List of sovereign states in 661
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The notion of a sovereign state arises in the 16th century with the development of modern diplomacy. For earlier times, the term "sovereign state" is an anachronism. What corresponded to sovereign states in the medieval and ancient period were monarchs ruling By the Grace of God, de facto feudal or imperial autocrats, or de facto independent nations or tribal confederations.
- Goguryeo (Korea)
- Rashidun Caliphate (to 661)
- Tibet – Tibetan Empire
- Umayyad Caliphate (from 661)