List of government space agencies

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Russian Space Station Mir, back-dropped against the Earth, taken from the NASA's Space Shuttle Atlantis following undocking from the station at the end of STS-71 on the 4th of July, 1995. On the 29th of June, 1995, STS-71 became the first Shuttle mission ever to dock with the station.

This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration.

The name given is the English version, with the native language version below. The acronym given is the most common acronym: this can either be the acronym of the English version (e.g. JAXA), or the acronym in the native language. Where there are multiple acronyms in common use, the English one is given first.

The date of the founding of the space agency is the date of first operations where possible. If the space agency is no longer running, then the date when it was terminated (i.e. the last day of operations) is given. A link to the Agency's primary website is also given.

Capabilities of the space agencies[edit]

Color legend

The capabilities of the space agencies are color-coded as follows:

  Manned Lunar Exploration + Operates Space Station + Manned Space Flight + Operates Extraterrestrial Probes + Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  Operates Space Station + Manned Space Flight + Operates Extraterrestrial Probes + Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  Manned Space Flight + Operates Extraterrestrial Probes + Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  Operates Extraterrestrial Probes + Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  None Of The Above
Space agency Country Founded Terminated Capabilities of the space agency Ref(s)
Name Initialisms/Acronym Astronauts Operates Satellites Sounding Rockets capable Recoverable Biological Sounding Rockets capable
Belarus Space Agency  Belarus 2010  — No No Yes No [1]
Spanish: Asociación Centroamericana de Aeronáutica y el Espacio
(Central American Association for Aeronautics and Space)
ACAE  Costa Rica 2010  — No Yes No No [2]
Aeronautics and Space Research and Diffusion Center[citation needed]
(Spanish: Centro de Investigación y Difusión Aeronáutico-Espacial)
CIDA-E  Uruguay 5 August 1975  — No No No No  —
Mexican Space Agency
(Spanish: Agencia Espacial Mexicana)
AEM  Mexico 30 July 2010  — Yes Yes No No  —
Algerian Space Agency
French: Agence Spatiale Algérienne
Berber: Tafullut Tadzayrit n Tallunt
Arabic: الوكالة الفضائية الجزائرية
ASAL  Algeria 16 January 2002  — No Yes No No  —
Asia Pacific Multilateral Cooperation in Space Technology and Applications[citation needed]
(Chinese: 亚太空间技术应用多边合作会议)
AP-MCSTA February 1992  — No Yes No No  —
Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum
(Japanese: アジア太平洋地域宇宙機関会議)
APRSAF 1993  — No Yes No No  —
Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization
(Chinese: 亚太空间合作组织)
APSCO 28 October 2005  — No Yes No No  —
German: Agentur für Luft- und Raumfahrt
(Aeronautics and Space Agency);
also Austrian Space Agency;
(Austrian Solar and Space Agency 1977–1987)
ALR  Austria 12 July 1972  — No No No No [3][4]
Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Milli Aerokosmik Agentliyinin
(Azerbaijan National Aerospace Agency)
AMAKA  Azerbaijan 21 February 1974  — No Yes No No  —
Dutch: Belgisch Instituut voor Ruimte-Aëronomie
French: Institut d’Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique
(Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy)
BIRA
IASB
BISA
 Belgium 25 November 1964  — Yes No No No [5]
Spanish: Agencia Bolivariana para Actividades Espaciales
(Bolivarian Agency for Space Activities)
ABAE  Venezuela 1 January 2008  — No Yes No No [6]
Portuguese: Agência Espacial Brasileira
(Brazilian Space Agency)
AEB  Brazil 10 February 1994  — Yes Yes Yes[7] No [8]
UK Space Agency UKSA  United Kingdom 1 April 2010  — Yes Yes Yes Yes [citation needed]
Bolivian Space Agency[citation needed]
ABE  Bolivia 2012  — No Yes No No [9][10][11]
Bulgarian: Българска академия на науките
(Space Research Institute, Solar-Terrestrial Influences Institute) Bulgarian Space Agency
ИКИ-БАН
SRI-BAS
ИСЗВ-БАН
STIL-BAS
 Bulgaria 1987  — Yes Yes No No [12]
Canadian Space Agency
French: Agence spatiale canadienne
CSA
ASC
 Canada 1 March 1989  — Yes Yes Yes No [13]
China National Space Administration
