List of sovereign states in the 3rd century BC

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The development of states—large-scale, populous, politically centralized, and socially stratified polities/societies governed by powerful rulers—marks one of the major milestones in the evolution of human societies. Archaeologists often distinguish between primary (or pristine) states and secondary states. Primary states evolved independently through largely internal developmental processes rather than through the influence of any other pre-existing state. The earliest known primary states appeared in Mesopatamia ca. 3700 B.C., in Egypt ca. 3300 B.C., in the Indus Valley ca. 2500 B.C., India ca 1700 B. C.,and in China ca. 1600 B.C. As they interacted with their less developed neighbors through trade, warfare, migration, and more generalized ideological influences, the primary states directly or indirectly fostered the emergence of secondary states in surrounding areas, for example, the Hittites in Anatolia, the Minoan and Mycenaean states of the Aegean, or the Nubian kingdoms in the Sudan. Professor Gil Stein at the University of Chicago Oriental Institute states The excavations and archaeological surveys of the last few decades have vastly increased both the quantity and quality of what we know about ancient states and urbanism. Archaeologists have broadened the scope of their research beyond the traditional focus on rulers and urban elites. Current research now aims at understanding the role of urban commoners, craft specialists, and village-based farmers in the overall organization of ancient states and societies. Given the immense geographical scope encompassed by the term “the Ancient World,.[1] The notion of a sovereign state arises in the 16th century with the development of modern diplomacy. What corresponded to sovereign states in the medieval and ancient period were monarchs ruling By the Grace of God, de facto feudal or imperial autocrats, or de facto independent nations or tribal confederations.

This is a list of sovereign states that existed between 300 BC and 201 BC.

Sovereign states[edit]

Map of the world in 200 BC
Sovereign state Years
Achaea – Achaean League
Adena culture 1000 - 200 BC
Aetolia – Aetolian League
Albania – Kingdom of Albania 4th century BC - 8th century AD
Ardiaean Kingdom - Ardiaean Illyric Kingdom c.260–168 BC
Atropatene – Kingdom of Atropatene 320s BC - 3rd century AD
Axum – Axumite Empire
Bithynia 297 - 74 BC
Bosporus – Bosporan Kingdom
Carthage 650 - 146 BC
Chavín culture 900 - 200 BC
Chera Kingdom 5th century BC - 1102 AD
Chola
Chorrera 1800 - 300 BC
Chu - State of Chu 1030 - 223 BC
Dardanian Kingdom – Dardanian Illyric Kingdom c.448 BC – 28 BC
Dongye - Korean chiefdom 3rd century BC - 5th century AD
Eastern Zhou – Kingdom of Eastern Zhou 256 - 249 BC
Ethiopia – Ethiopian Empire 980 BC - 1974
Gojoseon – Ancient Korean Kingdom 2333 - 108 BC
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 256 - 125 BC
Han – Han Dynasty 206 BC - 220 AD
Han – State of Han 403 - 230 BC
Iberia 302 BC - 580 AD
Kush – Kingdom of Kush 1070 BC - 350 AD
Jin State – Korean state 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC
Lu – State of Lu 856 - 256 BC
Lycaonia 8th century - 200 BC
Macedonia 8th century - 146 BC
Maurya Empire 321 - 185 BC
Maya civilization
Minyue 224 - 110 BC
Numidia – Kingdom of Numidia 202 - 46 BC
Paracas culture 600 - 175 BC
Parthian Empire 247 BC - 224 AD
Pontus - Kingdom of Pontus 291 BC - 62 AD
Ptolemaic Kingdom 305 - 30 BC
Qi – State of Qi 1046 - 241 BC
Qin – State of Qin 845 BC - 221
Qin – Qin Dynasty 221 BC - 206 BC
Roman Republic 509 - 27 BC
Sātavāhana Empire 230 BC - AD 220
Scythia 8th century BC - 2nd century AD
Seleucid Empire 312 - 63 BC
Sparta 11th century BC - 195 BC
State of the Scordisci c.278 BC - 50 BC
Văn Lang 2879 - 258 BC
Wei - State of Wei 403 - 225 BC
Yan – State of Yan 865 - 222 BC
Yue – State of Yue 334 - 334 BC
Zhoa – State of Zhoa 403 - 222 BC
Zhou – Zhou Dynasty 1045 - 256 BC

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stein, Gil J (2001). Understanding Ancient State Societies in the Old World. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. pp. 353–379.