquisition of sovereignty||Date||Date of most recent significant territorial modification|
|Antigua and Barbuda||November 1, 1981||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Argentina||May 1, 1853||The current Constitution of Argentina enters in force||May 25, 1810||May Revolution installs first local government||October 18, 1884||Conquest of the Desert|
|July 9, 1816||Argentine Declaration of Independence|
|Bahamas||January 7, 1964||Internal self-governance granted|
|July 10, 1973||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Barbados||November 30, 1966||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Belize||September 21, 1981||Independence from the United Kingdom||1859||Treaty establishes border between British Honduras and Guatemala|
|January 1, 1964||Self-governing colony|
|Bolivia||May 25, 1809||August 6, 1825||Bolivian War of Independence||November 11, 1903||Signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis with Brazil whereby Bolivia gained lands in Mato Grosso in exchange for the territory of Acre|
|Brazil||November 15, 1889||Proclamation of the Republic||September 7, 1822||Independence from Portugal declared||November 11, 1903||Signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis with Bolivia whereby Brazil was given the territory of Acre in exchange for lands in Mato Grosso|
|August 29, 1825||Independence recognized by Portugal|
|Canada||July 1, 1867||Canadian Confederation||December 11, 1931||Statute of Westminster||April 1, 1949||Dominion of Newfoundland joins as the province of Newfoundland|
|Chile||September 18, 1810||First Government Junta declares Chile an autonomous republic within Spain||February 12, 1818||Independence declared from Spain||July 3, 1929||Chile awarded Arica district in Treaty of Lima|
|April 25, 1844||Independence recognized by Spain|
|Colombia||July 20, 1810||Independence declared from Spain||November 3, 1903||Separation of Panama from Colombia|
|August 7, 1819||Independence recognized by Spain|
|Costa Rica||September 15, 1821||Costa Rica declared independence from Spain||July 25, 1824||Partido de Nicoya|
|November 15, 1838||Independence from Federal Republic of Central America|
|Cuba||January 1, 1959||Cuban Revolution||October 10, 1868||Independence from Spain declared|
|December 10, 1898||Spain relinquishes all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba|
|May 20, 1902||United States military occupation ends|
|Dominica||February 27, 1967||Became an associated state of the United Kingdom|
|November 3, 1978||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Dominican Republic||March 3, 1865||Independence regained from Spain following the Dominican Restoration War|
|Ecuador||August 10, 1809||May 24, 1822||Independence from Spain of Gran Colombia, of which Ecuador is a part||February 26, 1942||Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Peru|
|May 13, 1830||Dissolution of Gran Colombia|
|El Salvador||September 15, 1821||El Salvador becomes province in first mexican empire, which declared independence from Spain|
|1823||El Salvador becomes a state of Federal Republic of Central America|
|1841||Dissolution of the Federal Republic of Central America, El Salvador becomes independent|
|Grenada||February 27, 1967||Associated state of the United Kingdom|
|February 7, 1974||Full independence from the United Kingdom|
|Guatemala||September 15, 1821||Guatemala becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain|
|April 17, 1839||Independence from Federal Republic of Central America declared|
|Guyana||May 26, 1966||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Haiti||March 1987||Constitution of 1987 (superceded)||January 1, 1804||The French colony Saint-Domingue gains independence as Haiti||February 27, 1844||The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti|
|Honduras||September 15, 1821||Honduras becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain||September 1, 1972||Swan Islands returned to Honduras from United States occupation|
|October 26, 1838||Independence from Federal Republic of Central America|
|Jamaica||August 6, 1962||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Mexico||1917||Constitution of Mexico||September 16, 1810||Independence from Spain declared||December 30, 1853||Gadsden Purchase|
|August 24, 1821||Independence recognized by Spain in Treaty of Córdoba|
|Nicaragua||September 15, 1821||Nicaragua becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain|
|November 5, 1838||Independence from Federal Republic of Central America|
|Panama||November 3, 1903||Separation of Panama from Colombia||October 1, 1979||United States returns Panama the Panama Canal Zone|
|Paraguay||June 1992||Democratic Constitution of Paraguay||May 14, 1811||Independence from Spain declared||1938||Paraguay awarded a large portion of the Gran Chaco as a result of the Chaco War|
|Peru||July 28, 1821||Independence from Spain declared||February 26, 1942||Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Ecuador|
|1879||Independence from Spain recognized|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||February 27, 1967||Associated state of the United Kingdom||December 19, 1980||Anguilla separated from Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla|
|September 19, 1983||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Saint Lucia||February 27, 1967||Associated statehood|
|February 22, 1979||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||October 27, 1969||Associated statehood|
|October 27, 1979||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Suriname||December 15, 1954||Self-government granted|
|November 25, 1975||Independence from Netherlands|
|Trinidad and Tobago||August 31, 1962||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|United States||September 17, 1787||Ratification of the United States Constitution replaced the previous Articles of Confederation creating a new system of government||July 4, 1776||Independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain declared||August 21, 1959||United States territory:
Territory of Hawaii joins as the state of Hawaii
|September 3, 1783||Independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain recognized||September 7, 1981||Insular area:
The United States cedes Serrana Bank and Roncador Bank to the Republic of Colombia as a result of a treaty signed in 1972
|Uruguay||August 25, 1825||Independence declared, joined in union with United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (current Argentina).(Independence from Brazil declared)|
|August 27, 1828||Treaty of Montevideo signed, recognizing Uruguay's independence|
|Venezuela||April 10, 1810||independence from Spain declared|
|January 13, 1830||President José Antonio Páez declares Venezuela independent from Gran Colombia|
|Country||Date||Birth of current form of government||Date||Date of acquisition of sovereignty||Date||Date of most recent significant territorial modification|
|Afghanistan||1747||Afghan separation from Persia gives Afghanistan full control over the country by Ahmed Shah Durrani.|
|Bahrain||August 15, 1971||Independence from Iran||July 1, 1521||Portuguese conquest of current territory|
|Bangladesh||March 26, 1971||Independence from Pakistan declared|
|Bhutan||1885||Ugyen Wangchuck ends period of civil war and unites Bhutan||November 11, 1865||Treaty of Sinchula|
|Brunei||January 1, 1984||Brunei regains its independence after an agreement with the British on 4 January 1979|
|Cambodia||September 26, 1989||Becomes free from Vietnamese occupation; it gets back its name instead of the People's Republic of Kampuchea|
|China||October 1, 1949||Establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the Chinese Civil War nears its end||221 BC||Nation firstly unified by Qin Dynasty||December 20, 1999||Transfer of the sovereignty of Macau from Portugal to the PRC|
|India||January 26, 1950||Indian constitution comes into force||1947-08-15||Independence from British Raj||May 16, 1975||Accession of Daman, Diu + Sikkim to India|
|Indonesia||August 18, 1945||Ratification of the Constitution of Indonesia by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence||August 17, 1945||Indonesian Declaration of Independence from Netherlands||May 20, 2002||Independence of East Timor, formerly administered as a province of Indonesia|
|December 27, 1949||Independence from the Netherlands recognized|
|Iran||February 11, 1979||Iranian Revolution ends monarchism and establishes an Islamic Republic||1501 AD||Safavids First Emergence of a State Officially Called as Iran.||April 4, 1857||Anglo-Persian War leads to loss of Herat to the Emirate of Afghanistan|
|Iraq||March 20, 2003||Iraq defeated and occupied. New gov. formed||October 3, 1932||Kingdom of Iraq||February 28, 1991||Kuwait was liberated.|
|Israel||May 14, 1948||Reading of the Declaration of Independence of Israel before the expiration of the British Mandate of Palestine at midnight||September 12, 2005||Completion of Israel's unilateral disengagement from the Gaza Strip|
|Japan||May 3, 1947||Coming into force of the current Constitution of Japan, whereby the emperor was deprived of his powers and a liberal democracy was established||660 BCE (Traditional)||Victory of Emperor Jimmu, and the capital established in Yamato.||May 15, 1972||Return of the Ryukyu Islands to Japan and abolition of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands|
|Jordan||May 25, 1946||End of the British Mandate for Palestine||October 26, 1994||Signing of the Israel–Jordan Treaty of Peace, whereby most of the disputed 400 square-kilometer area in the Arabah was handed back to Jordan|
|Kuwait||February 28, 1991||End of Iraqi occupation (Gulf War)||December 18, 1969||Formal division of Saudi-Kuwaiti neutral zone|
|Kyrgyzstan||August 31, 1991||Independence from the Soviet Union||December 5, 1936||Establishment of the Kirghiz SSR|
|Laos||December 2, 1975||Lao PDR formed||October 22, 1953||Independence from France|
|Lebanon||May 23, 1926||Lebanese Republic formed||November 26, 1941||Independence from France declared||September 1, 1920||France establishes State of Greater Lebanon with current boundaries|
|November 22, 1943||Independence from France recognized|
|Malaysia||September 16, 1963||Formation of Malaysia||August 31, 1957||Malayan Independence from the United Kingdom was declared in Dataran Merdeka (Independence Square)||August 9, 1965||Singapore separates from Federation of Malaysia|
