List of sovereign states in the 2010s

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This is a list of sovereign states in the 2010s, giving an overview of states around the world during the period between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2019. It contains 214 entries, arranged alphabetically, with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty. It includes 195 widely recognized sovereign states and 15 entities which claim an effective sovereignty but are considered de facto constituents of other powers by the general international community.

Members or observers of the United Nations

Name and capital city Information on status and recognition of sovereignty

A


 Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Capital: Kabul
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Albania – Republic of Albania
Capital: Tirana
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
Capital: Algiers
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Andorra – Principality of Andorra
Capital: Andorra la Vella
Widely recognized UN member state. The President of France and Bishop of Urgell were ex officio Co-Princes of Andorra. The defense of Andorra is the responsibility of France and Spain.

 Angola – Republic of Angola
Capital: Luanda
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Antigua and Barbuda
Capital: St. John's
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Antigua and Barbuda has two dependencies, Barbuda and Redonda.

 Argentina – Argentine Republic[1]
Capital: Buenos Aires
Widely recognized UN member state. Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city.[2] It had a claim over Argentine Antarctica, which is suspended under the Antarctic Treaty. It also claims the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, both of which were British overseas territories.

 Armenia – Republic of Armenia
Capital: Yerevan
Widely recognized UN member state.[3]

 Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
Capital: Canberra
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Australia is a federation of six states and three territories.[4] It had sovereignty over the following external territories:

 Austria – Republic of Austria
Capital: Vienna
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2010. EU member. Austria is a federation of nine states.[5]

 Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan
Capital: Baku
Widely recognized UN member state. Azerbaijan had one autonomous republic, Nakhchivan. It included the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh, where a partially recognized breakaway republic had declared independence.

B


 The Bahamas – Commonwealth of the Bahamas
Capital: Nassau
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain
Capital: Manama
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh
Capital: Dhaka
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Barbados
Capital: Bridgetown
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Belarus – Republic of Belarus
Capital: Minsk
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium
Capital: Brussels
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Belgium is a federation of three communities and three regions.[6]

 Belize
Capital: Belmopan
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Benin – Republic of Benin
Capital: Porto-Novo (official), Cotonou (seat of government)
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan
Capital: Thimphu
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia
Capital: Sucre (official), La Paz (administrative)
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Capital: Sarajevo
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2010-2011. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of two constituent entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska.

 Botswana – Republic of Botswana
Capital: Gaborone
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil
Capital: Brasília
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2010-2011. Brazil is a federation of 26 states and one federal district.[7]

 Brunei – Nation of Brunei, Abode of Peace
Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan
Widely recognized UN member state. Brunei claims part of the Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Malaysia).

 Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria
Capital: Sofia
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

 Burkina Faso
Capital: Ouagadougou
Widely recognized UN member state.

Burma → Myanmar

 Burundi – Republic of Burundi
Capital: Bujumbura
Widely recognized UN member state.

C


 Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia
Capital: Phnom Penh
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
Capital: Yaoundé
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Canada
Capital: Ottawa
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Canada is a federation of ten provinces and three territories.[8]

 Cape Verde
  • Republic of Cape Verde (to 24 October 2013)
  • Republic of Cabo Verde (from 24 October 2013)
    Capital: Praia
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Central African Republic
Capital: Bangui
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Chad – Republic of Chad
Capital: N'Djamena
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Chile – Republic of Chile
Capital: Santiago
Widely recognized UN member state. Chile has two special territories: Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands. It had a claim over Chilean Antarctic Territory, which is suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

 China, People's Republic of
Capital: Beijing
Widely recognized UN member state[9] and a permanent member of the UN Security Council. The People's Republic of China had five autonomous regions: Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet. Additionally, it had sovereignty over two special administrative regions:

The People's Republic of China claims Taiwan, Kinmen, the Matsu Islands, the Pratas Islands and Itu Aba, all of which were governed by the Republic of China. It also claims the Paracel Islands (disputed by the Republic of China and Vietnam), the Spratly Islands (disputed by the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei), and South Tibet (controlled by India). The People's Republic of China administered Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract, which were within the disputed region of Kashmir.


 Colombia – Republic of Colombia
Capital: Bogotá
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2011-2012. Colombia administered Serranilla Bank and claims Bajo Nuevo Bank (disputed by Nicaragua and the United States)

 Comoros – Union of the Comoros
Capital: Moroni
Widely recognized UN member state. The Comoros is a federation of three islands autonomous islands: Grande Comore, Mohéli, and Anjouan. Comoros also claims sovereignty over the French overseas territories of Mayotte and the Glorioso Islands. Comoros also claims Banc du Geyser (disputed by Madagascar and France).

 Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Capital: Kinshasa
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Congo, Republic of the
Capital: Brazzaville
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica
Capital: San José
Widely recognized UN member state.

Côte d'Ivoire → Ivory Coast

 Croatia – Republic of Croatia
Capital: Zagreb
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member beginning in July 2013.

 Cuba – Republic of Cuba
Capital: Havana
Widely recognized UN member state. The Cuban area of Guantánamo Bay is under the permanent control of the United States.

 Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus
Capital: Nicosia
Widely recognized UN member state.[10] EU member. The northeastern part of the island is the de facto independent state of Northern Cyprus, recognized only by Turkey.

 Czech Republic
Capital: Prague
Widely recognized UN member state.EU member.

D


 Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark
Capital: Copenhagen
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. The Kingdom of Denmark also included two autonomous countries:

 Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti
Capital: Djibouti
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
Capital: Roseau
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Dominican Republic
Capital: Santo Domingo
Widely recognized UN member state.

E


East Timor → Timor-Leste

 Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador
Capital: Quito
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt
Capital: Cairo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador
Capital: San Salvador
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea
Capital: Malabo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Eritrea – State of Eritrea
Capital: Asmara
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Estonia – Republic of Estonia
Capital: Tallinn
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

 Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Capital: Addis Ababa
Widely recognized UN member state. Ethiopia is a federation of nine regions and two chartered cities.[11]

F


 Fiji
  • Republic of the Fiji Islands (to 3 February 2011)
  • Republic of Fiji (from 3 February 2011)
    Capital: Suva
Widely recognized UN member state. Fiji had an autonomous dependency, Rotuma.

 Finland – Republic of Finland
Capital: Helsinki
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Finland had a neutral and demilitarised region:

 France – French Republic
Capital: Paris
Widely recognized UN member state and a permanent member of the UN Security Council. EU member. France includes five (four until March 2011) overseas departments: French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte (from 31 March 2011) and Réunion. It also has sovereignty over the following overseas territories:

France also claims Banc du Geyser (disputed by Madagascar and the Comoros).


G


 Gabon – Gabonese Republic
Capital: Libreville
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2010-2011.

 The Gambia – Republic of the Gambia
Capital: Banjul
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Georgia
Capital: Tbilisi
Widely recognized UN member state. Georgia had two autonomous republics: Adjara and Abkhazia. The latter republic is home to a de facto independent state. Georgia also included the disputed region of South Ossetia, where a partially recognized breakaway republic had declared independence.

 Germany – Federal Republic of Germany
Capital: Berlin
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2011-2012. EU member. Germany is a federation of sixteen states.[12]

 Ghana – Republic of Ghana
Capital: Accra
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Greece – Hellenic Republic
Capital: Athens
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Greece has sovereignty over Mount Athos, an autonomous monastic state that is jointly governed by the multi-national "Holy Community" on the mountain and the Civil Governor appointed by the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and spiritually under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

 Grenada
Capital: St. George's
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Grenada has one autonomous dependency, Carriacou and Petite Martinique.

 Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala
Capital: Guatemala City
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Guinea – Republic of Guinea
Capital: Conakry
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau
Capital: Bissau
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Capital: Georgetown
Widely recognized UN member state.

H


 Haiti – Republic of Haiti
Capital: Port-au-Prince
Widely recognized UN member state. Haiti claims the uninhabited United States possession of Navassa Island.

Holy See → Vatican City

 Honduras – Republic of Honduras
Capital: Tegucigalpa
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Hungary
  • Republic of Hungary (to 2 January 2012)
  • Hungary (from 2 January 2012)
    Capital: Budapest
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

I


 Iceland – Republic of Iceland
Capital: Reykjavík
Widely recognized UN member state.

 India – Republic of India
Capital: New Delhi
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2011-2012. India is a federation of twenty-eight states and seven union territories. Indian sovereignty over South Tibet is disputed by the People's Republic of China. India administered part of the disputed region of Kashmir as the state of Jammu and Kashmir.[13]

 Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia
Capital: Jakarta
Widely recognized UN member state. Indonesia had five special provinces: Aceh, Jakarta, Papua, West Papua, and Yogyakarta.

 Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran
Capital: Tehran
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Iraq – Republic of Iraq
Capital: Baghdad
Widely recognized UN member state. Iraq is constitutionally designated as a federation of autonomous regions, but only one region (Iraqi Kurdistan) had been established.

 Ireland[14]
Capital: Dublin
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

 Israel – State of Israel
Capital: Jerusalem
Widely recognized UN member state.[15] Israel occupies East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights, and the West Bank. These areas were not generally recognized as being part of Israel.

 Italy – Italian Republic
Capital: Rome
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Italy had 5 autonomous regions: Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily, and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.

 Ivory Coast – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire[16]
Capital: Yamoussoukro (official), Abidjan (seat of government)
Widely recognized UN member state.

J


 Jamaica
Capital: Kingston
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Japan
Capital: Tokyo
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2010.

 Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Capital: Amman
Widely recognized UN member state.

K


 Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan
Capital: Astana
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Kenya – Republic of Kenya
Capital: Nairobi
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
Capital: South Tarawa
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Capital: Pyongyang
Widely recognized UN member state.[17] claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.

 Korea, South – Republic of Korea
Capital: Seoul
Widely recognized UN member state.[18] South Korea had one autonomous region: Jeju-do. claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.

 Kuwait – State of Kuwait
Capital: Kuwait City
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic
Capital: Bishkek
Widely recognized UN member state.

L


 Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic
Capital: Vientiane
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Latvia – Republic of Latvia
Capital: Riga
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

 Lebanon – Lebanese Republic
Capital: Beirut
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2010-2011.

 Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
Capital: Maseru
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Liberia – Republic of Liberia
Capital: Monrovia
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Libya – Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (until 2011)

 Libya (following 2011)
Capital: Tripoli

Widely recognized UN member state. Control passed due to civil war between 15 February 2011 and de facto 20 October 2011, de jure 23 October 2011.

 Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein
Capital: Vaduz
Widely recognized UN member state. The defense of Liechtenstein is the responsibility of Switzerland.

 Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania
Capital: Vilnius
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Capital: Luxembourg
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

M


 Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia[19]
Capital: Skopje
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar
Capital: Antananarivo
Widely recognized UN member state. Madagascar claims the French possessions of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands and Juan de Nova Island. It also claims Banc du Geyser (disputed by Comoros and France)

Malawi Malawi  Malawi – Republic of Malawi
Capital: Lilongwe
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Malaysia
Capital: Kuala Lumpur (official), Putrajaya (administrative)
Widely recognized UN member state. Malaysia is a federation of thirteen states and three federal territories.[20] Malaysia claims part of the Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Brunei).

 Maldives – Republic of Maldives
Capital: Malé
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Mali – Republic of Mali
Capital: Bamako
Widely recognized UN member state. Part of Mali's territory was controlled by the de facto State of Azawad from 6 April 2012 to 12 July 2012.

 Malta – Republic of Malta
Capital: Valletta
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

 Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
Capital: Majuro
Widely recognized UN member state under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Marshall Islands claims the United States territory of Wake Island.

 Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Capital: Nouakchott
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius
Capital: Port Louis
Widely recognized UN member state. Mauritius had one autonomous dependency: Rodrigues. Mauritius also had two other dependencies: Agalega Islands and Cargados Carajos. It claims the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French territory of Tromelin Island.

 Mexico – United Mexican States
Capital: Mexico City
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2010. Mexico is a federation of 31 states and one federal district.[21]

 Federated States of Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia
Capital: Palikir
Widely recognized UN member state under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The FSM is a federation of four states.[22]

 Moldova – Republic of Moldova
Capital: Chişinău
Widely recognized UN member state. Moldova had two autonomous territorial units: Gagauzia and Transnistria. The latter is home to a de facto independent state.

 Monaco – Principality of Monaco
Capital: Monaco
Widely recognized UN member state. The defense of Monaco is the responsibility of France.

 Mongolia
Capital: Ulaanbaatar
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Montenegro – Montenegro
Capital: Podgorica
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco
Capital: Rabat
Widely recognized UN member state. Morocco claims sovereignty over and controlled most of the disputed Western Sahara, which is home to the de facto independent Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputed the Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla, and Peñón de Alhucemas.

 Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique
Capital: Maputo
Widely recognized UN member state.

