List of sovereign states in the 1990s

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This is a list of sovereign states in the 1990s, giving an overview of states around the world during the period between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 1999. It contains 219 entries, arranged alphabetically, with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty. It includes 175 widely recognized sovereign states, 24 entities which were de facto sovereign but which were not widely recognized by other states, 18 states which were initially unrecognized but then gained full recognition later in the decade, and 1 state which was initially widely recognized but then lost full recognition later in the decade.

Sovereign states[edit]

Name and capital city Information on status and recognition of sovereignty

A[edit]


 Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia (from 25 August 1990)[1]
Capital: Sukhumi
De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.

Afghanistan
Capital: Kabul (to 26 September 1996), Mazar-i-Sharif (from 26 September 1996 to 25 May 1997), Taloqan (from 25 May 1997)
Widely recognized UN member state.[3] Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Afghanistan but only controlled a small portion of the country after 26 September 1996.

Afghanistan Afghanistan, Islamic Emirate of (from 26 September 1996)[4]
Capital: Kabul
Partially recognized de jure independent state.[5] Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Afghanistan.

Albania  Albania
Capital: Tirana
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
Capital: Algiers
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Andorra – Principality of Andorra
Capital: Andorra la Vella
Widely recognized independent state. The President of France and Bishop of Urgell were ex officio Co-Princes of Andorra. UN member state (from 28 July 1993). The defense of Andorra was the responsibility of France and Spain.

 Angola
Capital: Luanda
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Anjouan – State of Anjouan (from 3 August 1997)[8]
Capital: Mutsamudu
De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by the Comoros.

 Antigua and Barbuda
Capital: St. John's
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Antigua and Barbuda had two dependencies, Barbuda and Redonda.

 Argentina – Argentine Republic[9]
Capital: Buenos Aires
Widely recognized UN member state. Argentina was a federation of 22 provinces, two federal territories, and one federal territory.[10] It had a claim over Argentine Antarctica, which was suspended under the Antarctic Treaty. It also claimed the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, both of which were British overseas territories.

 Armenia – Republic of Armenia (from 23 September 1991)[11]
Capital: Yerevan
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 26 December 1991). Widely recognized (from 26 December 1991).[12] UN member state (from 2 March 1992).

 Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
Capital: Canberra
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Australia was a federation of six states and three territories.[13] It had sovereignty over the following external territories:

 Austria – Republic of Austria
Capital: Vienna
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 January 1995). Austria was a federation of nine states.[14]

 Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan (from 18 October 1991)[15]
Capital: Baku
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 26 December 1991). Widely recognized (from 26 December 1991). UN member state (from 2 March 1992). Azerbaijan had one autonomous republic, Nakhchivan. It included the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh, where a partially recognized breakaway republic declared independence on 6 January 1992.

B[edit]


 The Bahamas – Commonwealth of the Bahamas
Capital: Nassau
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Bahrain – State of Bahrain
Capital: Manama
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh
Capital: Dhaka
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Barbados
Capital: Bridgetown
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

Belarus  Belarus – Republic of Belarus
Capital: Minsk
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 26 December 1991). Widely recognized (from 26 December 1991). UN member state.

 Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium
Capital: Brussels
Widely recognized UN member state. EEC member (to 1 November 1993). EU member (from 1 November 1993). Belgium was a federation of three communities and three regions.[16]

 Belize
Capital: Belmopan
Widely recognized UN member state.[17] Commonwealth realm.

Benin  Benin
Capital: Porto-Novo (official), Cotonou (seat of government)
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan
Capital: Thimphu
Widely recognized UN member state. Bhutan was officially guided by India in its foreign affairs, but effectively pursued an independent foreign policy.

 Bolivia – Republic of Bolivia
Capital: Sucre (official), La Paz (administrative)
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Bophuthatswana – Republic of Bophuthatswana (to 13 March 1994)[19]
Capital: Mmabatho
Nominally independent South African bantustan.[20]

Bosnia and Herzegovina  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Capital: Sarajevo
De facto independent state. Claimed by Yugoslavia (to 28 April 1992). Widely recognized (from 7 April 1992). UN member state (from 22 May 1992). Much of the de jure territory of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was the under control of the following self-declared entities which, although they did not claim independence, were effectively self-governing:

In addition, there were three states which had declared and established de facto independence from Bosnia and Herzegovina: Republika Srpska (from 7 April 1992 to 14 December 1995) and Republic of Western Bosnia (from 26 July 1995 to 7 August 1995). After the Dayton Accords, Bosnia and Herzegovina was a federation of two constituent entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska.


 Botswana – Republic of Botswana
Capital: Gaborone
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Bougainville – Republic of Bougainville (from 17 May 1990 to 24 December 1998)[23]
Capital: Arawa
De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Papua New Guinea.

Brazil  Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil
Capital: Brasília
Widely recognized UN member state. Brazil was a federation of 26 states and one federal district.[24]

 Brunei – State of Brunei, Abode of Peace
Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan
Widely recognized UN member state. Brunei claimed part of the Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Malaysia).

Bulgaria  Bulgaria
Capital: Sofia
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Burkina Faso
Capital: Ouagadougou
Widely recognized UN member state.

Burma → Myanmar

 Burundi – Republic of Burundi
Capital: Bujumbura
Widely recognized UN member state.

C[edit]


Cambodia → Kampuchea

Cambodia Cambodia, State of (to 15 March 1992)[26]
Capital: Phnom Penh
Partially recognized de facto independent state.[27] Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Cambodia.

 Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
Capital: Yaoundé
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Canada
Capital: Ottawa
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Canada was a federation of ten provinces and three territories.[28]

Cape Verde  Cape Verde – Republic of Cape Verde
Capital: Praia
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Central African Republic
Capital: Bangui
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Chad – Republic of Chad
Capital: N'Djamena
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Chechnya
Capital: Grozny (renamed Dzhokhar-Ghala in 1996)
  • Chechen Republic (from 1 November 1991 to 12 March 1992)[29][30]
  • Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (from 12 March 1992)[30]
Partially recognized de facto independent state.[31] Claimed by Russia as the Republic of Chechnya.

 Chile – Republic of Chile
Capital: Santiago
Widely recognized UN member state. It had a claim over Chilean Antarctic Territory, which is suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

 China, People's Republic of
Capital: Beijing
Widely recognized UN member state.[32] The People's Republic of China had five autonomous regions: Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet. Additionally, it had sovereignty over two special administrative regions:

The People's Republic of China claimed Taiwan, Kinmen, the Matsu Islands, the Pratas Islands and Itu Aba, all of which were governed by the Republic of China. It also claimed the Paracel Islands (disputed by the Republic of China and Vietnam), the Spratly Islands (disputed by the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei), and South Tibet (controlled by India). The People's Republic of China administered Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract, which were within the disputed region of Kashmir.


 China, Republic of
Capital: Taipei (seat of government), Nanjing (claimed)
Partially recognized de facto independent state.[32] The Republic of China claimed to be the sole legitimate government of China, but only administered Taiwan, Kinmen, the Matsu Islands, the Pratas Islands and Itu Aba. The Republic of China had territorial claims over Mongolia; the Russian republic of Tuva; the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River (administered by Russia); The majority of Gorno-Badakhshan (administered by Tajikistan); The eastern tip of the Wakhan Corridor (administered by Afghanistan); a small portion of Gilgit-Baltistan (administered by Pakistan and part of the disputed Kashmir region); Aksai Chin (administered by the People's Republic of China and part of the disputed Kashmir region); eastern Bhutan; South Tibet (controlled by India); and Kachin State (administered by Myanmar).