|September 16, 1963||Malaysia was formed by the federation of Sabah (was North Borneo), Sarawak and Singapore with the existing States of the Federation of Malaya.|
|Maldives||November 11, 1968||Declaration of Republic||July 26, 1965||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Mongolia||December 29, 1911||Proclamation of Mongolian independence from Qing Dynasty China|
|Myanmar||January 4, 1948||Myanmar (Burma) declares independence from the British Empire||1956||Signing of border treaty with the People's Republic of China|
|Nepal||May 28, 2008||Formation of Republic||1768-12-21||Nepali unification||December 2, 1815||Sugauli Treaty ends the Gurkha War|
|North Korea||September 9, 1948||Declaration of creation of North Korea||July 27, 1953||Cease-fire in the Korean War creates the southern border along the Military Demarcation Line|
|Oman||October 4, 2003||universal suffrage||January 26, 1650||Expulsion of the Portuguese|
|Pakistan||August 14, 1947||Independence from British India||1947||Partition of India||December 16, 1971||De facto: Province of East Pakistan dissolved following the surrender of the Pakistani Army at the end of the Bangladesh Liberation War|
|February 22, 1974||De jure: Recognition by Pakistan of Bangladesh as an independent country, whereby Pakistan definitely surrenders claims over the former province of East Pakistan|
|Philippines||November 30, 1935||The Commonwealth of the Philippines was established through provisions of the Tydings–McDuffie Act.||June 12, 1898||The First Philippine Republic declares itself independent from the Spanish Empire.||1930||Seven of the Turtle Islands were returned by the United Kingdom to the United States as the successor of the Sultanate of Sulu, becoming part of the Philippine Archipelago. The remaining three islands became the Turtle Islands National Park (Malaysia).|
|July 4, 1946||The United States recognizes independence under the provisions of the Treaty of Manila (1946). The 1935 Philippine constitution remains in effect|
|Qatar||September 3, 1971||Independence from the United Kingdom|
|Saudi Arabia||September 23, 1932||Regions of Al-Hasa, Qatif, Nejd and Hejaz unified to become Saudi Arabia||May 20, 1927||Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz recognized as independent in Treaty of Jeddah||June 12, 2000||Border with Yemen finalized by Treaty of Jeddah|
|Singapore||August 9, 1965||Singapore ceased to be a state of Malaysia||June 3, 1959||Self-government under the United Kingdom||August 9, 1965||Establishment of Singapore as an independent sovereign state|
|August 9, 1965||separate from and independent of Malaysia|
|South Korea||August 15, 1948||First Republic of Korea established||2333 BC; estimated Oct. 3||Korean monarch establishes kingdom over Korean peninsula and southern Manchuria||July 27, 1953||Cease-fire in the Korean War creates the northern border along the Military Demarcation Line|
|Sri Lanka||February 4, 1948||Dominion|
|May 22, 1972||Full independence from the United Kingdom|
|Syria||September 28, 1961||End of the United Arab Republic|
|Taiwan||October 10, 1911||After the Xinhai Revolution the Republic of China formally replaced the Qing Dynasty||December 7, 1949||Republic of China government moved to Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War||February 25, 1955||Withdrawal of the Republic of China from the Dachen Archipelago|
|Tajikistan||September 9, 1991||Independence from the Soviet Union||December 5, 1929||Establishment of the Tajik SSR|
|Thailand||1776||Expulsion of Burmese and reunification of Thailand||March 10, 1909||Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909|
|Timor-Leste||November 28, 1975||East Timor declares its independence but was suppressed by the Indonesian invasion|
|May 20, 2002||Independence was recognized by the international community following the UN-sponsored act of self-determination of 1999|
|Turkmenistan||October 27, 1991||Independence from the Soviet Union||August 7, 1921||Establishment of the Turkmen SSR|
|United Arab Emirates||December 2, 1971||End of treaty relationship with the United Kingdom||February 11, 1972||Ras al-Khaimah joins the UAE|
|Uzbekistan||August 31, 1991||Independence from the Soviet Union declared||October 24, 1924||Establishment of the Uzbek SSR|
|Vietnam||September 2, 1945||Independence from Japan and France||2879 BC||Formation of Van Lang, traditionally regarded as the first nation of the Vietnamese people||July 2, 1976||Reunification of North Vietnam and South Vietnam|
|Yemen||May 22, 1990||Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen||May 22, 1990||Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen|
|Country||Date||Birth of current form of government||Date||Date of acquisition of sovereignty||Date||Date of most recent significant territorial modification|
|Albania||1912-11-28||Declaration of independence from Ottoman Empire|
|1944-11-28||Albanian state re-established after Italian/German occupation|
|Andorra||1813||Reversal of annexation of Andorra by the Napoleonic Empire, through the Peninsular war|
|Austria||1955-05-15||Austrian Independence Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state||1921-12-14||City of Sopron moved to Hungary after plebiscite|
|Belarus||1990-07-27||Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic||1945||Curzon Line|
|1991-08-25||Independence recognized by Soviet Union|
|Belgium||1831-07-21||King Leopold I of Belgium swears allegiance to the constitution making the country a constitutional monarchy||1830-10-04||Independence was proclaimed by the provisonial government||1919-06-28||Treaty of Versailles and annexation of the East Cantons|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||1992-03-03||Independence declared||1943-11-25||Establishment of SR Bosnia in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia|
|Bulgaria||1989-11-10||People's Republic of Bulgaria was replaced by the Republic of Bulgaria||681||The Byzantine Empire recognizes Bulgaria.||1940-09-07||Under the Vienna Awards, Southern Dobruja was returned to Bulgaria|
|1878-07-13||Independence from Ottoman Empire recognized internationally by the Treaty of Berlin.|
|Croatia||1991-10-08||Independence from SFR Yugoslavia||925||Formation of Kingdom of Croatia by King Tomislav||1947-02-10||Annexation of most of Istria to SR Croatia as a result of signing the 1947 Paris Peace Treaties|
|Cyprus||1960-08-16||Independence from United Kingdom|
|Czech Republic||1993-01-01||Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Czech Republic and Slovakia|
|Denmark||1953-06-05||Constitutional Act of Denmark||958, or prior||The Jelling stones, a pair of rune stones considered to be the "birth certificate" of Denmark reads: "King Haraldr ordered this monument made ... who won for himself all of Denmark and Norway and made the Danes Christian."||1920-06-15||Sønderjylland was recovered from Germany|
|Estonia||1918-02-24||Estonian Declaration of Independence, whereby a republic was declared||1918-02-24||Independence declared from the Russian Empire||1920-07-01||De jure: Signing of the Estonia–Latvia Border Treaty whereby Valga proper was ceded to Estonia|
|1991-08-20||Independence (from the Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation||1945-01-01||De facto: Eastern coast of Narva river and most of Petseri County were transferred to Russian SFSR|
|Finland||1809-03-29||Diet of Porvoo, birth of Finland as an autonomous state entity within Russian Empire||1917-12-06||Independence from Russian Empire declared||1956-01-26||Porkkala returned from Soviet control|
|1918-01-03||Independence from Russia recognized by the highest Soviet executive body, VTsIK|
|France||1870-09-04||Establishment of a lasting republican form of government, considered uninterrupted in French law||486||Kingdom of the Franks becomes the first Christian State after the fall of the Western Roman Empire||1947-02-10||Metropolitan France:
Annexation of Tende, La Brigue and other villages formerly in Italy
|1958-10-05||Establishment of the current semi-presidential system known as the Fifth Republic||843||Creation of the Kingdom of France (West Francia), Treaty of Verdun||1962-07-05||Overseas France:
Loss of the French departments in Algeria following the latter's independence
|Germany||1871-01-18||German Realm (Empire) founded||1955-05-05||Federal Republic of Germany (commonly referred to at the time as West Germany) declared fully sovereign||1990-10-03||Reunification of West Germany and East Germany|
|Greece||1975-06-11||Third Hellenic Republic||1821-03-25 (traditional)
|Greek Revolution starts, various regional administrations established during 1821||1947-02-10||Peace treaty with Italy awards the Dodecanese to Greece|
|1822-01-01||First Hellenic Republic proclaimed|
|1832-03-04||Independence recognized (as Kingdom of Greece)|
|Hungary||1989-10-23||People's Republic of Hungary was replaced by the Republic of Hungary||895||Principality of Hungary formed||1947-02-10||With the Paris Peace Treaty, Hungary loses all territories that were regained with the Vienna Awards and during World War II, thus it returns to the 1920 borders (except for three villages in the northwest given to Czechoslovakia).|
|1000||Formation of the Kingdom of Hungary by Stephen I of Hungary.|
|Iceland||930||The Icelandic Commonwealth established.||1944-06-17||Secedes from a Union with Denmark formally as an independent republic.||1972-09-01||No territorial changes on land have taken place, however the expansion of the Exclusive Economic Zone was such an important change in territory for Iceland that it merits a special inclusion here.|
|Ireland||1919-01-21||Elected Irish Parliament Dáil Éireann unilaterally declares Ireland's independence from the United Kingdom||1922-12-06||Irish Free State secedes from United Kingdom by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty but remains a dominion of the British Empire||1922-12-08||Northern Ireland secedes from the Irish Free State and rejoins the United Kingdom in accordance with the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922|
|1931-12-11||Statute of Westminster confers legislative independence from the United Kingdom|
|1949-04-18||Republic of Ireland Act 1948 declares the state to be a republic and thus no longer subject in any way to the British Crown|