Burma  Myanmar[23]
  • Union of Myanmar (to 21 October 2010)
  • Republic of the Union of Myanmar (from 21 October 2010)
    Capital: Naypyidaw
Widely recognized UN member state.

N


 Namibia – Republic of Namibia
Capital: Windhoek
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Nauru – Republic of Nauru
Capital: Yaren (unofficial, seat of parliament)
Widely recognized UN member state. The defense of Nauru is the responsibility of Australia.

   Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
Capital: Kathmandu
Widely recognized UN member state. Nepal is designated as a federation, but its federal units had not yet been created.

 Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
Capital: Amsterdam (official), The Hague (seat of government)
Widely recognized UN member state. The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four (three until October 2010) autonomous countries:

Territory of islands without autonomy (consists of three special municipalities that are part of the Netherlands):

The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and Caribbean Netherlands are not.


 New Zealand
Capital: Wellington
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. New Zealand had responsibilities for the two free associated states of:

It also had sovereignty over two dependent territories:

The government of Tokelau claims Swains Island, part of American Samoa (a U.S. dependence). New Zealand does not recognize this claim.


 Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua
Capital: Managua
Widely recognized UN member state. Nicaragua had two autonomous regions: Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte and Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur.

 Niger – Republic of Niger
Capital: Niamey
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
Capital: Abuja
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2010-2011. Nigeria is a federation of 36 states and one federal territory.[24]

 Norway – Kingdom of Norway
Capital: Oslo
Widely recognized UN member state. Norway had two integral overseas areas: Jan Mayen and Svalbard. The latter of area had a special status due to the Spitsbergen Treaty. Norway had sovereignty over the following dependencies:

O


 Oman – Sultanate of Oman
Capital: Muscat, Oman
Widely recognized UN member state.

P


 Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Capital: Islamabad
Widely recognized UN member state. Pakistan is a federation of four provinces and four territories. It administers part of the disputed region of Kashmir as the territories of Azad Kashmir and the autonomous territory of Gilgit-Baltistan.[25]

 Palau – Republic of Palau
Capital: Ngerulmud
Widely recognized UN member state under Compact of Free Association with the United States.

 Palestine
  • Palestinian National Authority (to 3 January 2013)
  • State of Palestine (from 3 January 2013) Capital: Ramallah (administrative), Gaza City (administrative), Jerusalem (claims)
Partially recognised de facto self-governing entity.[26] Palestine claims sovereignty over a disputed region consisting of three Israeli-occupied territories: the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem. In foreign relations, Palestine was represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, which was a permanent observer at the United Nations (to 29 November 2012). Permanent observer at the United Nations (since 29 November 2012). The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body that exercised limited control over parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Gaza is under the control of Hamas.

 Panama – Republic of Panama
Capital: Panama City
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea
Capital: Port Moresby
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Papua New Guinea has one autonomous region: Bougainville.

 Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay
Capital: Asunción
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Peru – Republic of Peru
Capital: Lima
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
Capital: Manila
Widely recognized UN member state. The Philippines had one autonomous region: Muslim Mindanao. The Philippines administered Scarborough Shoal, which was disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. It also claims sovereignty over the Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, Brunei, and Malaysia) and the Malaysian territory of Sabah.

 Poland – Republic of Poland
Capital: Warsaw
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

 Portugal – Portuguese Republic
Capital: Lisbon
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2011-2012. EU member. Portugal had two autonomous regions: the Azores and Madeira. Portugal claims the Spanish municipalities of Olivenza and Táliga.

Q


 Qatar – State of Qatar
Capital: Doha
Widely recognized UN member state.

R


 Romania
Capital: Bucharest
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

 Russia – Russian Federation
Capital: Moscow
Widely recognized UN member state and a permanent member of the UN Security Council. Russia is a federation of 21 republics, 46 oblasts, 9 krais, 2 federal cities, 1 autonomous oblast, and 4 autonomous okrugs.[27]

 Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda
Capital: Kigali
Widely recognized UN member state.

S


 Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Capital: Basseterre
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Saint Kitts and Nevis is a federation of fourteen parishes within two island.[28] Nevis (which is one of the islands) has autonomy.

 Saint Lucia
Capital: Castries
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Capital: Kingstown
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Samoa – Independent State of Samoa
Capital: Apia
Widely recognized UN member state.

 San Marino – Republic of San Marino
Capital: San Marino
Widely recognized UN member state.

 São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
Capital: São Tomé
Widely recognized UN member state. São Tomé and Príncipe had one autonomous province: Príncipe.

 Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Capital: Riyadh
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Senegal – Republic of Senegal
Capital: Dakar
Widely recognized UN member state.

Serbia  Serbia – Republic of Serbia
Capital: Belgrade
Widely recognized UN member state. Serbia had two autonomous provinces: Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija. The latter province is governed by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. Kosovo is a partially recognized de facto independent republic.

 Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
Capital: Victoria
Widely recognized UN member state. The Seychelles claims the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French territories of Tromelin Island and the Glorioso Islands.

 Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
Capital: Freetown
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Singapore – Republic of Singapore
Capital: Singapore
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Slovakia – Slovak Republic
Capital: Bratislava
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

 Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia
Capital: Ljubljana
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

 Solomon Islands
Capital: Honiara
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Somalia
  • Somali Republic (to 20 August 2012)
  • Federal Republic of Somalia (from 20 August 2012)
    Capital: Mogadishu
Widely recognized UN member state. Over the course of the Somali Civil War, several autonomous regional governments were established in the de jure territory of Somalia. Although these states did not claim independence from Somalia, they were de facto self-governing:

There were also areas of the country which at various times had no effective government at all or which were ruled by local clans. In addition, there is one state which has declared and established de facto independence from Somalia: Somaliland.


 South Africa – Republic of South Africa
Capital: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), Bloemfontein (judicial)
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2011-2012.

 South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan (from 9 July 2011)
Capital: Juba
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 14 July 2011). Disputes Abyei with the Republic of the Sudan. South Sudan is a federation of 10 states.[29]

 Spain – Kingdom of Spain
Capital: Madrid
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Spain is divided into seventeen autonomous communities and two autonomous cities.[30] Its sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas is disputed by Morocco. Its sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga is disputed by Portugal. It claims the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.

 Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Capital: Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte (Administrative), Colombo (Commercial)
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Sudan – Republic of the Sudan
Capital: Khartoum
Widely recognized UN member state. Sudan is a federation of 25 states, ten of which formed South Sudan on 9 July 2011.[31] Disputes Abyei with the Republic of the South Sudan

 Suriname – Republic of Suriname
Capital: Paramaribo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
Capital: Mbabane (administrative), Lobamba (royal and legislative)
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden
Capital: Stockholm
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

  Switzerland – Swiss Confederation
Capital: Bern
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state. Switzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.[32]

 Syria – Syrian Arab Republic
Capital: Damascus
Widely recognized UN member state. Syria included the Golan Heights, which were occupied by Israel. It disputed the Turkish sovereignty over Hatay Province. Syrian Arab Republic is widely viewed as the legitimate authority of Syria.

T


Taiwan → China, Republic of

 Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan
Capital: Dushanbe
Widely recognized UN member state. Tajikistan had one autonomous province: Gorno-Badakhshan.

 Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
Capital: Dodoma (official), Dar es Salaam (seat of government)
Widely recognized UN member state. Tanzania had one autonomous region: Zanzibar.

 Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand
Capital: Bangkok
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Timor-Leste – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[33]
Capital: Dili
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Togo – Togolese Republic
Capital: Lomé
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
Capital: Nukuʻalofa
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Capital: Port of Spain
Widely recognized UN member state. Trinidad and Tobago had one autonomous island: Tobago.

 Tunisia – Tunisian Republic
Capital: Tunis
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Turkey – Republic of Turkey
Capital: Ankara
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2010.

 Turkmenistan
Capital: Ashgabat
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Tuvalu
Capital: Funafuti
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

U


 Uganda – Republic of Uganda
Capital: Kampala
Widely recognized UN member state and a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2010.

 Ukraine
Capital: Kiev
Widely recognized UN member state. Ukraine had one autonomous republic: Crimea.

 United Arab Emirates
Capital: Abu Dhabi
Widely recognized UN member state. The United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates.[34]

 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Capital: London
Widely recognized UN member state and a permanent member of the UN Security Council. EU member. The United Kingdom is composed of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. It had sovereignty over the following British overseas territories:

In addition, the British Monarch had direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:


 United States – United States of America
Capital: Washington, D.C.
Widely recognized UN member state and a permanent member of the UN Security Council. The United States is a federation of 50 states, one federal district, and one incorporated territory.[35] It asserted sovereignty over the following inhabited insular areas:

It also asserted sovereignty over eight uninhabited unincorporated territories:[36]

The United States claims Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank. Its claim to Serranilla is disputed by Colombia and Nicaragua and its claim to Bajo Nuevo is disputed by Colombia, Jamaica, and Nicaragua. Some government sources stated that these two areas were unincorporated territories of the United States.


