List of sovereign states in the 5th century BC

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The development of states—large-scale, populous, politically centralized, and socially stratified polities/societies governed by powerful rulers—marks one of the major milestones in the evolution of human societies. Archaeologists often distinguish between primary (or pristine) states and secondary states. Primary states evolved independently through largely internal developmental processes rather than through the influence of any other pre-existing state. The earliest known primary states appeared in Mesopatamia ca. 3700 B.C., in Egypt ca. 3300 B.C., in the Indus Valley ca. 2500 B.C., India ca 1700 B. C.,and in China ca. 1600 B.C. As they interacted with their less developed neighbors through trade, warfare, migration, and more generalized ideological influences, the primary states directly or indirectly fostered the emergence of secondary states in surrounding areas, for example, the Hittites in Anatolia, the Minoan and Mycenaean states of the Aegean, or the Nubian kingdoms in the Sudan. Professor Gil Stein at the University of Chicago Oriental Institute states The excavations and archaeological surveys of the last few decades have vastly increased both the quantity and quality of what we know about ancient states and urbanism. Archaeologists have broadened the scope of their research beyond the traditional focus on rulers and urban elites. Current research now aims at understanding the role of urban commoners, craft specialists, and village-based farmers in the overall organization of ancient states and societies. Given the immense geographical scope encompassed by the term “the Ancient World,.[1] The notion of a sovereign state arises in the 16th century with the development of modern diplomacy.For earlier times, the term "sovereign state" is an anachronism. What corresponded to sovereign states in the medieval and ancient period were monarchs ruling By the Grace of God, de facto feudal or imperial autocrats, or de facto independent nations or tribal confederations. This is a list of sovereign states that existed between 500 BC and 401 BC.

Sovereign states[edit]

Map of the world in 500 BC
Sovereign state Years
Achaemenid Empire 550 - 330 BC
Adena culture 1000 - 200 BC
Ammon – Kingdom of Ammon c. 10th century - 332 BC
Anga
Athens 510 - 322 BC
Avanti
Bithynia
Cappadocia
Carthage 650 - 146 BC
Chavín culture 900 - 200 BC
Chedi
Chen – State of Chen 855 - 479 BC
Chera Kingdom 5th century BC - 1102 AD
Chola
Chorrera 1800 - 300 BC
Chu 1030 - 223 BC
Colchis
Corinth
Cyrene
Dʿmt c. 980 - c. 400 BC
Dardanian Kingdom – Dardanian Illyric Kingdom c.448 BC – 28 BC
Edom
Ethiopia – Ethiopian Empire 980 BC - 1974 AD
Gandhara
Gojoseon – Ancient Korean kingdom 2333 - 108 BC
Han – State of Han 403 - 230 BC
Kalinga
Kamboja – Kamboja Kingdom
Kasi – Kasi Kingdom
Kikata – Kikata Kingdom
Kosala
Kuru
Kush – Kingdom of Kush 1070 BC - 350 AD
Lu – State of Lu 856 - 256 BC
Lycaonia 8th century - 200 BC
Macedonia 8th century - 146 BC
Mahajanapadas
Malla
Mannai
Maya civilization
Minaea
Moab
Mysia
Nanda Empire 424 - 321 BC
Olmec 1400 - 400 BC
Panchala
Pandya
Paphlagonia
Paracas culture 600 - 175 BC
Pisidia
Qi – State of Qi 1046 - 241 BC
Qin – State of Qin 845 - 221 BC
Roman Republic 509 - 27 BC
Saba
Scythia 8th century BC - 2nd century AD
Sparta 11th century - 195 BC
Surasena
Ta Netjeru
Thebes
Vajji
Văn Lang 2879 - 258 BC
Vatsa
Wei – State of Wei 403 - 225 BC
Yan – State of Yan 865 - 222 BC
Zapotec civilization
Zheng – State of Zheng 806 - 375 BC
Zhou – Zhou Dynasty 1045 - 256 BC

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stein, Gil J (2001). Understanding Ancient State Societies in the Old World. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. pp. 353–379.