 Ciskei – Republic of Ciskei (to 13 March 1994)[33]
Capital: Bisho
Nominally independent South African bantustan.[20]

 Colombia – Republic of Colombia
Capital: Bogotá
Widely recognized UN member state. Colombia administered Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank (disputed by Nicaragua and the United States)

Comoros Comoros  Comoros – Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
Capital: Moroni
Widely recognized UN member state. The Comoros was a federation of three islands: Grande Comore, Mohéli, and Anjouan. Anjouan was a de facto independent state from 3 August 1997. Mohéli was a de facto independent state from 11 August 1997 to 1998. Comoros claimed sovereignty over the French overseas territories of Mayotte and the Glorioso Islands. It also claimed Banc du Geyser (disputed by Madagascar and France).

Republic of the Congo  Congo / Congo, Republic of the
Capital: Brazzaville
Widely recognized UN member state.

Congo, Democratic Republic of the → Zaire

 Cook Islands
Capital: Avarua
A state in free association with New Zealand, recognized by China (from 25 July 1997). The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.

 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica
Capital: San José
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Ivory Coast – Republic of Ivory Coast
Capital: Yamoussoukro (official), Abidjan (seat of government)
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Croatia – Republic of Croatia (from 25 June 1991)[35]
Capital: Zagreb
De facto independent state. Claimed by Yugoslavia (to 28 April 1992). Widely recognized (from 12 January 1992). UN member state (from 22 May 1992). Croatia contained the following self-declared entities, all of which claimed to be part of Yugoslavia. Although they did not explicitly claim independence, they were de facto self-governing:

On 15 January 1996, the last of these entities came under the administration of the United Nations Transitional Authority for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium. It was reintegrated into Croatia on 15 January 1998.


 Cuba – Republic of Cuba
Capital: Havana
Widely recognized UN member state. The Cuban area of Guantánamo Bay was under the permanent control of the United States.

 Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus
Capital: Nicosia
Widely recognized UN member state.[36] The northeastern part of the island was the de facto independent state of Northern Cyprus, recognized only by Turkey.

 Czech Republic (from 1 January 1993)[37]
Capital: Prague
Widely recognized independent state.[38] UN member state (from 19 January 1993).

 Czechoslovakia
Capital: Prague
Widely recognized UN member state.[38] Czechoslovakia was a federation of two republics.[41]

D[edit]


 Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark
Capital: Copenhagen
Widely recognized UN member state. EEC member (to 1 November 1993). EU member (from 1 November 1993). The Danish Realm also included two constituent countries:

 Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti
Capital: Djibouti
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
Capital: Roseau
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Dominican Republic
Capital: Santo Domingo
Widely recognized UN member state.

E[edit]


 Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador
Capital: Quito
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt
Capital: Cairo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador
Capital: San Salvador
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea
Capital: Malabo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Eritrea – State of Eritrea (from 24 May 1993)[42]
Capital: Asmara
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 28 May 1993).

 Estonia – Republic of Estonia (from 20 August 1991)
Capital: Tallinn
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 6 September 1991). Widely recognized (from 6 September 1991). UN member state (from 17 September 1991).

Ethiopia Ethiopia  Ethiopia
Capital: Addis Ababa
Widely recognized UN member state. The province of Eritrea was under the control of a self-governing provisional government from 29 May 1991 to 23 May 1993. After 1995, Ethiopia was a federation of nine regions and two chartered cities.[45]

F[edit]


 Fiji
Capital: Suva
  • Republic of Fiji (to 25 July 1990)[46]
  • Sovereign Democratic Republic of Fiji (from 25 July 1990 to 27 July 1998)[46][47]
  • Republic of the Fiji Islands (from 27 July 1998)[47]
Widely recognized UN member state. Fiji had an autonomous dependency, Rotuma.

 Finland – Republic of Finland
Capital: Helsinki
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 January 1995). Finland had a neutral and demilitarised region:

 France – French Republic
Capital: Paris
Widely recognized UN member state. EEC member (to 1 November 1993). EU member (from 1 November 1993). France included four overseas departments: French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion. It also had sovereignty over the following overseas territories:

France also claimed Banc du Geyser (disputed by Madagascar and the Comoros).


G[edit]


 Gabon – Gabonese Republic
Capital: Libreville
Widely recognized UN member state.

Gagauzia – Gagauz Republic (from 19 August 1991 to 23 December 1994)[48]
Capital: Comrat
De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 26 December 1991) and Moldova (from 27 August 1991 to 23 December 1994).

 The Gambia – Republic of the Gambia
Capital: Banjul
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Georgia
Capital: Tbilisi
  • Republic of Georgia (from 9 April 1991 to 24 August 1995)[49][50]
  • Georgia (from 24 August 1995)[50]
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 26 December 1991). Widely recognized (from 26 December 1991). UN member state (from 31 July 1992). Georgia had two autonomous republics: Adjara and Abkhazia. The latter republic was effectively self-governing from 30 September 1993 to 12 October 1999. After 12 October 1999, it was home to a de facto independent state. Georgia also included the disputed region of South Ossetia, where an unrecognized recognized breakaway republic declared independence on 29 May 1992.

 Germany, East – German Democratic Republic (to 2 October 1990)[51]
Capital: East Berlin (disputed)
Widely recognized UN member state.

Germany Germany, West / Germany – Federal Republic of Germany
Capital: Bonn (to 20 June 1991), Berlin (from 20 June 1991)
Widely recognized UN member state. EEC member (to 1 November 1993). EU member (from 1 November 1993). West Germany was a federation of sixteen states.[52]

 Ghana – Republic of Ghana
Capital: Accra
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Greece – Hellenic Republic
Capital: Athens
Widely recognized UN member state. EEC member (to 1 November 1993). EU member (from 1 November 1993). Greece had sovereignty over Mount Athos, an autonomous monastic state that was jointly governed by the multi-national "Holy Community" on the mountain and the Civil Governor appointed by the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and spiritually came under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

 Grenada
Capital: St. George's
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Grenada had one autonomous dependency, Carriacou and Petite Martinique.

 Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala
Capital: Guatemala City
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Guinea – Republic of Guinea
Capital: Conakry
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau
Capital: Bissau
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Capital: Georgetown
Widely recognized UN member state.

H[edit]


 Haiti – Republic of Haiti
Capital: Port-au-Prince
Widely recognized UN member state. Haiti claimed the uninhabited United States possession of Navassa Island.

Holy See → Vatican City

 Honduras – Republic of Honduras
Capital: Tegucigalpa
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Hungary – Republic of Hungary
Capital: Budapest
Widely recognized UN member state.

I[edit]


 Iceland – Republic of Iceland
Capital: Reykjavík
Widely recognized UN member state.

 India – Republic of India
Capital: New Delhi
Widely recognized UN member state. India was a federation of twenty-eight states and seven union territories. Indian sovereignty over South Tibet was disputed by the People's Republic of China. India administered part of the disputed region of Kashmir as the state of Jammu and Kashmir.[53]

 Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia
Capital: Jakarta
Widely recognized UN member state. Indonesia had three special provinces: Aceh, Jakarta, and Yogyakarta.

 Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran
Capital: Tehran
Widely recognized UN member state.

Iraq Iraq Iraq – Republic of Iraq
Capital: Baghdad
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Ireland[54]
Capital: Dublin
Widely recognized UN member state. EEC member (to 1 November 1993). EU member (from 1 November 1993).

 Israel – State of Israel
Capital: Jerusalem
Widely recognized UN member state.[55] Israel occupied East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip the Golan Heights, the Israeli Security Zone in Southern Lebanon, and the West Bank. These areas were not generally recognized as being part of Israel.

 Italy – Italian Republic
Capital: Rome
Widely recognized UN member state. EEC member (to 1 November 1993). EU member (from 1 November 1993). Italy had 5 autonomous regions: Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily, and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.

Ivory Coast → Ivory Coast

J[edit]


 Jamaica
Capital: Kingston
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

Japan  Japan
Capital: Tokyo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Capital: Amman
Widely recognized UN member state.

K[edit]


Cambodia Cambodia Cambodia Cambodia Kampuchea, Democratic / Cambodia
Capital: Phnom Penh
Widely recognized UN member state.[27] Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Cambodia, despite being in exile until 15 March 1992.

Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic  Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan (from 16 December 1991)[56]
Capital: Alma-Ata (to 10 December 1997, renamed Almaty in 1993), Aqmola (from 10 December 1997, renamed Astana in 1998)
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 26 December 1991). Widely recognized (from 26 December 1991). UN member state (from 2 March 1992).

 Kenya – Republic of Kenya
Capital: Nairobi
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
Capital: South Tarawa
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 14 September 1999).

 Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Capital: Pyongyang
Widely recognized independent state.[57] Permanent observer at the UN (to 17 September 1991). UN member state (from 17 September 1991). Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.

 Korea, South – Republic of Korea
Capital: Seoul
Widely recognized independent state.[58] Permanent observer at the UN (to 17 September 1991). UN member state (from 17 September 1991). Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.

 Kenya – Republic of Kenya
Capital: Nairobi
Widely recognized UN member state.

Kosova – Republic of Kosova
Capital: Pristina
Partially recognized de jure state.[59]

Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic  Kyrgyzstan
Capital: Bishkek
  • Republic of Kyrgyzstan (from 31 August 1991 to 5 May 1993)[60][61]
  • Kyrgyz Republic (from 5 May 1993)[61]
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 26 December 1991). Widely recognized (from 26 December 1991). UN member state (from 2 March 1992).

L[edit]


 Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic
Capital: Vientiane
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Latvia – Republic of Latvia (from 21 August 1991)[62]
Capital: Riga
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 6 September 1991). Widely recognized (from 6 September 1991). UN member state (from 17 September 1991).

 Lebanon – Lebanese Republic
Capital: Beirut
Widely recognized UN member state. Lebanon was occupied by Syria. Some of Southern Lebanon was occupied by Israel.

 Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
Capital: Maseru
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Liberia – Republic of Liberia
Capital: Monrovia
Widely recognized UN member state.

Libya Libya – Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Capital: Tripoli
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein
Capital: Vaduz
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 18 September 1990).[38] The defense of Liechtenstein was the responsibility of Switzerland.

 Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania (from 11 March 1990)[63]
Capital: Vilnius
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 6 September 1991). Widely recognized (from 6 September 1991). UN member state (from 17 September 1991).

 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Capital: Luxembourg
Widely recognized UN member state. EEC member (to 1 November 1993). EU member (from 1 November 1993).

M[edit]


Socialist Republic of Macedonia Republic of Macedonia  Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia[64] (from 8 September 1991)[65]
Capital: Skopje
De facto independent state. Claimed by Yugoslavia (to 28 April 1992). Widely recognized UN member state (from 8 April 1993).

 Madagascar
Capital: Antananarivo
  • Democratic Republic of Madagascar (to 19 August 1992)[66]
  • Republic of Madagascar (from 19 August 1992)[66]
Widely recognized UN member state. Madagascar claimed the French possessions of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands and Juan de Nova Island. It also claimed Banc du Geyser (disputed by Comoros and France)

 Malawi – Republic of Malawi
Capital: Lilongwe
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Malaysia
Capital: Kuala Lumpur (official), Putrajaya (administrative, from 1999)
Widely recognized UN member state. Malaysia was a federation of thirteen states and two federal territories.[67] Malaysia claimed part of the Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Brunei).

 Maldives – Republic of Maldives
Capital: Malé
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Mali – Republic of Mali
Capital: Bamako
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Malta – Republic of Malta
Capital: Valletta
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
Capital: Majuro
Widely recognized state under Compact of Free Association with the United States. UN member state (from 17 September 1991). The Marshall Islands claimed the United States territory of Wake Island.

 Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Capital: Nouakchott
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Mauritius
Capital: Port Louis
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm (to 12 March 1992). Mauritius had three dependencies: Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos and Rodrigues. It claimed the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French territory of Tromelin Island.

 Mexico – United Mexican States
Capital: Mexico City
Widely recognized UN member state. Mexico was a federation of 31 states and one federal district.[69]

 Federated States of Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia
Capital: Palikir
Widely recognized state under Compact of Free Association with the United States. UN member state (from 17 September 1991). The FSM was a federation of four states.[70]

Mindanao – Federal Republic of Mindanao (from 4 October to 6 October 1990)
Capital: Cagayan de Oro (de facto)
De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by the Philippines.

Mohéli – Democratic Republic of Mohéli (from 11 August 1997)[71]
Capital: Fomboni
De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by the Comoros.

 Moldova – Republic of Moldova (from 27 August 1991)[72]
Capital: Chişinău
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 26 December 1991). Widely recognized (from 26 December 1991). UN member state (from 2 March 1992). Moldova had two autonomous territorial units: Gagauzia and Transnistria. Both units (only Transnistria after 23 December 1994) were home de facto independent states.

 Monaco – Principality of Monaco
Capital: Monaco
Widely recognized independent state. Permanent observer at the UN (to 28 May 1993). UN member state (from 28 May 1993). The defense of Monaco was the responsibility of France.

Mongolia  Mongolia
Capital: Ulaanbaatar
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco
Capital: Rabat
Widely recognized UN member state. Morocco claimed sovereignty over and controlled most of the disputed Western Sahara, which was home to the de facto independent Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputed the Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla, and Peñón de Alhucemas.

 Mozambique
Capital: Maputo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Myanmar – Union of Myanmar[75]
Capital: Yangon
Widely recognized UN member state.

N[edit]


 Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (from 6 January 1992)[76]
Capital: Stepanakert
De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Azerbaijan.

 Namibia – Republic of Namibia (from 21 March 1990)[77]
Capital: Windhoek
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 23 April 1990).

 Nauru – Republic of Nauru
Capital: Yaren (unofficial)
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 14 September 1999). The defense of Nauru was the responsibility of Australia.

Nepal Nepal – Kingdom of Nepal
Capital: Kathmandu
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
Capital: Amsterdam (official), The Hague (seat of government)
Widely recognized UN member state. The Kingdom of the Netherlands consisted of three autonomous countries:

The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole was a member of the EEC (to 1 November 1993) and the EU (from 1 November 1993), but Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles were not.


