List of sovereign states in the 9th century BC

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The development of states—large-scale, populous, politically centralized, and socially stratified polities/socities governed by powerful rulers—marks one of the major milestones in the evolution of human societies. Archaeologists often distinguish between primary (or pristine) states and secondary states. Primary states evolved independently through largely internal developmental processes rather than through the influence of any other pre-existing state. The earliest known primary states appeared in Mesopatamia ca. 3700 B.C., in Egypt ca. 3300 B.C., in the Indus Valley ca. 2500 B.C., India ca 1700 B. C.,and in China ca. 1600 B.C. As they interacted with their less developed neighbors through trade, warfare, migration, and more generalized ideological influences, the primary states directly or indirectly fostered the emergence of secondary states in surrounding areas, for example, the Hittites in Anatolia, the Minoan and Mycenaean states of the Aegean, or the Nubian kingdoms in the Sudan. Professor Gil Stein at the University of Chicago Oriental Institute states The excavations and archaeological surveys of the last few decades have vastly increased both the quantity and quality of what we know about ancient states and urbanism. Archaeologists have broadened the scope of their research beyond the traditional focus on rulers and urban elites. Current research now aims at understanding the role of urban commoners, craft specialists, and village-based farmers in the overall organization of ancient states and societies. Given the immense geographical scope encompassed by the term “the Ancient World,.[1] This is a list of state's, cultures and civilizations that existed between 900 BC and 801 BC.

Sovereign states[edit]

Sovereign state Years
Adena culture 1000 - 200 BC
Ammon – Kingdom of Ammon c.10th century - 332 BC
Aram Damascus 12th century - 734 BC
Assyria – Neo-Assyrian Empire 934 - 609 BC
Athens
Babylon – Fourth Dynasty 1155 - 689 BC
Caria 11th - 6th century BC
Chavín culture 900 - 200 BC
Chen – State of Chen 855 - 479 BC
Chorrera 1800 - 300 BC
Chu – State of Chu 1030 - 223 BC
Corinthus
D'mt c.980 - c.400 BC
Elam 2700 - 539 BC
Ethiopia – Ethiopian Empire 980 BC - AD 1974
Gojoseon – Ancient Korean kingdom 2333 - 108 BC
Israel – Kingdom of Israel 930s - 720s BC
Judah – Kingdom of Judah 930s - 586 BC
Kush – Kingdom of Kush 1070 BC - AD 350
Lower Egypt 1070 - 664 BC
Lu – State of Lu 856 - 256 BC
Lycia 1250 - 546 BC
Lydia 1200 - 546 BC
Neo-Hittites 1170 - 667 BC
Olmec 1400 - 400 BC
Phoenicia 1200 - 536 BC
Phrygia 1200 - 700 BC
Qi – State of Qi 1046 - 241 BC
Qin – State of Qin 845 - 221 BC
Rasna 1200 - 550 BC
Sparta 11th century - 195 BC
Upper Egypt 1070 - 664 BC
Urartu – Kingdom of Urartu 860 - 590 BC
Văn Lang 2879 - 258 BC
Yan – State of Yan 865 - 222 BC
Zheng – State of Zheng 806 - 375 BC
Zhou – Zhou Dynasty 1045 - 256 BC

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stein, Gil J (2001). Understanding Ancient State Societies in the Old World. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. pp. 353–379.