|Italy||1861-03-17||Italian unification||1945-04-25||Disestablishment of the German-backed Italian Social Republic, whereby the unity and independence of the Italian state was restored||1975-11-10||Signing of the Treaty of Osimo which definitely divides the Free Territory of Trieste between Italy and Yugoslavia|
|Latvia||1922-11-7||Constitution of Latvia enforced||1918-11-18||Independence declared from Russia||1944||Abrene district ceded to Russian SFSR (modern Russia)|
|1990-05-04||Independence (from Soviet Union) reasserted|
|Liechtenstein||1813-10-19||Dissolution of the Confederation of the Rhine||1719-01-23||Purchase of Vaduz|
|Lithuania||1990-03-11||Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania independence (from the Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation||1253||Coronation of King Mindaugas (state established some time earlier, perhaps in the 1230s)||1939-10-27 and
|Western part (approximately half) of Vilnius Region ceded to Lithuania|
|1918-02-16||Independence declared from Germany and Russia|
|Luxembourg||1890-11-23||Separates from union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands, becomes Grand Duchy in its own right||1945||End of German occupation during World War II||1839-04-19||Partition of Luxembourg under the Treaty of London|
|Macedonia||1991-09-08||After a referendum, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia||1944-08-02||Establishment of SR Macedonia|
|Malta||1964-09-21||Independence from United Kingdom|
|Moldova||1991-08-27||Independence from Soviet Union||1940-08-02||Moldavian SSR formed|
|Monaco||1861||Franco-Monegasque Treaty confirms Monaco's sovereignty (formerly a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia)|
|Montenegro||1878-07-13||Independence from Ottoman Empire recognized internationally by the Treaty of Berlin.||1943-11-25||Establishment of SR Montenegro|
|2006-06-03||Declaration of independence from Serbia and Montenegro.|
|Netherlands||1648-05-15||Treaty of Münster signed, independence from Spain||1945-05-05||German occupying forces surrender.||1839-04-19||The United Kingdom of the Netherlands divided under the Treaty of London (1839).|
|Norway||872||King Harald I of Norway unifies the Petty kingdoms of Norway.||1814||Dissolution of the union between Norway and Denmark and establishment of the Constitution of Norway||1930-02-27||Jan Mayen was made part of the Kingdom of Norway.|
|1905-06-07||Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden|
|1945-05-08||German occupying forces surrender.|
|Poland||1989-06-04||The first partially free Parliament's vote after 45-year long Soviet domination||966||adoption of Christianity by the first historically documented Polish ruler Mieszko I.||1951-02-15||Polish-Soviet border adjustment treaty|
|1025||formation of the Kingdom of Poland by Mieszko's son Bolesław I Chrobry.|
|Portugal||1974-04-25||Carnation Revolution ends the authoritarian Estado Novo||1139-07-26||County of Portugal becomes independent from the Kingdom of León after the Battle of Ourique as part of the Reconquista. Recognized by León in 1143 and by the Pope in 1179.||1801-06-06||Spain occupies the present day border town of Olivença since the War of the Oranges.|
|Romania||1989-12-22||Romanian Revolution of 1989||1877-05-21||Independence declared from the Ottoman Empire||1947-02-10||Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina|
|1878-07-13||International recognition by the Treaty of Berlin.|
|San Marino||1600||Constitution of San Marino||301-09-03||Traditional founding||1463||Added Fiorentino, Montegiardino, Serravalle, and Faetano|
|1243||Formation of republican government|
|Serbia||2006-06-08||Republic of Serbia declared legal successor to Serbia and Montenegro, ending the process of the dissolution of Yugoslavia.||768||Serbian Principality||2008-02-17||Declared of independence of Kosovo from Serbia.|
|Slovakia||1993-01-01||Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Slovakia and Czech Republic|
|Slovenia||1991-06-25||Declaration of independence from Yugoslavia|
|Spain||1978||Spanish Constitution of 1978||718||Kingdom of Asturias|
|1479||Unification of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon by the Catholic Monarchs.||1492-1512||Unification of the Kingdom of Granada and the Kingdom of Navarra by the Spanish Empire.|
|Sweden||1523-06-06||Gustav Vasa elected King of Sweden and marking a definite secession from the Kalmar Union.||1905-06-07||Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden||1809-03-29||Loss of Finland to Imperial Russia.|
|Switzerland||1848-11-12||Foundation of the federal state after Sonderbund war||1291||Traditional founding|
|1815-08-07||Restoration of the Ancien Régime (federalism), reverting the changes imposed by Napoleon Bonaparte.|
|Ukraine||1991-08-24||Independence from Soviet Union declared||1954-02-19||Transfer of Crimea from Russia to Ukraine|
|United Kingdom||1707-05-01||The Acts of Union united the two kingdoms of England (including Wales) and Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain||843||Kingdom of Scotland||1922-12-06
|Irish Free State secedes from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922|
|927-12-07||Kingdom of England|
|Lordship of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
|1216||Principality of Wales|
|Vatican City||1274||Birth of current form of government the Papal conclave in 1274||1929-06-07||Ratification of the Lateran Treaty, making the Vatican City a sovereign State||1929-02-11||Signing of the Lateran Treaty|
|Country||Date||Birth of current form of government||Date||Date of acquisition of sovereignty||Date||Date of most recent significant territorial modification|
|Australia||1901-01-01||Commonwealth of Australia established as a Dominion of the British Empire.||1942-10-09||Statute of Westminster was adopted by Australia||1975-09-16||Papua New Guinea becomes formally independent of Australia|
|1986-03-03||Australia Act 1986 eliminated the remaining ties between the legislature and judiciary of Australia and their counterparts in the United Kingdom.|
|Fiji||1970-10-10||Independence from United Kingdom|
|Kiribati||1979-07-12||Independence from United Kingdom||1975-10-01||Separation of Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu)|
|Marshall Islands||1979-05-01||Constitution and local government established||1986-10-21||Compact of Free Association with the United States|
|Federated States of Micronesia||1979-05-10||Constitution ratified||1986-11-03||Compact of Free Association with the United States||1979-05-10||Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae unite to form the Federated States of Micronesia|
|Nauru||1968-01-31||Independence from UN Trusteeship|
|New Zealand||1840-02-06||Treaty of Waitangi between the British Crown and the indigenous Māori tribes cedes kawanatanga of New Zealand to Queen Victoria.||De facto:
|Formation of first responsible ministry in 1856.||1840-02-06||Treaty of Waitangi effectively unites the New Zealand archipelago as a single territory.The Kermadec Islands were incorporated in 1887.|
|New Zealand Constitution Amendment Act 1947 receives royal assent.|
|Palau||1981-01-01||Republic of Palau created upon adoption of constitution||1994-10-01||Emerged from United Nations trusteeship (administered by the United States).|
|Papua New Guinea||1973-12-01||Self-governing territory|
|1975-09-16||Independence from Australia|
|Samoa||1962-06-01||Independence from New Zealand|
|Solomon Islands||1976-01-02||Self-government granted by United Kingdom|
|1978-07-07||Independence from United Kingdom|
|Tonga||1970-07-04||Independence from United Kingdom||1845-12-04||Unification of what is now the islands of Tonga by George Tupou I of Tonga|
|Tuvalu||1975-10-01||Separation of Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu)||1978-10-01||Independence from United Kingdom||1979-02-07||Treaty with United States recognizing Tuvaluan control over Funafuti, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, and Niulakita atolls|
|Vanuatu||1980-07-30||Independence from joint British-French condominium|
|Country||Date||Birth of current form of government||Date||Date of acquisition of sovereignty||Date||Date of most recent significant territorial modification|
|Armenia||1918-05-28||Establishment of the Republic of Armenia||1990-08-23||Independence from the Soviet Union declared||1936-12-05||Establishment of the Armenian SSR|
|1991-09-21||Independence recognized by the Soviet Union|
|Azerbaijan||1918-05-28||Establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic||1991-10-18||Declaration of independence from the Soviet Union||1920-04-28||Establishment of the Azerbaijan SSR|
|Egypt||1952-07-23||Egyptian Revolution of 1952||1922-02-28||Unilateral recognition of independence by the United Kingdom but continued British military occupation||1982-04-25||Withdrawal of last Israeli troops and settlers from Sinai as agreed upon in the peace treaty with Israel|
|1953-06-18||Republic proclaimed||1956-06-18||Withdrawal of last British troops from the Suez Canal Zone|
|1961-09-28||De facto disestablishment of the United Arab Republic following a military coup in Damascus|
|Georgia||1918-05-26||Establishment of the Democratic Republic of Georgia||1991-04-09||Independence from the Soviet Union declared||1992-07-23||Abkhazia asserted its declared independence from the Soviet Union|
|1991-11-28||South Ossetia declared independence from Georgia|
|Kazakhstan||1991-12-16||Independence declared from the Soviet Union||1936-12-05||Establishment of the Kazakh SSR|
|Russia||1990-06-12||Russian SFSR declares sovereignty over its own territory||862||Establishment of the Rus’ state at Novgorod by Rurik||1954-02-19||Transfer of Crimea from Russia to Ukraine|
|1480||Grand Duchy of Muscovy secures its independence from the Golden Horde|
|Turkey||1923-10-29||Turkey was declared as a republic.||1923-06-24||Treaty of Lausanne recognizes the new Turkish state as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire||1939-06-29||Syrian province of Iskanderun transferred by French Mandatory Government to Turkey. Annexed by Turkey as Hatay State|
In this list, "date of last subordination" refers to the last date of control by an external government. In some cases this is the same as the date of independence marking decolonization or dissolution of a political union. In other cases, a sovereign state submitted to foreign military occupation or political subjugation for a period of time and later regained its independence.