 New Zealand
Capital: Wellington
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. New Zealand had responsibilities for the two free associated states of:

It also had sovereignty over two dependent territories:

The government of Tokelau claimed Swains Island, part of American Samoa (a U.S. dependence). New Zealand did not recognize this claim.


 Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua
Capital: Managua
Widely recognized UN member state. Nicaragua had two autonomous regions: Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte and Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur.

 Niger – Republic of Niger
Capital: Niamey
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
Capital: Lagos (to 12 December 1991), Abuja (from 12 December 1991)
Widely recognized UN member state. Nigeria was a federation of 36 states and one federal territory.[78]

 Niue
Capital: Alofi
A state in free association with New Zealand. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It had shared citizenship with New Zealand.

 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Capital: Lefkoşa
Partially recognized de facto independent state.[79] Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus.

 Norway – Kingdom of Norway
Capital: Oslo
Widely recognized UN member state. Norway had two integral overseas areas: Jan Mayen and Svalbard. The latter of area had a special status due to the Spitsbergen Treaty. Norway had sovereignty over the following dependencies:

O[edit]


Oman  Oman – Sultanate of Oman
Capital: Muscat, Oman
Widely recognized UN member state.

P[edit]


 Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Capital: Islamabad
Widely recognized UN member state. Pakistan was a federation of four provinces and four territories. It administered part of the disputed region of Kashmir as the territories of Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas.[80]

 Palau – Republic of Palau (from 1 October 1994)[81]
Capital: Koror
Widely recognized state under Compact of Free Association with the United States. UN member state (from 15 December 1994).

 Palestine[dubious ][citation needed] [82]
(non-sovereign, non-UN member nation)
Capital: Ramallah (administrative), Gaza City (administrative), Jerusalem (claimed)
Disputed region consisting of three occupied territories: the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem. The declared State of Palestine, which claimed independence for all the Palestinian territories, was recognized by a large number of countries. In foreign relations, Palestine was represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, which was a permanent observer at the United Nations. The Palestinian National Authority (established on 4 May 1994) was an interim administrative body that exercised limited control over parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

 Panama – Republic of Panama
Capital: Panama City
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea
Capital: Port Morseby
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

Paraguay  Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay
Capital: Asunción
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Peru – Republic of Peru
Capital: Lima
Widely recognized UN member state.

Philippines  Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
Capital: Manila
Widely recognized UN member state. The Philippines had one autonomous region: Muslim Mindanao. The Philippines administered Scarborough Shoal, which was disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. It also claimed sovereignty over the Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, Brunei, and Malaysia) and the Malaysian territory of Sabah.

 Poland – Republic of Poland
Capital: Warsaw
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Portugal – Portuguese Republic
Capital: Lisbon
Widely recognized UN member state. EEC member (to 1 November 1993). EU member (from 1 November 1993). Portugal had two autonomous regions: the Azores and Madeira. Portugal had one Chinese territory which it administered as a dependency:
  • Macau (to 19 December 1999)

Portugal claimed sovereignty over the former colony of Portuguese Timor (which had been annexed by Indonesia) until 25 October 1999. It also claimed the Spanish municipalities of Olivenza and Táliga.


Puntland – Puntland State of Somalia (from 1 August 1998)[83]
Capital: Garowe
De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Somalia.

Q[edit]


 Qatar – State of Qatar
Capital: Doha
Widely recognized UN member state.

R[edit]


 Republika Srpska
Capital: Banja Luka
  • Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 7 April 1992 to 12 August 1992)[84][85]
  • Republika Srpska (from 12 August 1992 to 14 December 1995)[22][85]
De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Bosnia and Herzegovina.

 Romania
Capital: Bucharest
Widely recognized UN member state.

Russia  Russia – Russian Federation (from 26 December 1991)[86]
Capital: Moscow
Widely recognized UN member state. Russia was a federation of 21 republics, 49 oblasts, 6 krais, 2 federal cities, 1 autonomous oblast, and 10 autonomous okrugs.[87] One of those republics, Tatarstan, declared state sovereignty on 6 November 1992 and was effectively self-governing until 15 February 1994.

 Rwanda – Rwandese Republic[88]
Capital: Kigali
Widely recognized UN member state.

S[edit]


 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Capital: Bir Lehlou (official), Rabouni (seat of government-in-exile), El Aaiún (claimed)
Partially recognized de facto independent state. The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claimed the disputed territory of Western Sahara, most of which was under control of Morocco. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, were claimed by Morocco. Its government resided in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.

 Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Capital: Basseterre
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Saint Kitts and Nevis was a federation of fourteen parishes within two islands.[89] Nevis (which was one of the islands) had autonomy.

Saint Lucia
Capital: Castries
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Capital: Kingstown
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

Samoa → Western Samoa

 San Marino – Republic of San Marino
Capital: San Marino
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 2 March 1992).

 São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
Capital: São Tomé
Widely recognized UN member state. São Tomé and Príncipe had one autonomous province: Príncipe (from 29 April 1995).

 Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Capital: Riyadh
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Senegal – Republic of Senegal
Capital: Dakar
Widely recognized UN member state.

Seychelles  Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
Capital: Victoria
Widely recognized UN member state. The Seychelles claimed the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French territories of Tromelin Island and the Glorioso Islands.

 Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
Capital: Freetown
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Singapore – Republic of Singapore
Capital: Singapore
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Slovakia – Slovak Republic (from 1 January 1993)[37]
Capital: Bratislava
Widely recognized independent state.[38] UN member state (from 19 January 1993).

 Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia (from 25 June 1991)[35]
Capital: Ljubljana
De facto independent state. Claimed by Yugoslavia (to 28 April 1992). Widely recognized (from 12 January 1992). UN member state (from 22 May 1992).

 Solomon Islands
Capital: Honiara
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Somalia
Capital: Mogadishu
Widely recognized UN member state. Somalia's internationally recognized government did not exercise full control over the country from 26 January 1991 to 18 November 1991. After 18 November 1991, Somalia did not have any recognized central government. Many areas of the country had no effective government at all or were ruled by local clans. During this period, Somalia included one state which was de facto self-governing (although it did not claim independence from Somalia):
  • Jubaland (from 3 September 1998 to 11 June 1999)

In addition, there were two states which had declared and established de facto independence from Somalia: Puntland (from 1 August 1998), and Somaliland (from 18 May 1991).


Somaliland  Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland (from 18 May 1991)[92]
Capital: Hargeisa
De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Somalia.

South Africa  South Africa – Republic of South Africa
Capital: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), Bloemfontein (judicial)
Widely recognized UN member state. South Africa had six autonomous bantustans: Gazankulu, KaNgwane, KwaNdebele, KwaZulu, Lebowa, and QwaQwa. There were also four bantustans which were nominally independent: Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, and Venda. All ten bantustans were formally abolished when a new constitution took effect on 27 April 1994. South Africa administered one League of Nations mandate:

 South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia (from 29 May 1992)[93]
Capital: Tskhinvali
De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Georgia.

 Soviet Union – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (to 26 December 1991)[86]
Capital: Moscow
Widely recognized UN member state. The Soviet Union was a federation of 15 republics, two of which (Byelorussia and Ukraine) were UN members in their own right.[94]

 Spain – Kingdom of Spain
Capital: Madrid
Widely recognized UN member state. EEC member (to 1 November 1993). EU member (from 1 November 1993). Spain was divided into seventeen autonomous communities and two autonomous cities.[95] Its sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas was disputed by Morocco. Its sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga was disputed by Portugal. It claimed the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.

 Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Capital: Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Sudan – Republic of the Sudan
Capital: Khartoum
Widely recognized UN member state. After 1991, Sudan was a federation of 30 states.[96]

 Suriname – Republic of Suriname
Capital: Paramaribo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
Capital: Mbabane (administrative), Lobamba (royal and legislative)
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden
Capital: Stockholm
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 January 1995).

  Switzerland – Swiss Confederation
Capital: Bern
Widely recognized independent state. Permanent observer at the UN. Switzerland was a federation of 26 cantons.[97]

 Syria – Syrian Arab Republic
Capital: Damascus
Widely recognized UN member state. Syria included the Golan Heights, which were occupied by Israel. It disputed the Turkish sovereignty over Hatay Province.

T[edit]


Taiwan → China, Republic of

Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic  Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan (from 9 September 1991)[98]
Capital: Dushanbe
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 26 December 1991). Widely recognized (from 26 December 1991). UN member state (from 2 March 1992). Tajikistan had one autonomous province: Gorno-Badakhshan.

 Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
Capital: Dar es Salaam (to February 1996, seat of government from February 1996), Dodoma (official, from February 1996)
Widely recognized UN member state. Tanzania had one autonomous region: Zanzibar.

 Tatarstan – Tatar Soviet Socialist Republic (from 6 November 1992)
Capital: Kazan
De facto part of the Russian Federation since 15 February 1994. De jure since March 2002.

 Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand
Capital: Bangkok
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Togo – Togolese Republic
Capital: Lomé
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
Capital: Nukuʻalofa
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 14 September 1999).

 Transkei – Republic of Transkei (to 27 April 1994)[99]
Capital: Umtata
Nominally independent South African bantustan.[20]

 Transnistria
Capital: Tiraspol
  • Transnistrian Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic (from 25 August 1991 to 5 November 1991)[100]
  • Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (from 5 November 1991)
De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other country. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 26 December 1991) and Moldova (from 27 August 1991).

 Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Capital: Port of Spain
Widely recognized UN member state. Trinidad and Tobago had one autonomous island: Tobago.

Tunisia  Tunisia – Tunisian Republic
Capital: Tunis
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Turkey – Republic of Turkey
Capital: Ankara
Widely recognized UN member state.

Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic Turkmenistan  Turkmenistan (from 27 October 1991)[101]
Capital: Ashgabat
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 26 December 1991). Widely recognized (from 26 December 1991). UN member state (from 2 March 1992).

 Tuvalu
Capital: Funafuti
Widely recognized independent state. Commonwealth realm.

U[edit]


 Uganda – Republic of Uganda
Capital: Kampala
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Ukraine (from 24 August 1991)[102]
Capital: Kiev
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 26 December 1991). Widely recognized (from 26 December 1991). UN member state.

 United Arab Emirates
Capital: Abu Dhabi
Widely recognized UN member state. The United Arab Emirates was a federation of seven emirates.[103]

 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Capital: London
Widely recognized UN member state. EEC member (to 1 November 1993). EU member (from 1 November 1993). The United Kingdom was composed of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. It had sovereignty over the following dependent territories:

In addition, the British Monarch had direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:


 United States – United States of America
Capital: Washington, D.C.
Widely recognized UN member state. The United States was a federation of 50 states, one federal district, and one incorporated territory.[104] It asserted sovereignty over the following inhabited insular areas:

It also asserted sovereignty over eight uninhabited unincorporated territories:[105]

In addition, the United States administered one United Nations Trust Territory:

The United States claimed Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank. Its claim to Serranilla was disputed by Colombia and Nicaragua and its claim to Bajo Nuevo was disputed by Colombia, Jamaica, and Nicaragua. Some government sources stated that these two areas were unincorporated territories of the United States.


 Uruguay – Eastern Republic of Uruguay
Capital: Montevideo
Widely recognized UN member state.

USSR → Soviet Union

Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic  Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan
Capital: Tashkent
De facto independent state. Claimed by the Soviet Union (to 26 December 1991). Widely recognized (from 26 December 1991). UN member state (from 2 March 1992). Uzbekistan had one autonomous republic: Karakalpakstan.

V[edit]


 Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
Capital: Port Vila
Widely recognized UN member state.

  Vatican City – Vatican City State
Capital: Vatican City
Widely recognized independent state. Vatican City was administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity recognized by a large number of countries and a Permanent observer at the United Nations. The Holy See also administered a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy. The Pope was the ex officio head of state of Vatican City.

 Venda – Republic of Venda (to 27 April 1994)[106]
Capital: Thohoyandou
Nominally independent South African bantustan.[20]

Venezuela  Venezuela
Capital: Caracas
  • Republic of Venezuela (to 20 December 1999)[107]
  • Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (from 20 December 1999)[107]
Widely recognized UN member state. Venezuela was a federation of 23 states, three territories, one federal dependency, and one federal district.[108]

 Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Capital: Hanoi
Widely recognized UN member state. Vietnam claimed sovereignty over the Paracel Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China) and Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Brunei, the Philippines, and Malaysia).

W[edit]


Republic of Western Bosnia (from 26 July 1995 to 7 August 1995)[109] De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Bosnia and Herzegovina.

 Western Samoa / Samoa
Capital: Apia
  • Independent State of Western Samoa (to 4 July 1997)[110]
  • Independent State of Samoa (from 4 July 1997)[110]
Widely recognized UN member state.

Y[edit]


 Yemen – Republic of Yemen (from 22 May 1990)[111]
Capital: Sana'a
Widely recognized UN member state.

Yemen, Democratic Republic of(from May 21, 1994 to July 7, 1994)
Capital: Aden
Despite sympathy from Saudi Arabia, this de facto state never received recognition.

 Yemen, North – Yemen Arab Republic (to 22 May 1990)[111]
Capital: Sana'a
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Yemen, South
Capital: Aden
Widely recognized UN member state (to 22 May 1990). De facto independent state (from 7 July 1994). Claimed by Yemen. (from 7 July 1994).

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia  Yugoslavia
Capital: Belgrade
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (to 27 April 1992). The SFR Yugoslavia was a federation of six republics, four of which (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia) declared independence in 1991 and 1992. The two remaining republics, Montenegro and Serbia, established the FR Yugoslavia on 27 April 1992. It claimed to continue the SFR Yugoslavia's international personality, but this claim was not widely recognized. Serbia included two autonomous provinces: Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija. The latter province was under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (from 10 June 1999).

Z[edit]


Zaire Democratic Republic of the Congo Zaire / Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Capital: Kinshasa
  • Republic of Zaire (to 17 May 1997)[114]
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (from 17 May 1997)[114]
Widely recognized UN member state.

Zambia  Zambia – Republic of Zambia
Capital: Lusaka
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
Capital: Harare
Widely recognized UN member state.

