List of sovereign states in the 2nd century BC

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The development of states—large-scale, populous, politically centralized, and socially stratified polities/societies governed by powerful rulers—marks one of the major milestones in the evolution of human societies. Archaeologists often distinguish between primary (or pristine) states and secondary states. Primary states evolved independently through largely internal developmental processes rather than through the influence of any other pre-existing state. The earliest known primary states appeared in Mesopatamia ca. 3700 B.C., in Egypt ca. 3300 B.C., in the Indus Valley ca. 2500 B.C., India ca 1700 B. C.,and in China ca. 1600 B.C. As they interacted with their less developed neighbors through trade, warfare, migration, and more generalized ideological influences, the primary states directly or indirectly fostered the emergence of secondary states in surrounding areas, for example, the Hittites in Anatolia, the Minoan and Mycenaean states of the Aegean, or the Nubian kingdoms in the Sudan. Professor Gil Stein at the University of Chicago Oriental Institute states The excavations and archaeological surveys of the last few decades have vastly increased both the quantity and quality of what we know about ancient states and urbanism. Archaeologists have broadened the scope of their research beyond the traditional focus on rulers and urban elites. Current research now aims at understanding the role of urban commoners, craft specialists, and village-based farmers in the overall organization of ancient states and societies. Given the immense geographical scope encompassed by the term “the Ancient World,.[1] The notion of a sovereign state arises in the 16th century with the development of modern diplomacy. For earlier times, the term "sovereign state" is an anachronism. What corresponded to sovereign states in the medieval and ancient period were monarchs ruling By the Grace of God, de facto feudal or imperial autocrats, or de facto independent nations or tribal confederations.

This is a list of sovereign states that existed between 200 BC and 101 BC.

Sovereign states[edit]

Map of the world in 150 BC
Sovereign state Years
Adena culture 1000 - 200 BC
Albania – Kingdom of Albania 4th century BC - 8th century AD
Ardiaean Kingdom - Ardiaean Illyric Kingdom c.260–168 BC
Armenia - Kingdom of Armenia 190 BC - 428 AD
Atropatene – Kingdom of Atropatene 320s BC - 3rd century AD
Bithynia 297 - 74 BC
Buyeo – Ancient Korean Kingdom 2nd century BC - 494 AD
Carthage 650 - 146 BC
Chavín culture 900 - 200 BC
Chera Kingdom 5th century BC - AD 1102
Commagene – Kingdom of Commagene 163 BC - 72 AD
Dardanian Kingdom – Dardanian Illyric Kingdom c.448 BC – 28 BC
Dongye – Korean chiefdom 3rd century BC - 5th century AD
Ethiopia – Ethiopian Empire 980 BC - 1974
Gojoseon – Ancient Korean kingdom 2333 - 108 BC
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 256 - 125 BC
Han – Han Dynasty 206 BC - 220 AD
Iberia 302 BC - 580 AD
Indo–Greek Kingdom 180 BC - 10 AD
Indo–Scythian Kingdom 200 BC - 400 AD
Jin State – Ancient Korean State 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC
Kush – Kingdom of Kush 1070 BC - 350 AD
Lycaonia 8th century - 200 BC
Macedonia 8th century - 146 BC
Mauretania 110 BC - 40 AD
Maurya Empire 321 - 185 BC
Maya civilization
Minyue 224 - 110 BC
Nabataean kingdom 168 BC - 106 AD
Numidia – Kingdom of Numidia 202 - 46 BC
Okjeo Korean tribal state 2nd century BC - 5th century AD
Osroene 132 BC - 244 AD
Paracas culture 600 - 175 BC
Parthian Empire 247 BC - 224 AD
Pontus - Kingdom of Pontus 291 BC - 62 AD
Ptolemaic Kingdom 305 - 30 BC
Roman Republic 509–27 BC
Sātavāhana Empire 230 BC - 220 AD
Scythia 8th century BC - 2nd century AD
Seleucid Empire 312 - 63 BC
Sparta 11th century - 195 BC
State of the Scordisci c.278 BC - 50 BC

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stein, Gil J (2001). Understanding Ancient State Societies in the Old World. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. pp. 353–379.