Dates refer to de facto rule or occupation of the major territory, whether or not legitimized by international recognition.
In a union such as Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union, or the Kalmar Union, one of the constituents can be considered the dominant power – generally where the seat of government was located. The United Kingdom is a particularly complicated case. If England is viewed as the dominant member, then history can be traced from Roman conquest, Saxon invasions, 10th century unification, and 1066 Norman Conquest before the union of England and Scotland in 1707. However, if viewed from a Scottish perspective, an unbroken history of sovereignty can be traced from 843 unification through 1707 union with England (with a brief annexation by England 1657–1660). Some Scots view the 1707 union as a ceding of sovereignty to England.
|Date of last
|Previous governing power||Notes|
|Afghanistan||Apr 1709||Feb 15, 1989||Soviet Union||2001–present: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
1992-2001: Islamic State of Afghanistan (UN-supported occupation by United States in 2001)
1978-92: Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (occupied by Soviet Union 1979-89)
1973-78: Republic of Afghanistan
1926-29; 1929-73: Kingdom of Afghanistan
1823-1926; 1929: Emirate of Afghanistan (Treaty of Rawalpindi granted sovereignty from United Kingdom in 1919)
1747-1826: Durrani Empire
1736-1796: Part of Afsharid Empire.
1709-1736: Hotaki Empire
1526-1709: Part of Mughal Empire.
1370-1526: Part of Timurid Kingdom.
1256-1335: Part of Ilkhanate.
1294-1370: Part of Chagatai Khanate.
1219-1294 Part of Mongol Empire.
1077-1219: Part of Khwarazemid Empire
1037-1077: Part of the Great Seljuq Empire.
963-1187: Part of Ghaznavid Empire.
861-963: Part of Saffarid Emirate.
821-861: Part of various territories governed by the Tahirids.
750-821: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate.
661-750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate.
632-661: Part of the Rashidun Caliphate.
224-632; Part of the Sassanid Empire.
227 BCE-224: Part of the Parthian Empire.
312 BCE-227 BCE: Part of the Seleucid Empire.
336 BCE-312 BCE: Part of the Macedonian Empire.
549 BCE-336 BCE: Part of the Achaemenid Empire.
678 BCE-545 BCE: Part of the Median Empire.
Before 678 BCE various Indo-Iranian tribes and early Iranian city-states.
|Albania||Nov 28, 1912||Nov 1944||Germany||1992–present: Republic of Albania
1944-92: People's Socialist Republic of Albania
1928-44: Albanian Kingdom (de facto protectorate of Italy 1928-1939; occupied by Italy 1939-43; occupied by Germany 1943-44)
1925-28: Albanian Republic (de facto protectorate of Italy)
1914-25: Principality of Albania (via Albanian Declaration of Independence)
1912-14: Provisional Government of Albania
1479-1912: Part of Ottoman Empire
1444-79: League of Lezhë
1190-1444: Various Albanian principalities
Before 1190: Part of Byzantine Empire
|Algeria||Jul 3, 1962||Jul 3, 1962||France||1962–present: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (via Évian Accords)
1830-1962: French Algeria (integral part of France)
Before 1830: Eyalet of Algiers (part of the Ottoman Empire)
|Andorra||Sep 7, 1278||Nov 1944||France||1278–present: Principality of Andorra (via Paréage of Andorra; occupied by France 1812-13, 1870, 1914, 1936, 1939, 1944)|
|Angola||Nov 11, 1975||Nov 11, 1975||Portugal||1992–present: Republic of Angola
1975-1992: People's Republic of Angola (via the Alvor Agreement)
1575-1975: Portuguese Angola (colony of Portugal)
|Antigua and Barbuda||Nov 1, 1981||Nov 1, 1981||United Kingdom||1981–present: Antigua and Barbuda
1632-1981: Colony of England/Great Britain/United Kingdom (ruled by France in 1666)
Before 1632: Inhabited by indigenous peoples of the Americas
|Argentina||May 25, 1810||July 9, 1816||Spain||1861–present: Argentine Republic
1831-1861: Argentine Confederation
1810-1831: Part of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (via the May Revolution; on 9 July 1816, the Congress of Tucumán issued formal Declaration of Independence)
1776-1810: Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (colony of Spain)
1542–1824: Part of Viceroyalty of Peru (colony of Spain)
1528-1542: Part of Spanish colony
Before 1528: Inhabited by indigenous peoples of the Americas, including the Inca Empire
|Armenia||190 BC||Sep 23, 1991||Soviet Union||1991–present: Republic of Armenia
1920-1991: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
1918-1920: Democratic Republic of Armenia
1829-1918: Part of Russian empire
Before 1829: Part of Ottoman Empire
190 BC-AD 428: First independent as Kingdom of Armenia
|Australia||Oct 9, 1942||Oct 9, 1942||United Kingdom||1942–present: Commonwealth of Australia (via Statute of Westminster Adoption Act, 1942)
1901-1942: Commonwealth of Australia (Dominion of United Kingdom; via federation)
1788-1901: Part of British empire
Before 1788: Inhabited by Indigenous Australians
|Austria||Nov 12, 1918||May 15, 1955||World War II Allies||1955–present: Republic of Austria (via Austrian State Treaty)
1945-55: Allied-occupied Austria
1938-45: Occupied by Nazi Germany
1934-38: Federal State of Austria (client state of Italy)
1919-34: First Republic of Austria (via Treaty of Saint Germain)
1918-19: Republic of German-Austria (via Proclamation of Charles I)
1867-1918: Austria-Hungary (via Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867)
1804-67: Austrian Empire
1457-1804: Archduchy of Austria (state of the Holy Roman Empire)
1156-1457: Duchy of Austria (state of the Holy Roman Empire)
|Azerbaijan||Aug 30, 1991||Aug 30, 1991||Soviet Union||1995–present: Republic of Azerbaijan (independence from Soviet Union declared 1991; constitution adopted 1995)
1920-1995: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
1918-1920: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
Before 1918: Part of Russian Empire
|Bahamas||July 10, 1973||July 10, 1973||United Kingdom||1973–present: Commonwealth of the Bahamas(Self-government gained from the United Kingdom in 1964; independence gained on 10 July 1973)
1718-1973:Part of the British West Indies
1492-1718: Part of the Spanish Empire
500to 800-1492: Inhabited by the Lucayans
|Bahrain||Dec 16, 1971||Dec 16, 1971||Iran||1971–present Kingdom of Bahrain
1861-1971:Protectorate of the British Empire by way of the Perpetual Truce of Peace and Freedom (Independence from Iran)
1783-1861:Ruled by the Bani Utbah
1717-1783:Ruled by Oman after a successful invasion
1602-1717:Part of Persia under the Safavid dynasty
1521-1602: Part of the Portuguese Empire
Mid-1400s-1521: Ruled by the Jabrid dynasty
1253-mid-1400s:Ruled by the usfurid dynasty
1076-1235:Ruled by the Uyunid dynasty