Other entities[edit]

Excluded from the list above are the following noteworthy entities which either were not fully sovereign or did not claim to be independent:

  • Antarctica as a whole had no government and no permanent population. Seven states claimed portions of Antarctica and five of these had reciprocally recognised one another's claims.[115] These claims, which were regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, were neither recognised nor disputed by any other signatory state.[116]
  •  Estonia was a part of the Soviet Union until 1991, but its annexation was not widely recognized. A government in exile claimed independence for Estonia until 15 September 1992, but aside from its embassies in the West it controlled no territory.
  • European Union The European Union was a sui generis supranational organisation which had 12 (later 15) member states. It was established on 1 November 1993. The member states had transferred a measure of their legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, and as such the EU had some elements of sovereignty, without generally being considered a sovereign state. The European Union did not claim to be a sovereign state and had only limited capacity for relations with other states.
  •  Latvia was a part of the Soviet Union until 1991, but its annexation was not widely recognized. A government in exile claimed independence for Latvia until 21 August 1991, but aside from its embassies in the West it controlled no territory.
  •  Lithuania was a part of the Soviet Union until 1990, but its annexation was not widely recognized. A government in exile claimed independence for Lithuania until 6 September 1991, but aside from its embassies in the West it controlled no territory.
  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta The Sovereign Military Order of Malta was an entity claiming sovereignty and (from 24 August 1994) a United Nations observer. The order had bi-lateral diplomatic relations with a large number of states, but had no territory other than extraterritorial areas within Rome.[117] The order's Constitution stated: "The Order is a subject of international law and exercises sovereign functions." [118] Although the order frequently asserted its sovereignty, it did not claim to be a sovereign state. It lacked a defined territory. Since all its members were citizens of other states, almost all of them lived in their native countries, and those who resided in the order's extraterritorial properites in Rome did so only in connection with their official duties, the order lacked the characteristic of having a permanent population.
  • United Nations The United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor was a transitional non-independent territory governed by the United Nations. It was neither sovereign nor under the sovereignty of any other state. It was established on 25 October 1999, following the end of the Indonesian occupation of East Timor.
  • Berlin West Berlin was a political enclave that was closely aligned with – but not actually a part of – West Germany. It consisted of three occupied sectors administered by the United States, the United Kingdom, and France. West Berlin was incorporated into the reunified Germany on 3 October 1990.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Abkhazia re-declared independence from Georgia on 12 October 1999, although it had been effectively self-governing since the end of the War in Abkhazia on 30 September 1993. s:Act of State Independence of the Republic of Abkhazia
  2. ^ a b Sibghatullah Mojaddedi entered Kabul after the fall of Mohammad Najibullah and proclaimed the Islamic State of Afghanistan. [1]
  3. ^ The Islamic State of Afghanistan was not recognized by Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, or the United Arab Emirates after 26 September 1996.
  4. ^ The Taliban took over Kabul on 26 September 1996 and proclaimed the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. [2]
  5. ^ The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was recognized by Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
  6. ^ a b Albania adopted a temporary basic law on 29 April 1991, changing the name of the country to "Republic of Albania". This change was confirmed in the constitution of 1998. [3] [4]
  7. ^ a b Angola adopted a new constitution on 25 Aug 1992
  8. ^ Anjouan declared independence from the Comoros on 3 Aug 1997
  9. ^ The name "Argentine Nation" was also used for the purposes of legislation.
  10. ^ 23 Provinces: Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquén, Río Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego (from 26 April 1991), Tucumán. 1 Autonomous City: Buenos Aires (from 6 August 1996). 2 Territories: Buenos Aires (to 6 August 1996), Tierra del Fuego (to 26 April 1991).
  11. ^ The Armenian people voted for succession from the Soviet Union in a referendum on 21 September 1991. The parliament of Armenia ratified the result on 23 September 1991. [5]
  12. ^ Armenia was not recognized by Pakistan.
  13. ^ 6 States: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia. 3 Territories: Australian Capital Territory, Jervis Bay Territory, Northern Territory.
  14. ^ 9 States: Burgenland, Carinthia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria, Vorarlberg, Vienna.
  15. ^ The Supreme Council of Azerbaijan passed an act declaring independence on 18 October 1991. [6]
  16. ^ 3 Communities: Flemish Community, French Community, German-speaking Community. 3 Regions: Brussels-Capital Region, Flemish Region, [[Walloon Region (federal region)|]].
  17. ^ Belize was not recognized by Guatemala (to 24 November 1992)
  18. ^ a b The People's Republic of Benin was renamed the Republic of Benin on 1 March 1990. Its new constitution was adopted on 2 December 1990. [7]
  19. ^ Bophuthatswana was reintegrated into South Africa on 13 Mar 1994
  20. ^ a b c d The nominally independent bantustans of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, and Venda were only recognized by South Africa and by each other. The rest of the world regarded them as part of South Africa.
  21. ^ Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia on 5 April 1992 [8]
  22. ^ a b c The Dayton Agreement was signed on 14 December 1995, creating the unified state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. [9]
  23. ^ The Republic of Bougainville declared independence on 17 May 1990. [10] After a lengthy peace process started in 1997, the Bougainville Interim Government agreed to give up their self-declared independence and establish a reconciliation government on 24 December 1998. [11]
  24. ^ 26 States: Acre, Alagoas, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins. 1 Federal District: Brazilian Federal District.
  25. ^ a b The Grand National Assembly of Bulgaria adopted a motion changing Bulgaria's official name on 15 November 1990. [12]
  26. ^ a b c The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia began operations on 15 March 1992 [13]
  27. ^ a b Although the State of Cambodia had near total control over the territory of Cambodia, the majority of the states in the world recognized the former government of Democratic Kampuchea, which retained Cambodia's UN membership. The State of Cambodia was mainly recognized by Vietnam and states within the Soviet sphere of influence.
  28. ^ 10 Provinces: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan. 3 Territories: Northwest Territories, Nunavut (from 1 April 1999), Yukon.
  29. ^ Chechnya declared state sovereignty on 1 Nov 1991
  30. ^ a b The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria enacted its constitution on 12 March 1992. [14]
  31. ^ Chechnya was recognized by the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