 Uruguay – Eastern Republic of Uruguay
Capital: Montevideo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan
Capital: Tashkent
Widely recognized UN member state. Uzbekistan had one autonomous republic: Karakalpakstan.

V


 Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
Capital: Port Vila
Widely recognized UN member state.

  Vatican City – Vatican City State
Capital: Vatican City
Widely recognized independent state. Vatican City is administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity recognized by a large number of countries and a Permanent observer at the United Nations. The Holy See also administered a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy. The Pope is the ex officio head of state of Vatican City.

 Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
Capital: Caracas
Widely recognized UN member state. Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, one federal dependency, and one federal district.[37]

 Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Capital: Hanoi
Widely recognized UN member state. Vietnam claims sovereignty over the Paracel Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China) and Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Brunei, the Philippines, and Malaysia).

Y


 Yemen – Republic of Yemen
Capital: Sana'a
Widely recognized UN member state.

Z


 Zambia – Republic of Zambia
Capital: Lusaka
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
Capital: Harare
Widely recognized UN member state.

Non-UN members or observers

Name and capital city Information on status and recognition of sovereignty
 Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia
Capital: Sukhumi
Partially recognized de facto self-governing entity. 3

 Azawad – State of Azawad (from 6 April 2012 to 12 July 2012)
Capital: Gao
De facto self-governing state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Mali.

Debellation by Ansar Dine and MUJAO completed on 12 July 2012.[38]


 China, Republic of
Capital: Taipei (seat of government)
Partially recognized de facto independent state.[9] The Republic of China claims to be the sole legitimate government of China, but only administered Taiwan, Kinmen, the Matsu Islands, the Pratas Islands and Itu Aba.

 Cook Islands
Capital: Avarua
A state in free association with New Zealand, recognized by Japan (from 16 June 2011), Netherlands (from 16 August 2011) and China. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.

 Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo
Capital: Pristina
Partially recognized de facto self-governing entity.[39] Claimed by Serbia as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija under UN administration

 Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Capital: Stepanakert
De facto self-governing entity. Not recognized by any other state. claims by Azerbaijan.

 Niue
Capital: Alofi
A state in free association with New Zealand, recognized by China. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It had shared citizenship with New Zealand.

 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Capital: Lefkoşa
Partially recognized de facto self-governing entity.[40] claims by the Republic of Cyprus.

 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Capital: Bir Lehlou (official), Rabouni (seat of government-in-exile), El Aaiún (claims)
Partially recognized de facto self-governing entity.[41] The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the disputed territory of Western Sahara, most of which is under control of Morocco. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, were claims by Morocco. Its government resided in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.

 Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland
Capital: Hargeisa
De facto self-governing entity. Not recognized by any other state. claims by Somalia.

 South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia
Capital: Tskhinvali
Partially recognized de facto independent state.[42] claimed by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.

 Transnistria – Transnistrian Moldovan Republic
Capital: Tiraspol
Partially recognized de facto self-governing entity.[43] claims by Moldova.

Other entities

Excluded from the list above are the following noteworthy entities which either were not fully sovereign or did not claim to be independent:

