List of sovereign states in the 1st century BC

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The development of states—large-scale, populous, politically centralized, and socially stratified polities/societies governed by powerful rulers—marks one of the major milestones in the evolution of human societies. Archaeologists often distinguish between primary (or pristine) states and secondary states. Primary states evolved independently through largely internal developmental processes rather than through the influence of any other pre-existing state. The earliest known primary states appeared in Mesopatamia ca. 3700 B.C., in Egypt ca. 3300 B.C., in the Indus Valley ca. 2500 B.C., India ca 1700 B. C.,and in China ca. 1600 B.C. As they interacted with their less developed neighbors through trade, warfare, migration, and more generalized ideological influences, the primary states directly or indirectly fostered the emergence of secondary states in surrounding areas, for example, the Hittites in Anatolia, the Minoan and Mycenaean states of the Aegean, or the Nubian kingdoms in the Sudan. According to Professor Gil Stein of the University of Chicago Oriental Institute, "The excavations and archaeological surveys of the last few decades have vastly increased both the quantity and quality of what we know about ancient states and urbanism. Archaeologists have broadened the scope of their research beyond the traditional focus on rulers and urban elites. Current research now aims at understanding the role of urban commoners, craft specialists, and village-based farmers in the overall organization of ancient states and societies. Given the immense geographical scope encompassed by the term 'the Ancient World'".[1] The notion of a sovereign state arises in the 16th century with the development of modern diplomacy.For earlier times, the term "sovereign state" is an anachronism. What corresponded to sovereign states in the medieval and ancient period were monarchs ruling by the grace of God, de facto feudal or imperial autocrats, or de facto independent nations or tribal confederations. This is a list of sovereign states that existed between 100 BC and 1 BC.

Sovereign states[edit]

Map of the world in 50 BC
Sovereign state Years
Albania – Kingdom of Albania 4th century BC - 8th century AD
Armenia – Kingdom of Armenia 190 BC - 428 AD
Atropatene – Kingdom of Atropatene 320s BC - 3rd century AD
Baekje – Korean Kingdom 18 BC - 660 AD
Bithynia 297 BC - 74 BC
Buyeo – Ancient Korean Kingdom 2nd century BC - 494 AD
Chera Kingdom 5th century BC - 1102 AD
Commagene – Kingdom of Commagene 163 BC - 72 AD
Dardanian Kingdom – Dardanian Illyric Kingdom c.448 BC – 28 BC
Dongye – Korean chiefdom 3rd century BC - 5th century AD
Ethiopia – Ethiopian Empire 980 BC - 1974
Goguryeo Kingdom – Ancient Korean Kingdom 37 BC - 668 AD
Han – Han Dynasty 206 BC - 220 AD
Iberia 302 BC - 580 AD
Indo-Greek Kingdom 180 BC - 10 AD
Indo–Scythian Kingdom 200 BC - 400 AD
Kush – Kingdom of Kush 1070 BC - 350 AD
Mauretania 110 BC - AD 40
Maya civilization
Nabataean kingdom 168 BC - 106 AD
Numidia – Kingdom of Numidia 202 - 46 BC
Okjeo – Tribal Korean state 2nd century BC - 5th century AD
Osroene 132 BC - 244 AD
Parthian Empire 247 BC - 224 AD
Pontus - Kingdom of Pontus 291 BC - 62 AD
Ptolemaic Kingdom 305 - 30 BC
Roman Republic 509 - 27 BC
Roman Empire 27 BC - 476/1453 AD
Samhan – Korean Confederacy 1st century BC - 4th century AD
Sātavāhana Empire 230 BC - 220 AD
Scythia 8th century BC - 2nd century AD
Seleucid Empire 312 - 63 BC
Silla – Korean Kingdom 57 BC - 935 AD
State of the Scordisci c.278 BC - 50 BC

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Stein, Gil J (2001). Understanding Ancient State Societies in the Old World. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. pp. 353–379.