  32. ^ a b The People's Republic of China and the Republic of China did not recognize each other, as both states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of China. The following states recognized the ROC instead of the PRC: Bahamas (to 23 May 1997), Belize, Burkina Faso (from 4 February 1994), Central African Republic (from 8 July 1991 to 29 January 1998), Chad (from 15 August 1997), Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, the Gambia (from 25 July 1995), Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau (from 26 May 1990 to 13 April 1998), Grenada, Haiti, Honduras, South Korea (to 24 August 1992), Lesotho (from 5 April 1990 to 12 January 1994), Macedonia (to 27 January 1999), Malawi, Marshall Islands (from 20 November 1998), Monaco (to 16 January 1995), Nauru, Nicaragua (from 9 November 1990), Niger (from 30 June 1992 to 19 August 1996), Palau (from 1999), Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia (to 1 September 1997), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, São Tomé and Príncipe (from 6 May 1997), Saudi Arabia (to 21 July 1990), Senegal (from 6 January 1996), Solomon Islands, South Africa (to 1 January 1998), Swaziland, Tonga (to 2 November 1998), Tuvalu, and Vatican City. After 9 September 1997, Liberia recognized both the ROC and the PRC, which led to the PRC severing diplomatic relations.
  33. ^ Ciskei was taken over by South Africa on 22 Mar 1994
  34. ^ a b A Sovereign National Conference was held in the People's Republic of Congo from 25 February 1991 to 10 June 1991, during which the country was renamed. [15]
  35. ^ a b Croatia and Slovenia declared independence from Yugoslavia on 25 June 1991. Chuck Sudetic (26 June 1991). "2 Yugoslav States Vote Independence To Press Demands". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2010. 
  36. ^ Cyprus was not recognized by Turkey or Northern Cyprus
  37. ^ a b c Czechoslovakia was dissolved on midnight of 31 December 1992. From the start of 1993, the Czech Republic and Slovakia were independent countries. [16]
  38. ^ a b c d Owing to a dispute over lands seized during World War II, Liechtenstein and Czechoslovakia did not recognize each other. This dispute continued with Czechoslovakia's successor states.
  39. ^ a b Following the Velvet Revolution, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was replaced by the Czechoslovak Federal Republic. (Source: Česko-slovenská federatívna republika, Zbierka zákonov č. 19/1990, [17] page 362, "Ústavný zákon 81/1990 Zb. z 29. marca 1990 o zmene názvu Československej socialistickej republiky", March 29, 1990 (Slovak) (Constitutional law about the change of the name of the Czechoslovak Socialistic Republic))
  40. ^ a b After a naming dispute, the name of Czechoslovakia was changed to "Czech and Slovak Federal Republic" (Source: Česká a Slovenská Federatívna Republika, Zbierka zákonov č. 21/1990, page 404, "Ústavný zákon 101/1990 Zb. z 20. apríla 1990 o zmene názvu Česko-slovenskej federatívnej republiky", April 20, 1990 (Slovak) (Constitutional law about the change of the name of the Czecho-slovak Federal Republic))
  41. ^ 2 Republics: Czech Socialist Republic (renamed Czech Republic on 29 March 1990), Slovak Socialist Republic (renamed Slovak Republic on 1 March 1990).
  42. ^ Eritrea declared independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993
  43. ^ a b The Workers' Party of Ethiopia regime collapsed on 28 May 1991. [18]
  44. ^ a b Ethiopia's constitution came into force on 22 Aug 1995
  45. ^ 9 Regions: Afar, Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambela, Harari, Oromiya, Somali, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region, Tigray. 2 Chartered Cities: Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa.
  46. ^ a b Fiji adopted a new constitution on 25 July 1990
  47. ^ a b Fiji adopted a new constitution on 25 July 1997 which came into force on 27 July 1998. [19]
  48. ^ Gagauzia declared independence on 19 August 1991. The Parliament of Moldova adopted an autonomy statute for Gagauzia on 23 December 1994. [20]
  49. ^ Georgia declared independence from the Soviet Union on 9 Apr 1991
  50. ^ a b The Republic of Georgia adopted a new constitution on 24 August 1995, changing its official name to just Georgia. [21]
  51. ^ West Germany and East Germany reunified on 3 October 1990. [22]
  52. ^ 16 States: Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Berlin (from 3 October 1990), Brandenburg (from 3 October 1990), Bremen, Hamburg, Hesse, Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (from 3 October 1990), North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Saxony (from 3 October 1990), Saxony-Anhalt (from 3 October 1990), Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia (from 3 October 1990)
  53. ^ 25 States: Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal. 7 Union Territories: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Lakshadweep, National Capital Territory of Delhi, Pondicherry.
  54. ^ Ireland also had the legal description of "Republic of Ireland", although this was not its constitutional name.
  55. ^ Israel was not recognized by Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Chad, Cuba, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan (to 26 October 1994), Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, North Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, or Yemen.
  56. ^ Kazakhstan declared independence from the Soviet Union on 16 Dec 1991
  57. ^ North Korea was not recognized by Estonia, France, Japan, or South Korea.
  58. ^ South Korea was not recognized by the Soviet Union (to 1990), the People's Republic of China (to 1992), or North Korea.
  59. ^ Only recognized by Albania.
  60. ^ Kyrgyzstan declared independence from the Soviet Union on 31 Aug 1991
  61. ^ a b Kyrgyzstan adopted a new constitution on 5 May 1993
  62. ^ Latvia declared independence from the Soviet Union on 21 Aug 1991
  63. ^ Lithuania declared independence from the Soviet Union on 11 Mar 1990
  64. ^ Provisionally referred to by the UN and a number of countries and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", see Macedonia naming dispute.
  65. ^ Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia on 8 Sep 1991
  66. ^ a b Madagascar adopted a new constitution on 19 Aug 1992
  67. ^ 13 States: Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Penang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu. 2 Federal Territories: Kuala Lumpur, Labuan.
  68. ^ a b Mauritius declared itself a Republic on 12 Mar 1992
  69. ^ 31 States: Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatán, Zacatecas. 1 Federal District: Federal District
  70. ^ 4 States: Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap.
  71. ^ Mohéli declared independence from the Comoros on 11 Aug 1997
  72. ^ Moldova declared independence from the Soviet Union on 27 Aug 1991
  73. ^ a b Mongolia adopted a new constitution on 12 Feb 1992
  74. ^ a b Mozambique adopted a new constitution on 30 Nov 1990
  75. ^ Commonly known in English as "Burma".
  76. ^ The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic declared independence from Azerbaijan on 6 January 1992. [23]
  77. ^ Namibia gained independence from a South African League of Nations mandate on 21 March 1990. [24]
  78. ^ 36 States: Abia (from 27 August 1991), Adamawa (from 27 August 1991), Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa (from 1 October 1996), Bendel (to 27 August 1991), Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta (from 27 August 1991), Ebonyi (from 1 October 1996), Edo (from 27 August 1991), Ekiti (from 1 October 1996), Enugu (from 27 August 1991), Gombe (from 1 October 1996), Gongola (to 27 August 1991), Imo, Jigawa (from 27 August 1991), Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi (from 27 August 1991), Kogi (from 27 August 1991), Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa (from 1 October 1996), Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun (from 27 August 1991), Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba (from 27 August 1991), Yobe (from 27 August 1991), Zamfara (from 1 October 1996). 1 Federal Territory: Federal Capital Territory
  79. ^ Northern Cyprus was recognized only by Turkey.
  80. ^ 4 Provinces: Balochistan, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh. 4 Territories: Azad Kashmir, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Islamabad Capital Territory, Northern Areas.
  81. ^ Palau's United Nations trusteeship ended on 1 Oct 1994
  82. ^ See the following on statehood criteria:
  83. ^ Puntland declared temporary independence from Somalia on 1 August 1998. [25] [26]
  84. ^ The Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence on 7 April 1992. (Source: "The Decision on Proclamation of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina". Večernje novosti (in Serbian) (Belgrade: Novosti AD). Tanjug. April 8, 1992. ISSN 0350-4999. )