  •  Antarctica as a whole had no government and no permanent population. Seven states claims portions of Antarctica and five of these had reciprocally recognised one another's claims.[44] These claims, which were regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, were neither recognised nor disputed by any other signatory state.[45]
  • European Union The European Union is a sui generis supranational organisation which had 15 (later 25 then 27 then 28) member states. The member states had transferred a measure of their legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, and as such the EU had some elements of sovereignty, without generally being considered a sovereign state. The European Union did not claim to be a sovereign state and had only limited capacity for relations with other states.
  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is a United Nations observer. The order had bi-lateral diplomatic relations with a large number of states, but has no territory other than extraterritorial areas within Rome and Malta.[46] The order's Constitution stated: "The Order is a subject of international law and exercises sovereign functions."[47] Although the order frequently asserted its sovereignty, it did not claim to be a sovereign state. It lacked a defined territory. Since all its members were citizens of other states, almost all of them lived in their native countries, and those who resided in the order's extraterritorial properties in Rome did so only in connection with their official duties, the order lacked the characteristic of having a permanent population.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The name "Argentine Nation" is also used for the purposes of legislation.
  2. ^ 23 Provinces: Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquén, Río Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego, Tucumán. 1 Autonomous City: Buenos Aires.
  3. ^ Armenia is not recognized by Pakistan.
  4. ^ 6 States: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia. 3 Territories: Australian Capital Territory, Jervis Bay Territory, Northern Territory.
  5. ^ 9 States: Burgenland, Carinthia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria, Vorarlberg, Vienna.
  6. ^ 3 Communities: Flemish Community, French Community, German-speaking Community. 3 Regions: Brussels-Capital Region, Flemish Region, Walloon Region.
  7. ^ 26 States: Acre, Alagoas, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins. 1 Federal District: Brazilian Federal District.
  8. ^ 10 Provinces: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan. 3 Territories: Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Yukon.
  9. ^ a b The People's Republic of China and the Republic of China did not recognize each other, as both states claims to be the sole legitimate government of China. The following states recognized the ROC instead of the PRC: Belize, Burkina Faso, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, the Gambia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Nicaragua, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, São Tomé and Príncipe, Solomon Islands, Swaziland, Tuvalu, and Vatican City.
  10. ^ Cyprus is not recognized by Turkey or Northern Cyprus
  11. ^ 9 Regions: Afar, Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambela, Harari, Oromiya, Somali, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region, Tigray. 2 Chartered Cities: Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa.
  12. ^ 16 States: Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hesse, Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia
  13. ^ 28 States: Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal. 7 Union Territories: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Lakshadweep, National Capital Territory of Delhi, Puducherry.
  14. ^ Ireland also had the legal description of "Republic of Ireland", although this is not its constitutional name.
  15. ^ Israel is not recognized by Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Chad, Cuba, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, North Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, or Yemen.
  16. ^ Commonly known in English as the "Ivory Coast".
  17. ^ North Korea is not recognized by Estonia, France, Japan, or South Korea.
  18. ^ South Korea is not recognized by North Korea.
  19. ^ Provisionally referred to by the UN and a number of countries and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", see Macedonia naming dispute.
  20. ^ 13 States: Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Penang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu. 3 Federal Territories: Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, Putrajaya.
  21. ^ 31 States: Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatán, Zacatecas. 1 Federal District: Federal District
  22. ^ 4 States: Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap.
  23. ^ Commonly known in English as "Burma".
  24. ^ 36 States: Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara. 1 Federal Territory: Federal Capital Territory
  25. ^ 4 Provinces: Balochistan, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh. 4 Territories: Azad Kashmir, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Islamabad Capital Territory, Gilgit-Baltistan.
  26. ^ Palestine is recognised by Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda (from 22 September 2011), Argentina (from 6 December 2010), Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belize (from 9 September 2011), Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia (from 22 December 2010), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil (from 1 December 2010), Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Chad, the Central African Republic, Chile (from 7 January 2011), China, Comoros, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominica (from 14 September 2011), the Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador (from 24 December 2010), Egypt, El Salvador (from 25 August 2011), Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada (from 2012), Guatemala (from 9 April 2013), Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana (from 13 January 2011), Honduras (from 26 August 2011), Hungary, Iceland (from 15 December 2011), India, Indonesia, Iraq, Iran, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho (from 6 June 2011), Liberia (from July 2011), Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru (from 24 January 2011), the Philippines, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (from 29 August 2011), São Tomé and Príncipe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname (from 1 February 2011), Swaziland, Syria (from 18 July 2011), Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand (from 18 January 2012), Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, Uruguay (from 15 March 2011), Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