976-1076: Ruled as part of the Abbasid Caliphate
899-976: Ruled by the Qarmatians
3rd Century CE-899:Ruled by the Sassanids of Persia
130 BCE-3rd Century BCE: Ruled by the Parthians6th Century BCE-3rd Century BCE- Part of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenids
|Bangladesh||Mar 26, 1971||Dec 16, 1971||Pakistan||1971–present: People's Republic of Bangladesh
1971:Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
1955-1971:East Pakistan (Part of Pakistan)
1947-1955:East Bengal (Part of Pakistan
1858-1947: Part of the British Raj
1717-1880:Ruled by the Nawabs (Lost ruling power after the Battle of Plassey)
1576-1717:Part of the Mughal Empire
1556-1576:Ruled by the Karrani Dynasty
1540-1556:Ruled by the Sur dynasty
1538-1540:Part of the Mughal Empire
1494-1538:Ruled by the Hussain Shahi Dynasty}
1414-1494: Ruled by the Ganesha Dynasty
1342-1487:Shamsuddin lliyas Shah ruled an independent city-state within modern Bangladesh
|Barbados||Nov 30, 1966||Nov 30, 1966||United Kingdom|
|Belarus||Jul 27, 1990||Aug 25, 1991||Soviet Union|
|Belgium||Oct 4, 1830||1945||Germany||Part of Netherlands before 1830|
|Belize||Sep 21, 1981||Sep 21, 1981||United Kingdom|
|Benin||Aug 1, 1960||Aug 1, 1960||France|
|Bhutan||1634||1634(none)||(none)||Autonomous since at least the 10th century. Unified 1634, after the Battle of Five Lamas. Early history is sketchy, but may have been part of Kamarupa kingdom, and may have been occupied by Tibetan-Mongol forces ca. 10th century.|
|Bolivia||Aug 6, 1825||Aug 6, 1825||Spain||1836–39 as dominant partner in Peru–Bolivian Confederation, governed from Tacna, Peru.|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||1377||Mar 3, 1992||Yugoslavia||Subject to Kingdom of Hungary 1154-1377 as a Banate of Bosnia, then independent as Kingdom of Bosnia 1377–1463. Later under Ottoman Empire until 1908, Austria-Hungary until 1918, and Yugoslavia until 1992.|
|Botswana||Sep 30, 1966||Sep 30, 1966||United Kingdom|
|Brazil||Sep 7, 1822||Sep 7, 1822||Portugal|
|Brunei||Jan 1, 1984||Jan 1, 1984||United Kingdom||Previously occupied by Japan|
|Bulgaria||681||Sep 22, 1908||Ottoman Empire||Previously occupied by Byzantine Empire (1018–1185) and Ottoman Empire (1393–1878)|
|Burkina Faso||Aug 5, 1960||Aug 5, 1960||France|
|Burundi||July 1, 1962||July 1, 1962||Belgium|
|Cambodia||802||Sep 26, 1989||Vietnam||Khmer Empire founded 802 according to Sdok Kok Thom Inscription|
|Cameroon||Jan 1, 1960||Oct 1, 1961||United Kingdom||French Cameroons gained independence in 1960; added British Southern Cameroons in 1961.|
|Canada||Dec 11, 1931||Dec 11, 1931||United Kingdom||Dominion status 1867, Statute of Westminster 1931.|
|Cape Verde||July 5, 1975||July 5, 1975||Portugal|
|Central African Republic||Aug 13, 1960||Aug 13, 1960||France|
|Chad||Aug 11, 1960||Aug 11, 1960||France|
|Chile||Sep 18, 1810||Feb 12, 1818||Spain|
|China, People's Republic of||221 BC||Feb 12, 1912||Qing Empire||Unified 221 BC under Qin Dynasty. Previously part of the Mongol Empire under the Yuan Dynasty from 1279 Battle of Yamen until 1368. Partial occupation by Japan, 1937–1945.
Note: Although the Mongol's Yuan Dynasty and the Manchu's Qing Dynasty were considered foreign by the Han Chinese in their times, current Chinese official position considers these two dynasties as Chinese, as they were established by Chinese ethnic minorities and had their capitals in present-day Beijing. The PRC government considers itself the successor of the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China.
|Colombia||Jul 20, 1810||Aug 7, 1819||Spain||Battle of Boyacá 1819|
|Comoros||Jul 6, 1975||Jul 6, 1975||France|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||1885||Jun 30, 1960||Belgium||1885 Berlin Conference established Congo Free State as sovereign entity (private domain of King Leopold of Belgium); annexed to Belgium 1908–1960.|
|Congo, Republic of the||Aug 15, 1960||Aug 15, 1960||France|
|Costa Rica||Sep 15, 1821||1838||Federal Republic of Central America||Previously part of Mexico 1822–23 and a colony of Spain before 1821.|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Aug 7, 1960||Aug 7, 1960||France|
|Croatia||May 21, 879||Oct 8, 1991||Yugoslavia||Croats came to Roman Dalmatia as free people from White Croatia in the early 7th century.|
|Cuba||May 20, 1902||May 20, 1902||United States||A colony of Spain until 1898, then occupied but not annexed by United States 1899–1902.|
|Cyprus||Aug 16, 1960||Aug 16, 1960||United Kingdom|
|Czech Republic||935||Sep 20, 1968||Warsaw Pact||Unified under Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, who acceded to the throne in 935. Later part of Austria-Hungary until 1918 independence as Czechoslovakia. Occupied by Germany in 1938, by WWII Allies in 1945, and by Warsaw Pact armies in 1968.|
|Denmark||980||May 5, 1945||Germany||Unified ca 980 by Harald Bluetooth.|
|Djibouti||Jun 27, 1977||Jun 27, 1977||France|
|Dominica||Nov 3, 1978||Nov 3, 1978||United Kingdom|
|Dominican Republic||1821||July 13, 1924||United States||Previously occupied by Spain, France, and Haiti|
|Ecuador||May 24, 1822||May 13, 1830||Gran Colombia||Previously a colony of Spain|
|Egypt||3100 BC||Feb 28, 1922||United Kingdom||Unified in 3100 BC by Pharaoh Menes or probably Narmer, founder of the First Dynasty. Conquered at various times by Achaemenid, Macedonian, Roman, Arab/Islamic, Ottoman, and Napoleonic Empires.|
|El Salvador||Sep 15, 1821||Nov 21, 1898||Greater Republic of Central America||Previously a part of the Federal Republic of Central America 1823–38, Mexico 1822–23, and a colony of Spain before 1821.|
|Equatorial Guinea||Oct 12, 1968||Oct 12, 1968||Spain|
|Eritrea||1137||May 24, 1993||Ethiopia||Independent 1137-1889 as Medri Bahri kingdom. Occupied 1889 by Italy, 1941 by Britain. Ruled 1952-1993 by Ethiopia.|
|Estonia||Feb 24, 1918||Aug 20, 1991||Soviet Union||Previously ruled by Sweden and occupied by Denmark, Poland, Russia, and Germany.|
|Ethiopia||50||Dec 1944||United Kingdom||Aksumite Empire founded ca 50. Occupied 1936–1941 by Italy, then administered by UK until 1944 Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement.|
|Fiji||Oct 10, 1970||Oct 10, 1970||United Kingdom|
|Finland||Dec 6, 1917||Jan 4, 1918||Russian Empire||Previously ruled by Sweden.|
|France||843||1945||Germany||843 Treaty of Verdun established West Francia.|
|Gabon||Aug 17, 1960||Aug 17, 1960||France|
|Gambia||Feb 18, 1965||Feb 18, 1965||United Kingdom|
|Georgia||1001||Apr 8, 1991||Soviet Union|
|Germany||Jan 18, 1871||March 15, 1991||World War II Allies||Unified in 1871. Occupied 1945–1955 until ratification of Bonn–Paris conventions. Become fully sovereign on 15 March 1991 after the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany came into effect.|