  85. ^ a b The name Republika Srpska was adopted on 12 August 1992. (Source: "The Amendments VII and VIII to the Constitution of the Republika Srpska". Official Gazette of the Republika Srpska (in Serbian) 1 (15): 569. September 29, 1992. )
  86. ^ a b The Soviet Union officially ceased to exist on 26 December 1991 when the Supreme Soviet dissolved itself. The Russian Federation was recognized as its successor state. [27] [28]
  87. ^ 21 Republics: Adygea, Altai, Bashkortostan, Buryatia, Chechnya, Chuvash Republic, Republic of Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, KalmykiaKarachay–Cherkessia, Karelia, Khakassia, Komi, Mari El, Mordovia, North Ossetia–Alania, Sakha, Tatarstan, Tuva, Udmurtia. 49 Oblasts: Amur, Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Chita, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhny Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Oryol, Penza, Perm, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan, Sakhalin, Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk, Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver, Tyumen, Ulyanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl. 6 Krais: Altai, Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Primorsky, Stavropol. 2 Federal Cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg. 1 Autonomous Oblast: Jewish Autonomous Oblast. 10 Autonomous Okrugs: Agin-Buryatia, Chukotka, Evenkia, Khanty–Mansi, Koryakia, Nenetsia, Permyakia, Taymyria, Ust-Orda Buryatia, Yamalia.
  88. ^ Rwanda's official French name was "République rwandaise". [29] [30]. It could be translated into English as "Rwandese Republic" s:CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Rwanda, "Rwandan Republic" [31], or "Republic of Rwanda" [32].
  89. ^ 2 Islands: Saint Kitts, Nevis.14 parishes: Christ Church Nichola Town (Saint Kitts), Saint Anne Sandy Point (Saint Kitts), Saint George Basseterre (Saint Kitts), Saint George Gingerland (Nevis), Saint James Windward (Nevis), Saint John Capesterre (Saint Kitts), Saint John Figtree (Nevis), Saint Mary Cayon (Saint Kitts), Saint Paul Capisterre (Saint Kitts), Saint Paul Charlestown (Nevis), Saint Peter Basseterre (Saint Kitts), Saint Thomas Lowland (Nevis), Saint Thomas Middle Island (Saint Kitts), Trinity Palmetto Point (Saint Kitts)
  90. ^ a b Somalia was renamed after Siad Barre's overthrow on 26 January 1991 [33]
  91. ^ a b President Ali Mahdi Muhammad of Somalia was ousted on 18 November 1991, although he continued to claim the title of President from exile. After this, there was no widely recognized central government in the country. [34]
  92. ^ Somaliland declared independence from Somalia on 18 May 1991
  93. ^ South Ossetia declared independence from Georgia on 29 May 1992
  94. ^ 15 Republics: Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Byelorussian SSR, Estonian SSR (to 6 September 1991), Georgian SSR, Kazakh SSR, Kirghiz SSR, Latvian SSR (to 6 September 1991), Lithuanian SSR (to 6 September 1991), Moldavian SSR, Russian SFSR, Tajik SSR, Turkmen SSR, Ukrainian SSR, Uzbek SSR.
  95. ^ 17 Autonomous Communities: Andalusia, Aragon, Asturias, Balearic Islands, Basque Country, Canary Islands, Cantabria, Castile-La Mancha, Castile and León, Catalonia, Extremadura, Galicia, Madrid, Murcia, Navarre, La Rioja, Valencian Community. 2 Autonomous Cities: Ceuta (from 14 March 1995), Melilla (from 14 March 1995).
  96. ^ 30 States: Bahr el Ghazal (to 14 February 1994), Blue Nile, Central Equatoria (from 14 February 1994), Darfur (to 14 February 1994), Eastern Equatoria (from 14 February 1994), Equatoria (to 14 February 1994), Al Jazirah (from 14 February 1994), Jonglei (from 14 February 1994), Kassala, Khartoum, Kurdufan (to 14 February 1994), Lakes (from 14 February 1994), Northern Bahr el Ghazal (from 14 February 1994), North Darfur (from 14 February 1994), North Kurdufan (from 14 February 1994), Northern, Al Qadarif (from 14 February 1994), Red Sea (from 14 February 1994), River Nile (from 14 February 1994), Sennar (from 14 February 1994), South Darfur (from 14 February 1994), South Kurdufan (from 14 February 1994), Unity (from 14 February 1994), Upper Nile, Western Equatoria (from 14 February 1994), Western Bahr el Ghazal (from 14 February 1994), West Darfur (from 14 February 1994), West Kurdufan (from 14 February 1994), White Nile (from 14 February 1994), Warrap (from 14 February 1994).
  97. ^ 26 Cantons: Aargau, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Basel-Stadt, Basel-Landschaft, Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Glarus, Graubünden, Jura, Lucerne, Neuchâtel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, St. Gallen, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zürich
  98. ^ Tajikstan declared independence from the Soviet Union on
  99. ^ Transkei ceased to exist on 27 April 1994, when South Africa's interim constitution took effect. [35]
  100. ^ Transnistria had declared its independence from Modolva (but within the Soviet Union) on 2 September 1990. The Soviet Union did not recognize that declaration, leading to Transnistria's full declaration of independence on 25 August 1991. [36]
  101. ^ Turkmenistan declared independence from the Soviet Union on 27 October 1991. [37]
  102. ^ Ukraine declared independence from the Soviet Union on 24 Aug 1991
  103. ^ 7 Emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Qaiwain.
  104. ^ 50 States: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming. 1 Federal District: District of Columbia. 1 Incorporated Territory: Palmyra Atoll.
  105. ^ These islands were sometimes designated for statistical purposes as the United States Minor Outlying Islands
  106. ^ Venda ceased to exist on 27 April 1994, when South Africa's interim constitution took effect. [38]
  107. ^ a b Venezuela's new constitution came into force on 20 Dec 1999
  108. ^ 23 States: Amazonas (from 23 July 1992), Anzoátegui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro (from 8 March 1991), Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Mérida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Táchira, Trujillo, Vargas (from 31 December 1998), Yaracuy, Zulia. 3 Territories: Amazonas (to 23 July 1992), Delta Amacuro (to 8 March 1991), Vargas (from 22 April 1998 to 31 December 1998). 1 Federal District: Federal District (renamed Capital District on 20 December 1999). 1 Federal Dependency: Federal Dependencies.
  109. ^ The Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia declared itself an independent Republic on 26 July 1995. It was conquered by Bosnia and Herzegovina on 7 August 1995. (Source: Radan, Peter (2002). The break-up of Yugoslavia and international law. Routledge. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-415-25352-9. )
  110. ^ a b Western Samoa's constitution was amended on 4 July 1997 to change the name of the country to Samoa [39]
  111. ^ a b c North Yemen and South Yemen unified on 22 May 1990
  112. ^ The former South Yemen declared independence on 21 May 1994. [40]. Aden fell to Northern Yemeni forces on 7 July 1994. [41]
  113. ^ a b The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was created on 27 Apr 1992
  114. ^ a b Laurent-Désiré Kabila took power on 17 May 1997 and renamed Zaire the Democratic Republic of the Congo. [42]
  115. ^ Rogan-Finnemore, Michelle (2005), "What Bioprospecting Means for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean", in Von Tigerstrom, Barbara, International Law Issues in the South Pacific, Ashgate Publishing, p. 204, ISBN 0-7546-4419-7  "Australia, New Zealand, France, Norway and the United Kingdom reciprocally recognize the validity of each other's claims."
  116. ^ CIA – the World Factbook – Antarctica – accessed 19 January 2008
  117. ^ Bilateral relations with countries, Retrieved 2011-12-22
  118. ^ Chapter General of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta (1998-01-12). Constitutional Charter and Code of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, and of Malta, promulgated 27 June 1961, revised by the Extraordinary Chapter General 28–30 April 1997, Article 3 "Sovereignty," Paragraph 1.. Rome: Tipografia Arte della Stampa. p. 11.