  27. ^ 21 Republics: Adygea, Altai, Bashkortostan, Buryatia, Chechnya, Chuvash Republic, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, KalmykiaKarachay–Cherkessia, Karelia, Khakassia, Komi, Mari El, Mordovia, North Ossetia–Alania, Sakha, Tatarstan, Tuva, Udmurtia. 46 Oblasts: Amur, Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhny Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Oryol, Penza, Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan, Sakhalin, Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk, Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver, Tyumen, Ulyanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl. 9 Krais: Altai, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm, Primorsky, Stavropol, Zabaykalsky. 2 Federal Cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg. 1 Autonomous Oblast: Jewish Autonomous Oblast. 4 Autonomous Okrungs: Chukotka, Khanty–Mansi, Nenetsia, Yamalia.
  28. ^ 2 Islands: Saint Kitts, Nevis.14 parishes: Christ Church Nichola Town (Saint Kitts), Saint Anne Sandy Point (Saint Kitts), Saint George Basseterre (Saint Kitts), Saint George Gingerland (Nevis), Saint James Windward (Nevis), Saint John Capesterre (Saint Kitts), Saint John Figtree (Nevis), Saint Mary Cayon (Saint Kitts), Saint Paul Capisterre (Saint Kitts), Saint Paul Charlestown (Nevis), Saint Peter Basseterre (Saint Kitts), Saint Thomas Lowland (Nevis), Saint Thomas Middle Island (Saint Kitts), Trinity Palmetto Point (Saint Kitts).
  29. ^ 10 states: Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Western Bahr el Ghazal, Lakes, Warrap, Western Equatoria, Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Jonglei, Unity , Upper Nile.
  30. ^ 17 Autonomous Communities: Andalusia, Aragon, Asturias, Balearic Islands, Basque Country, Canary Islands, Cantabria, Castile-La Mancha, Castile and León, Catalonia, Extremadura, Galicia, Madrid, Murcia, Navarre, La Rioja, Valencian Community. 2 Autonomous Cities: Ceuta, Melilla.
  31. ^ 15 States: Blue Nile, Al Jazirah, Jonglei, Kassala, Khartoum, Lakes, North Darfur, North Kurdufan, Northern, Al Qadarif, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kurdufan, West Darfur, White Nile
  32. ^ 26 Cantons: Aargau, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Basel-Stadt, Basel-Landschaft, Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Glarus, Graubünden, Jura, Lucerne, Neuchâtel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, St. Gallen, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zürich
  33. ^ Commonly known in English as "East Timor".
  34. ^ 7 Emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Qaiwain.
  35. ^ 50 States: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming. 1 Federal District: District of Columbia. 1 Incorporated Territory: Palmyra Atoll.
  36. ^ These islands were sometimes designated for statistical purposes as the United States Minor Outlying Islands
  37. ^ 23 States: Amazonas, Anzoátegui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Mérida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Táchira, Trujillo, Vargas, Yaracuy, Zulia. 1 Federal District: Capital District. 1 Federal Dependency: Federal Dependencies.
  38. ^ http://www.france24.com/en/20120712-al-qaeda-linked-islamists-drive-malis-tuaregs-last-stronghold-ansogo-timbuktu-mnla-ansar-dine-mujao
  39. ^ Kosovo is recognized by Afghanistan, Albania, Andorra (from 8 June 2011), Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Belgium, Belize, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Canada, Central African Republic (from 22 July 2011), Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti (from 8 May 2010), Dominican Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, the Gambia, Germany, Guinea-Bissau (from 10 January 2011), Honduras (from 3 September 2010), Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kiribati (from 21 October 2010), Latvia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania (from 12 January 2010), Federated States of Micronesia, Monaco, Montenegro, Nauru, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Oman (4 February 2011), Palau, Panama, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Qatar (from 7 January 2011), the Republic of China, Samoa, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovenia, Somalia (from 19 May 2010) South Korea, Swaziland (12 April 2010), Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Tuvalu (18 November 2010), the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Vanuatu (from 28 April 2010).
  40. ^ Northern Cyprus is recognized only by Turkey.
  41. ^ the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is recognized by Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Iran, Jamaica, Laos, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Malawi, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Korea, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Suriname, Syria, Tanzania, Timor-Leste, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
  42. ^ Abkhazia is recognized by South Ossetia, Transnistria, Nagorno-Karabakh, Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Nauru, and Vanuatu (from 23 May 2011).
  43. ^ Transnistria is recognized by Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  44. ^ Rogan-Finnemore, Michelle (2005), "What Bioprospecting Means for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean", in Von Tigerstrom, Barbara, International Law Issues in the South Pacific, Ashgate Publishing, p. 204, ISBN 0-7546-4419-7  "Australia, New Zealand, France, Norway and the United Kingdom reciprocally recognize the validity of each other's claims."
  45. ^ CIA – the World Factbook – Antarctica – accessed 19 January 2008
  46. ^ Bilateral relations with countries, Retrieved 2009-12-22
  47. ^ Chapter General of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta (1998-01-12). Constitutional Charter and Code of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, and of Malta, promulgated 27 June 1961, revised by the Extraordinary Chapter General 28–30 April 1997, Article 3 "Sovereignty," Paragraph 1.. Rome: Tipografia Arte della Stampa. p. 11.