|Ghana||Mar 6, 1957||Mar 6, 1957||United Kingdom|
|Greece||1822||1944||Germany||Previously occupied jointly by Italy, Germany and Bulgaria; before 1821 by Ottoman Empire.|
|Grenada||Feb 7, 1974||Feb 7, 1974||United Kingdom|
|Guatemala||Sep 15, 1821||1838||Federal Republic of Central America||Previously part of Mexico 1822–23 and a colony of Spain before 1821.|
|Guinea||Oct 2, 1958||Oct 2, 1958||France|
|Guinea-Bissau||Sep 24, 1973||Sep 10, 1974||Portugal|
|Guyana||May 26, 1966||May 26, 1966||United Kingdom||Previously colonized by Dutch|
|Haiti||Jan 1, 1804||Aug 1, 1934||United States||Previously a colony of France.|
|Honduras||Sep 15, 1821||1925||United States||Occupied several times by United States. Previously a part of the Greater Republic of Central America 1896–98, the Federal Republic of Central America 1823–38, Mexico 1822–23 and a colony of Spain before 1821.|
|Hungary||895||1956||Soviet Union||Principality of Hungary founded 895. Ruled by Austria 1526/1699-1867, part of Austria-Hungary 1867-1918.|
|Iceland||930||1946||Denmark||Icelandic Commonwealth formed 930. Ceded to Norway 1262; ruled by Danish monarchs 1380-1944 (de facto to 1940). Regained home rule in 1918 as Kingdom of Iceland, fully independent Republic of Iceland founded 1944.|
|India||322 BC||Aug 15, 1947||United Kingdom||India gets its name Bhārat Gaṇarājya from Bharata who was the first emperor to unite whole of Indian subcontinent. Indian Empire by Chandragupta Maurya founder of Maurya Empire 322 BC, then Gupta Empire 320 AD, then Mughal Empire in 1527, then British Raj from 1857 until Independence.|
|Indonesia||Aug 17, 1945||Dec 27, 1949||Netherlands||1949-present: Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI)
1945-1949: Indonesian Struggle for Independence
|Iran||3200 BC||May 1946||World War II Allies||1980–present: Part of Islamic Republic
1979–1980: Part of Interim Government
|Iraq||Oct 3, 1932||Jun 28, 2004||United States||founded in 4000 BC by Sumer Civilization (the first Civilization on the world), and then unified under Sargon of Akkad the founder of Akkadian Empire,but Iraq was part of Persian Empire(Iran), and Ottoman Empire(until 1922). see History of Iraq. Occupied by United States 2003–2004|
|Ireland||Jan 21, 1919||Dec 11, 1931||United Kingdom||Independence declared 1919, Dominion status 1922, Statute of Westminster 1931, declared a republic 1948.|
|Israel||1020 BC||May 14, 1948||United Kingdom||Kingdom of Israel unified under King Saul, c. 1020 BC, divided into separate kingdoms of Israel and Judea, which fall to Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires in 722 and 586 BC, respectively. In 2nd century BC, Judea re-gains independence as Hasmonean kingdom after revolt against the Hellenist Seleucid Empire. Conquered by Pompey of the Roman Empire in 63 BC, and subsequently falls to Byzantine, Umayyad, Abbasid, Crusader, Mamluk, Ottoman Turkish, and British rule, before regaining independence as the State of Israel in 1948.|
|Italy||Mar 17, 1861||Apr 25, 1945||World War II Allies||Unified in 1861.|
|Jamaica||Aug 6, 1962||Aug 6, 1962||United Kingdom||Previously a Spanish colony|
|Japan||400||April 28, 1952||World War II Allies||Founded 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu according to legend. Unified state emerged during the Kofun period c. 400 AD. 1952 Treaty of San Francisco ended postwar occupation.|
|Jordan||May 25, 1946||Aug 2, 1958||Arab Federation||Part of Arab Federation Feb–Aug 1958 governed from Baghdad, Iraq. Previously ruled by Persian, Roman, Islamic, and Ottoman Empires; UK, etc.|
|Kazakhstan||Dec 16, 1991||Dec 16, 1991||Soviet Union|
|Kenya||Dec 12, 1963||Dec 12, 1963||United Kingdom|
|Kiribati||Jul 12, 1979||Jul 12, 1979||United Kingdom|
|Kuwait||Jun 19, 1961||Feb 1991||Iraq||Previously ruled by Ottoman Empire and UK.|
|Kyrgyzstan||Aug 31, 1991||Aug 31, 1991||Soviet Union|
|Laos||1354||Nov 9, 1953||France||Occupied by Japan during World War II|
|Latvia||Nov 18, 1918||May 4, 1990||Soviet Union||Previously ruled by Lithuania, Sweden, and Russia|
|Lebanon||Nov 8, 1943||Dec 31, 1946||France||Previously ruled by Ottoman Empire|
|Lesotho||1822||Oct 4, 1966||United Kingdom|
|Liberia||Jul 26, 1847||Jul 26, 1847||American Colonization Society||Settled but not claimed by United States|
|Libya||Dec 24, 1951||Dec 24, 1951||United Kingdom and France||Previously occupied by Italy and by Ottoman Empire|
|Liechtenstein||Jul 12, 1806||Aug 24, 1866||German Confederation||Previously subject to the Confederation of the Rhine. Formed 1719 from Vaduz and Schellenberg, but under the Holy Roman Empire.|
|Lithuania||1253||Mar 11, 1990||Soviet Union||Kingdom of Lithuania; Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania|
|Luxembourg||1815||1945||Germany||Independent from France 1815 but in personal union with Netherlands until 1890|
|Macedonia||Sep 8, 1991||Sep 8, 1991||Yugoslavia|
|Madagascar||1787||Jun 26, 1960||France|
|Malawi||Jul 6, 1964||Jul 6, 1964||United Kingdom|
|Malaysia||Aug 31, 1957||Aug 31, 1957||United Kingdom||The Federation of Malaya gained independence in 1957; in 1963 it added territories of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore, and changed its name to Malaysia. Singapore became independent in 1965.|
|Maldives||1140||Jul 26, 1965||United Kingdom||Unified according to legend by King Koimala (1117–1141). Independent sultanate until 1887, when it became a British protectorate.|
|Mali||1230||Sep 22, 1960||Mali Federation||Mali Empire ca. 1230. A colony of France 1890–1960, then part of Mali Federation governed from Dakar, Senegal.|
|Malta||Sep 21, 1964||Sep 21, 1964||United Kingdom|
|Marshall Islands||Oct 21, 1986||Oct 21, 1986||United States||Compact of Free Association|
|Mauritania||Nov 28, 1960||Nov 28, 1960||France|
|Mauritius||Mar 12, 1968||Mar 12, 1968||United Kingdom||Previously controlled by the Netherlands and France.|
|Mexico||Sep 16, 1810||1863||France||Parts of northern Mexico continued under control of Benito Juárez. Previously a colony of Spain|
|Micronesia, Federated States of||Nov 3, 1986||Nov 3, 1986||United States||Compact of Free Association|
|Moldova||Aug 27, 1991||Aug 27, 1991||Soviet Union|
|Monaco||1297||1945||Germany||Previously occupied by Italy and France. Subject to Sardinia 1815–1861.|
|Mongolia||1206||Mar 13, 1921||China||Mongol Empire formed 1206; occupied by China during Qing Dynasty (1635–1911) and Republic of China (1919–1921)|
|Montenegro||1042||May 21, 2006||Serbia and Montenegro||Duklja established statehood 826-830 by archont Petar but gained its full independence from the Byzantine Empire in 1042.
1042-1186 : Vojislavljević's dynasty.
1360-1421 : Balšić's dynasty.
1427-1496 : Crnojević's dynasty.
1696-1916 : Petrović's dynasty.
