List of sovereign states in the 8th century BC

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The development of states—large-scale, populous, politically centralized, and socially stratified polities/societies governed by powerful rulers—marks one of the major milestones in the evolution of human societies. Archaeologists often distinguish between primary (or pristine) states and secondary states. Primary states evolved independently through largely internal developmental processes rather than through the influence of any other pre-existing state. The earliest known primary states appeared in Mesopatamia ca. 3700 B.C., in Egypt ca. 3300 B.C., in the Indus Valley ca. 2500 B.C., India ca 1700 B. C.,and in China ca. 1600 B.C. As they interacted with their less developed neighbors through trade, warfare, migration, and more generalized ideological influences, the primary states directly or indirectly fostered the emergence of secondary states in surrounding areas, for example, the Hittites in Anatolia, the Minoan and Mycenaean states of the Aegean, or the Nubian kingdoms in the Sudan. According to Professor Gil Stein of the University of Chicago Oriental Institute, "The excavations and archaeological surveys of the last few decades have vastly increased both the quantity and quality of what we know about ancient states and urbanism. Archaeologists have broadened the scope of their research beyond the traditional focus on rulers and urban elites. Current research now aims at understanding the role of urban commoners, craft specialists, and village-based farmers in the overall organization of ancient states and societies. Given the immense geographical scope encompassed by the term 'the Ancient World'".[1] This is a list of sovereign states that existed between 800 BC and 701 BC.

Africa[edit]

State Existed
Assyria 911 - 612 BC
Aethiopia c. 13th - 5th centuries BC
Kngdom of Carthage 814 - 650 BC
D'mt 980 - 400 BC
Kingdom of Egypt 1069 - 525 BC
Garamantia 1000 BC - 700 AD
Kingdom of Kush 1070 BC - 350 AD
Libu 1550 - 146BC
Macrobia c. 8th - 4th centuries BC
Nok 1000 BC - 300 AD
Kingdom of Punt 2400 - 1069 BC

Americas[edit]

State Existed
Adena culture 1000 - 200 BC
Maya 2000 BC - 900 AD
Olmec 1400-400 BC
Paracas 800 - 100 BC
Pueblo 12th century BC - 14th century AD

Europe[edit]

North and West[edit]

State Existed

South and East[edit]

State Existed
Kingdom of Alba Longa 1200-753 BC
Arcadia 1000-743 BC
Kingdom of Argolis 1200-379 BC
Kingdom of Athens 1556-1068 BC
Republic of Athens 1068-355 BC
Boeotia 1100-750 BC
Kingdom of Epirus 1183 - 168 BC
Kingdom of Etruria 768 - 264 BC
Iapydes 9th century - 34 BC
Illyria 2000-168 BC
Kingdom of Lacedaemon 1300-950 BC
Liburnia 11th century - 34 BC
Locria 1250-386 BC
Lucania 1000-356 BC[2]
Kingdom of Macedonia 860-146 BC
Magna Graecia 740 - 89 BC
Messapia 8th century - 89 BC
Messenia 1300-724 BC
Oenotria 1000 - 325 BC
Oscans 1000 - 4th centuries BC
Padanian Etruria 9th century - 5th century BC
Iapyges 11th century - 89 BC
Kingdom of Rome 753 - 509 BC
Kingdom of Sabinum c. 760 - 494 BC
Sicani c. 13th century - 300 BC
Sicels c. 11th century - 425 BC
Kingdom of Sparta 950-146 BC
Tartessos 1000-450 BC [3]
Thrace 1200 - 450 BC
Tyrrhenia 1100 - 764 BC
Venetia c. 10th century - 231 BC

Eurasian Steppe and Central Asia[edit]

name existed
Bactria 2140 - 550 BC
Kingdom of Balhara 12th century - 7th century BC
Chorasmia 1290-180 BC
Kingdom of Colchis 1300 BC - 2nd century AD
Dahae 700 - 530 BC
Magyar 1100 BC - 895 AD
Iberia 1000 - 302 BC
Qiang 2000 BC- 150 BC
Xianyun 824-209 BC

East Asia[edit]

name existed
Ba (state) 13th century - 311 BC
Cai (state) 980 - 447 BC
Cao (state) 1053 - 487 BC
Chen (state) 1046-479 BC
Chu (state) 1030-223 BC
Deng (state) 1200-678 BC
Donghu 1400-150 BC
Eastern Guo 1046-767 BC
Gojoseon 2333-108 BC
Guan (state) 1046 - 1040 BC
Gumie 1046 - 480 BC
Western Han 1046-764 BC
Huang (state) 891-648 BC
Jin 1042-376 BC
Kỷ line kingdom 853-755 BC
Lu (state) 1042-249 BC
Pi (state) 1046-418 BC
Qi (Henan) 1600-445 BC
Qi (state) 1046-221 BC
Qin (state) 858-221 BC
Quan (state) 1250-704 BC
Quanrong 954-301 BC
Shěn (state) 1050-500 BC
Shu (state) 1046-316 BC
Song (state) 1058-286 BC
Sui (state) 771-221 BC
Sumpa 1600 BC - 7th century AD
Tan (state) 1046-684 BC
Teng (state) 1046-414 BC
Văn Lang 2879-258 BC
Western Guo 1046-687 BC
Wey (state) 1046-687 BC
Wu (state) 1046-473 BC
Xing (state) 1046-632 BC
Xu (state) 2000-512 BC
Yan (state) 1046-222 BC
Zheng (state) 806-375 BC
Zhou Kingdom 1046-256 BC
Zou (state) 1012-350 BC