Independent from Ottoman Empire in 1799, formally 1878, union with Serbia/Yugoslavia 1918–2006. Occupied by Ottoman Empire 1496-1799(1878),Austria-Hungary 1916-1918, Italy 1941-1943, and Germany 1943-1945.
|Morocco||February 5, 789||Apr 7, 1956||France/Spain||February 5, 789 : Induction of Idris I
789-974 : Idrisid dynasty
974-1060 : Disputed between the Fatimid Caliphate and the Caliphate of Córdoba, divided into several Zenata principalities
1061-1147 : Almoravid dynasty
1147-1244 : Almohad dynasty
1244-1465 : Marinid dynasty
1465-1472 : Idrisid dynasty, Joutey branch
1472-1554 : Wattasid dynasty
1554-1659 : Saadi dynasty
1664–present : Alaouite dynasty
Under French and Spanish protectorate (1912–1956).
|Mozambique||Jun 25, 1975||Jun 25, 1975||Portugal||Portuguese colony from 1498|
|Myanmar||849||Jan 4, 1948||United Kingdom||Pagan Kingdom founded 849. Occupied by Japan 1942–1945|
|Namibia||Mar 21, 1990||Mar 21, 1990||South Africa||German colony from 1884; governed by South Africa 1915-1990|
|Nauru||Jan 31, 1968||Jan 31, 1968||Australia/ New Zealand/ United Kingdom||Previously occupied by Germany 1888, Australia 1914, Japan 1942-45|
|Nepal||1768||1768 (none)||(none)||Autonomous throughout its recorded history, and certainly since its 1768 unification. The ancient Maurya Empire occupied southern Nepal, but not the core Kathmandu valley.|
|Netherlands||Jul 26, 1581||1945||Germany||Independent from Spain in 1581; occupied by France under Napoleon.|
|New Zealand||Nov 25, 1947||Nov 25, 1947||United Kingdom||Dominion status 1907, Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947.|
|Nicaragua||Sep 15, 1821||Jan 1933||United States||Previously a part of the Greater Republic of Central America 1896–98, the Federal Republic of Central America 1823–38, Mexico 1822–23, and a colony of Spain before 1821.|
|Niger||Aug 3, 1960||Aug 3, 1960||France|
|Nigeria||Oct 1, 1960||Oct 1, 1960||United Kingdom|
|North Korea||2333 BC||Sep 9, 1948||Soviet Union||Gojoseon established in 24th century BC according to legend. Modern state established 1948 after Soviet occupation since 1945. Previously occupied by Japan (1910–1945).|
|Norway||872||May 9, 1945||Germany||Unified ca 872 at Battle of Hafrsfjord. For a long time in unions with Denmark and with Sweden (until 1905). Occupied by Germany 1940–45.|
|Oman||751||1743||Persia||Previously occupied by Great Seljuq Empire, Ottoman Empire, Portugal (1508–1650), etc.|
|Pakistan||Aug 14, 1947||Mar 23, 1956||United Kingdom||Previously a colony of the British Empire.|
|Palau||Oct 1, 1994||Oct 1, 1994||United States||Previously ruled by Spain, Germany, Japan.|
|Panama||Nov 3, 1903||Jan 12, 1990||United States||A colony of Spain until 1821, then a dependency of Colombia until 1903. Occupied by United States 1989–90.|
|Papua New Guinea||Sep 16, 1975||Sep 16, 1975||Australia|
|Paraguay||May 14, 1811||1876||Brazil||Occupied 1870–1876 by Brazil, in Triple Alliance with Argentina and Uruguay. Colony of Spain before 1811.|
|Peru||July 28, 1821||Aug 25, 1839||Peru–Bolivian Confederation||Independent from Spain 1821; part of Peru–Bolivian Confederation 1836-39.|
|Philippines||July 4, 1946||July 4, 1946||United States||Spanish colony 1565–1898; insurgents declared independence from Spain in 1898; sovereignty passed from Spain to the U.S. in 1898; insurgent Philippine Republic waged an unsuccessful war of independence against the U.S. 1899–1902; accepted U.S. sovereignty April 19, 1901; occupied by Japan 1942–1944.|
|Poland||960||1945||Soviet Union||Unified ca 960 by Mieszko I. Partitioned several times between Germany and the USSR.|
|Portugal||July 25, 1139||1808||France||Convention of Sintra ended French occupation of Lisbon. Independent from Kingdom of León in 1139.|
|Qatar||Sep 3, 1971||Sep 3, 1971||United Kingdom|
|Romania||Jul 13, 1878||Aug 1958||Soviet Union||Occupied by the USSR 1944–1958.|
|Russia||860||Oct 8, 1480||Golden Horde||Rurik Dynasty founded ca 860. Great stand on the Ugra river in 1480 marked end of Mongol/Tatar rule.|
|Rwanda||July 1, 1962||July 1, 1962||Belgium|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Sep 19, 1983||Sep 19, 1983||United Kingdom|
|Saint Lucia||Feb 22, 1979||Feb 22, 1979||United Kingdom|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Oct 27, 1979||Oct 27, 1979||United Kingdom|
|Samoa||Jan 1, 1962||Jan 1, 1962||New Zealand||German colony 1900 to 1914; occupied by New Zealand 1914; Trust Territory first of the League of Nations, then of the United Nations and administered by New Zealand, 1920 to 1962.|
|San Marino||301||1945||World War II Allies||Previously occupied by Roman Empire, and briefly by Rimini (1503), and Papal States (1739).|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Jul 12, 1975||Jul 12, 1975||Portugal|
|Saudi Arabia||1744||Jan 1919||Ottoman Empire||First Saudi State independent 1744–1818; last Ottoman troops evicted from Medina by Kingdom of Hejaz 1919; Hejaz incorporated 1926 into Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd, precursor to Saudi Arabia|
|Senegal||Jun 20, 1960||Jun 20, 1960||France||Independent first as Mali Federation with capital in Dakar. Previously part of Ghana, Mali and Songhai Empires.|
Principality of Serbia (768-1217)
Kingdom of Serbia (1217–1346)
Serbian Empire (1346–1371)
Moravian Serbia (1371–1402)
Serbian Despotate (1402–1540)
Kingdom of Serbia (1718–1739) 1718–1739 and 1788-1791
Principality of Serbia (1817–1882)
Kingdom of Serbia (1882–1918)
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1918–1929)
Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–1943)
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (1943–1946)
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946–1992)
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992–2003)
State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (2003–2006)
Republic of Serbia (2006–present)
|Seychelles||Jun 29, 1976||Jun 29, 1976||United Kingdom||Perhaps sovereign 1790–1794|
|Sierra Leone||Apr 27, 1961||Apr 27, 1961||United Kingdom|
|Singapore||Aug 31, 1963||Aug 9, 1965||Malaysia||British colony 1824–1963; occupied by Japan 1942–1945; declared independence, then merged with Malaysia from 1963 until 1965.|
|Slovakia||Jan 1, 1993||Jan 1, 1993||Czechoslovakia|
|Slovenia||Jun 25, 1991||Jun 25, 1991||Yugoslavia|
|Solomon Islands||Jul 7, 1978||Jul 7, 1978||United Kingdom|
|Somalia||Jul 1, 1960||Jul 1, 1960||United Kingdom and Italy||Union of British Somaliland and Trust Territory of Somalia|
|South Africa||Dec 11, 1931||Dec 11, 1931||United Kingdom||Dominion status 1910, Statute of Westminster 1931.|
|South Korea||300 BC||Aug 15, 1948||United States||Jin state established in 3rd century BC. Modern state established 1948 after US Army Military Government since 1945. Previously occupied by Japan (1910–1945).|
|South Sudan||Jul 9, 2011||Jul 9, 2011||Sudan|
|Spain||1479||1814||France||Union of Kingdom of Castile and Kingdom of Aragon in 1479. Previously occupied by Roman Empire, etc.|
|Sri Lanka||377 BC||Feb 4, 1948||United Kingdom||Unified as Anuradhapura Kingdom 377 BC – 1017. Conquered by Indian kingdoms, Portuguese, Dutch, and British.|
|Sudan||1070 BC||Jan 1, 1956||United Kingdom and Egypt||Kingdom of Kush 1070 BC – 350 AD. Later ruled by the Ottoman Empire, Egypt, and then as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1899–1956.|
|Suriname||Nov 25, 1975||Nov 25, 1975||Netherlands|
|Swaziland||Sep 6, 1968||Sep 6, 1968||United Kingdom|
|Sweden||unknown||Jun 6, 1523||Denmark||No exact date for consolidation of Sweden. In Kalmar Union 1397–1523.|
|Switzerland||1291||1815||Austria||Old Swiss Confederacy formed 1291. Occupied by France 1798, then Austria 1813. 1815 Congress of Vienna restored independence.|
|Syria||Apr 17, 1946||Sep 28, 1961||United Arab Republic|
|Tajikistan||Sep 9, 1991||Sep 9, 1991||Soviet Union|
|Tanzania||Dec 9, 1961||Dec 9, 1961||United Kingdom||Independent in 1961 as Tanganyika, added Zanzibar in 1963.|
|Thailand||1238||1945||Japan||Independent from Khmer Empire in 1238. Previously conquered by Burma until 1768. Occupied by Japan 1941–1945.|
|Timor-Leste||Nov 28, 1975||May 20, 2002||United Nations||Ruled by Portugal 1515–1975, occupied by Indonesia 1975–1999, administered by U.N. 1999–2002.|
|Togo||Apr 27, 1960||Apr 27, 1960||France|
|Tonga||1845||Jun 4, 1970||United Kingdom||United 1845 by George Tupou I. British protectorate 1900–1970.|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Aug 31, 1962||Aug 31, 1962||United Kingdom|
|Tunisia||Mar 20, 1956||Mar 20, 1956||France||Occupations by Rome, Ottoman Empire and France|
|Turkey||1037||June 26, 1243||Mongol Empire||Seljuq Empire founded 1037; conquered at 1243 Battle of Köse Dağ|
|Turkmenistan||Oct 27, 1991||Oct 27, 1991||Soviet Union|
|Tuvalu||Oct 1, 1978||Oct 1, 1978||United Kingdom|
|Uganda||Oct 9, 1962||Oct 9, 1962||United Kingdom|
|Ukraine||Jan 22, 1918||Aug 24, 1991||Soviet Union|
|United Arab Emirates||Dec 2, 1971||Dec 2, 1971||United Kingdom|
|United Kingdom||May 1, 1707||May 1, 1707||(none)||Kingdom of Scotland unified 843; Kingdom of England unified 927. Tender of Union 1657–1660, Acts of Union 1707, adding Kingdom of Ireland in 1801 (only Northern Ireland from 1922). Partial occupations by Normans, Vikings, Romans.|
|United States of America||Jul 4, 1776||Oct 19, 1781||United Kingdom||Independence declared 1776; British surrender 1781; U.S. recognized by Treaty of Paris 1783.|
|Uruguay||1815||Aug 27, 1828||Brazil||Independent 1815–1820 as Liga Federal; occupied 1820 by Portugal/Brazil until 1828 Treaty of Montevideo.|
|Uzbekistan||Sep 1, 1991||Sep 1, 1991||Soviet Union|
|Vanuatu||July 30, 1980||July 30, 1980||United Kingdom and France||Governed 1906–1980 as the New Hebrides condominium.|
|Vatican City||756||Feb 11, 1929||Italy||Independent as Papal States 756–1870; part of Italy until 1929 Lateran Treaty|
|Venezuela||Jul 5, 1811||Jan 13, 1830||Gran Colombia||Previously a colony of Spain|
|Vietnam||2879 BC||1954||France||Văn Lang confederacy arose 2879 BC under Kinh Dương Vương, founder of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty. Several periods of Chinese domination. French occupation from 1887 until Geneva Conference (1954), interrupted by Japanese occupation (1940–1945). While not an occupation, the United States gave military support to the South Vietnam government until the 1973 Paris Peace Accords.|
|Yemen||Nov 1, 1918||Nov 30, 1967||United Kingdom||North Yemen independent from Ottoman Empire 1918; South Yemen from UK in 1967; unified 1990|
|Zambia||Oct 24, 1964||Oct 24, 1964||United Kingdom|
|Zimbabwe||Nov 11, 1965||Apr 18, 1980||United Kingdom||The British colony of Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared Independence as Rhodesia 1965; known as Zimbabwe Rhodesia in 1979; unrecognised until 1980.|
|Country||First acquisition of sovereignty||Date of last subordination||Previous governing power||Notes|
- Declaration of independence
- List of active autonomist and secessionist movements
- List of countries by Independence Day
- List of former European colonies
- List of former national capitals
- List of sovereign states
- Timeline of country and capital changes
- List of national constitutions
- Succession of states
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (December 2011)|
- Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain; December 10, 1898 The Avalon project.
- Country Profile: Cuba, September 2006, U.S. Library of Congress – Federal Research Division.
- Ranbir Vohra (2001). The Making of India: A Historical Survey (2 ed.). M.E. Sharpe. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-7656-0712-6..
- Op. cit. Vohra & nowrap 2001, p. 24.
- Malaysia Act 1963
- United Nations Member States
- Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957
- Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore from Malaysia as an independent and sovereign state
- Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore from Malaysia as an independent and sovereign state/proclamation of singapore
- Singapore Act 1966
- Agreement relating to Malaysia between United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore
- CIA Factbook
- Country Profile: Philippines. U.S. Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. March 2006. says, "The Philippines attained independence from Spain on June 12, 1898, and from the United States on July 4, 1946.", implying that the cession of the Philippines to the U.S. by Spain on December 10, 1898 via the Treaty of Paris was invalid. Other sources (e.g. The CIA Factbook) say that the Philippine Islands were ceded to the US by Spain in 1898 following the Spanish–American War.
- Republic of the Philippines, Philippine Government website.
- Convention regarding the boundary between the Philippine Archipelago and the State of North Borneo. United Nations Treaty Collection. January 2, 1930 and July 6, 1932.
- Bautista, Lowell B. (3 September 2009). "The Historical Context and Legal Basis of the Philippine Treaty Limits". Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law 1: 21. doi:10.1007/s12180-009-0003-5. ISSN (Print) 1864-9629 (Online) 1864-9610 (Print) 1864-9629 (Online). "The Boundaries Treaty of 1930 clarifies those islands in the region belonging to U.S. and those to the State of North Borneo and delimits the boundary between the Philippine Archipelago (under U.S. sovereignty) and the State of North Borneo (under British protection). [...] When the Boundaries Treaty of 1930 was finalized, an exchange of notes supplemented the Treaty. Pursuant to the notes, sovereignty over these islands was transferred to the U.S., and it was agreed that Great Britain should continue to administer these islands until the U.S. gave notice to the contrary."
- United States. Dept. of State; Charles Irving Bevans (1968). Treaties and other international agreements of the United States of America, 1776-1949. Dept. of State; for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off. pp. 473–476.
- The government of the Republic of China, which currently administers Taiwan, was the generally recognized sovereign power over Mainland China beginning in 1 January 1912 (also the first year of the Taiwanese calendar "民國"). Sovereign control of Taiwan by this government began on 25 October 1945 (Retrocession Day).
- The PRC acquired de facto control in Mainland China on 1 October 1949. The Republic of China continued to be generally recognized as the legitimate government of China until 25 October 1971, when the PRC was admitted to the United Nations. Currently, due to the PRC's One-China policy, only 25 states recognize the Republic of China, although many more retain unofficial relations.
- "Background Note: United Kingdom". bbc.co.uk Acts of Union: The creation of the United Kingdom.
- Allan I. Macinnes (2007). Union and empire: the making of the United Kingdom in 1707. Cambridge University Press..
- David Armitage, Michael J. Braddick (2002). The British Atlantic world, 1500–1800. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 20..
- In order to reflect the loss of Southern Ireland, the full name of the United Kingdom was changed from United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland through the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927
- Profile: Republic of Vanuatu, U.S. Department of State
- Christopher A Whatley (2001). Bought and Sold for English Gold: The Union of 1707 (Tuckwell Press, 2001)
- An Outline of the People's Republic of Albania. 8 Nëntori. 1978. p. 47.
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- Whittlesey, Derwent (June 1934). "Andorra's Autonomy". The Journal of Modern History 6 (2): 147–155. doi:10.1086/236113.
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- Rose, Leo E. (1977). The Politics of Bhutan. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-8014-0909-8. "[T]here can be no doubt that since at least the tenth century no external power has controlled Bhutan, although there have been periods when various of its neighbors have been able to exert a strong cultural and/or political influence there."
- Bisht, Ramesh Chandra (2008). International Encyclopaedia of Himalayas 2. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. p. 12. ISBN 81-8324-265-0.
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- Tucker, Spencer (1999). Vietnam. Routledge. pp. 196–197. ISBN 1-85728-922-6.
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- (French) André Larané, 5 février 789 : Idriss, premier roi du Maroc on herodote.net 
- Rose, Leo E.; Margaret W. Fisher (1970). The Politics of Nepal. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. xi. ISBN 0-8014-0574-2. "Nepal is of special interest, partly because it is an Asian country that was never reduced to colonial status."
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- Donald N. Clark (2000). Culture and customs of Korea. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. xvii. ISBN 978-0-313-30456-9.
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- Independence recognized via the Treaty of Manila (1946).
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- Hadenius, S; Nilsson, T and Åselius, G. (1996). Sveriges historia: vad varje svensk bör veta (Swedish history: what every Swede Should Know), p. 13: "Hur och när det svenska riket uppstod vet vi inte. Först under 1100-talet börjar skriftliga dokument produceras i Sverige i någon större omfattning […]" "How and when the Swedish kingdom appeared is not known. It is not until the 12th century that written documents begin to be produced in Sweden in any larger extent […]"
- Köprülü, Mehmet Fuat; Gary Leiser (1992). The origins of the Ottoman empire. SUNY Press. p. 33. ISBN 0-7914-0819-1. "It can be said that this war had a decisive effect on the fate of the Seljuq Empire. Afterwards Anatolia fell, in effect, under Mongol rule; although the peace which was made — on condition that a heavy annual tax be paid to the Mongols — left a theoretical semi-independence to the Seljuq sultan."