South Asia[edit]

name existed
Anarta Kingdom 1100-550 BC
Anga Kingdom 1380-550 BC
Asmaka Kingdom 1150-300 BC
Avanti Kingdom 900-322 BC
Chedi Kingdom 1250-344 BC
Chola Kingdom 2645-110 BC
Danda Kingdom 1100 - 450 BC
Dasarna Kingdom 1150 - 600 BC
Drangiana 950 - 600 BC
Gurjara Kingdom 1000 - 550 BC
Haryanka Kingdom 684 - 413 BC
Himalaya Kingdom 600 - 322 BC
Kalinga Kingdom 1376 - 285 BC
Kamboja Kingdom 1450 - 195 BC
Kasmira Kingdom 1250 - 322 BC
Kekeya Kingdom 1250 - c. 4th century BC
Kimpurusha Kingdom 1000 - 325 BC
Kirata Kingdom 1350 - c. 300 BC
Kosala Kingdom 1300 - 266 BC
Kuru Kingdom 1376 - 285 BC
Lanka 1200 - 543 BC
Madra Kingdom 1350 - 350 BC
Magadha Kingdom 1200-800 BC
Republic of Malla 780 - 323 BC
Matsya Kingdom 1250 -318 BC
Nepa Kingdom 750 - 323 BC
Panchala Kingdom 1200 - 700 BC
Pandya Kingdom 1350 - 460 BC
Parvata Kingdom c. 9th century - 325 BC
Pragjyotisha Kingdom c. 11th century - 350 BC
Pundra Kingdom 1300 BC - 550 AD
Saurashtra Kingdom 950- 355 BC
Shakya Republic 800 - 320 BC
Sindhu Kingdom 1300 - 320 BC
Surasena 1300 - 323 BC
Trigarta Kingdom 1150-322 BC
Vanga Kingdom 1300 BC - 580 AD
Vatsa 1100-323 BC
Vidarbha Kingdom 1200-322 BC
Virata Kingdom 1300-322 BC
Vriji 1250 - 322 BC
Yaksha Kingdom 1200 - 350 BC

West Asia[edit]

name existed
Kingdom of Ammon 1000 - 332 BC
Kingdom of Anshan 717 - 646 BC
Kingdom of Aram Damascus 1184 - 732 BC
Aramean Kingdom 2300 – 700 BC
Kingdom of Awsan 7th century BC - 100 AD
Arme-Shupria 1290 - 1190 BC
Kingdom of Assyria 1975 - 934 BC
Assyrian Empire 911 - 612 BC
Bashan 1330 - 928 BC
Kingdom of Bit-Istar 12th century - 710 BC
Kingdom of Caria 11th - 6th century BC
Chaldean Kingdom 1100 - 539 BC
Principality of Corduene 800 BC - 653 AD
Kingdom of Cilicia 795 - 546 BC
Drangiana 950 - 600 BC
Diauehi Kingdom 1118-760 BC
Dilmun 2600-675 BC
Doris 1200-580 BC
Kingdom of Edom 1200 - 125 BC
Elamite Empire 1210-535 BC
Ellipian Kingdom 850-609 BC
Kingdom of Eshnuna 2000 - 8th century BC
Hittite Empire 1600 - 1178 BC
Ionian Federation 1070-545 BC
United Kingdom of Israel and Judah 1000 - 930 BC
Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) 930- 720 BC
Kingdom of Judah 930- 586 BC
Lukka 2000-1183 BC
Lullubi 2400-650 BC
Kingdom of Lycia 1183-546 BC
Kingdom of Lydia 1200-680 BC
Mannaean Kingdom 1110-616 BC
Magan 2200-550 BC
Kingdom of Media 750-678 BC
Kingdom of Mysia 1320 - 301 BC [4]
Nairi 1190-890 BC
Namar Kingdom 2350-750 BC
Neo-Hitti Kingdoms 1200-800 BC
Paphlagonia 1480 - 183 BC[5]
Parsua 860-600 BC
Kingdom of Persis 10th century - 550 BC
Kingdom of Philistia 1175-732 BC
Phoenicia 1800-539 BC
Kingdom of Phrygia 1200-700 BC
Qedar 870 BC - 250 AD
Quwê 895-625 BC
Kingdom of Saba 1100-275 BC
Principality of Sam'al 1200-680 BC
Saparda Kingdom 7200-670 BC
Kingdom of Tabal 1180 - 609 BC
Kingdom of Tarhuntassa 1350 - 1200 BC
Kingdom of Troas 3000-700 BC
Kingdom of Tuwanuwa 1000 - 700 BC
Kingdom of Urartu 860 - 590 BC
Principality of Zabdicene 780 BC - 5th century AD
Zikirti Kingdom 750 - 521 BC

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stein, Gil J (2001). Understanding Ancient State Societies in the Old World. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. pp. 353–379. 
  2. ^ Pritchard, James Cowles. "Kingdoms of Italy: Research into the Physical History of Mankind". 1999-2014. The History Files. Retrieved 18 March 2014. 
  3. ^ "Ancient Kingdoms of Iberia, Spain & Portugal". 2014. Regnal Chronologies. Retrieved 21 April 2014. 
  4. ^ "Kingdoms of Anatolia". 2014. The History Files. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  5. ^ "Middle East Kingdoms Ancient Anatolia". 2014. The History Files. Retrieved 20 April 2014.