(Chinese: 国家航天局)
CNSA  People's Republic of China 22 April 1993  — Yes Yes Yes Yes [14]
Spanish: Comisión Colombiana del Espacio
(Colombian Space Commission)
CCE  Colombia 18 July 2006  — Yes Yes No No [15]
Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing[citation needed] CRISP  Singapore 1995  — No Yes No No
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO  Australia 1926  — No Yes No No [16]
Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems CCSDS 1982  — No No No No  —
Committee on Space Research COSPAR 1958  — No No No No [17][17][17]
Croatian: Hrvatska svemirska agencija
(Croatian Space Agency[citation needed])
HSA
CSA
 Croatia October 2002  — No No No No [18]
Czech: Ministerstvo dopravy České republiky
(Ministry of Transport of the Czech Republic - Space Technologies and Satellite Systems Department[citation needed][19])
[6]
Ministry of Transport of the Czech Republic
 Czech Republic 2003[citation needed]  — No No No No [19]
Danish: Danmarks Rumcenter
(Danish National Space Center)
DRC
DNSC
 Denmark 1 January
1968
31 December
2006
Yes No No No [citation needed]
Danish: Dansk Rumforskningsinstitut
(Danish Space Research Institute)
DRKI
DSRI
 Denmark 1 January
2005
31 December
2006
No Yes No No [citation needed]
Danish: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet – Institut for Rumforskning og -teknologi
(Technical University of Denmark – National Space Institute)
DTU Space  Denmark 1 January
2006
 — Yes Yes No No [20]
European Space Agency
(French: Agence spatiale européenne)
(German: Europäische Weltraumorganisation)
ESA
ASE
EWO
31 May 1975  — Yes Yes Yes Yes [21][22]
Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency
(Thai: สำนักงานพัฒนาเทคโนโลยีอวกาศและภูมิสารสนเทศ)
GISTDA
สทอภ
 Thailand 3 November 2002  — No Yes No No [23]
German: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt
(German Aerospace Center)
DLR  Germany 1969  — Yes Yes Yes No [24]
Hungarian: Magyar Űrkutatási Iroda
(Hungarian Space Office)
MŰI
HSO
 Hungary January 1992  — No Yes No No [25]
Indian Space Research Organization
(Hindi: भारतीय अंतरिक्ष अनुसंधान संगठन)
ISRO
इसरो
 India 15 August 1969  — Yes Yes Yes Yes [24]
Greek: Ινστιτούτο Διαστημικών Εφαρμογών και Τηλεπισκόπησης
(Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing)
ΙΔΕΤ
ISARS
 Greece 1955  — No Yes No No [citation needed]
Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial INTA  Spain 1942  — Yes Yes Yes No [26][27][28]
Iranian Space Agency
(Persian: سازمان فضایی ایران‎)
ISA  Iran 2003  — No Yes Yes Yes [29][30][31]
Israeli Space Agency
(Hebrew: סוכנות החלל הישראלית‎)
ISA
סל"ה
 Israel April 1983  — Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
Italian Space Agency
(Italian: Agenzia Spaziale Italiana)
ASI  Italy 1988  — Yes Yes Yes No [32][33]
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
(Japanese: 宇宙航空研究開発機構)
JAXA  Japan 1 October 2003  — Yes Yes Yes No [34]
National Space Agency (KazCosmos);
Kazakh Space Research Institute
NSA (KazCosmos);
SRI
 Kazakhstan 1991  — No Yes No No  —
Korean Committee of Space Technology
(Korean: 조선우주공간기술위원회)
KCST  North Korea 1980s 2013 No Yes Yes No [35][36][37]
National Aerospace Development Administration
(Korean: 국가우주개발국)
NADA  North Korea 2013  — No Yes Yes No [38]
Korea Aerospace Research Institute
(Korean: 한국항공우주연구원)
KARI  South Korea 10 October 1989  — Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
Lithuanian Space Association[citation needed] LSA  Lithuania 2007  — No Yes No No [39]
Malaysian National Space Agency
(Malay: Agensi Angkasa Negara)
ANGKASA  Malaysia 2002  — Yes Yes No No [40]
National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA  United States 1 October 1958  — Yes Yes Yes Yes [41]
National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences
(Arabic: الهيئة العامة للاستشعار عن بعد وعلوم الفضاء ‎)
NARSS  Egypt 1994  — No Yes No No [42]
French: Centre National d’Études Spatiales
(National Center of Space Research)
CNES  France 19 December 1961  — Yes Yes Yes No [43]
Spanish: Comisión Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Aeroespacial
(National Commission for Aerospace Research and Development)[citation needed]
CONIDA  Peru 11 June 1974  — No No Yes No  —
Spanish: Comisión Nacional de Investigaciones Espaciales
(National Commission for Space Research)
CNIE  Argentina 1961 1991 No No Yes Yes [44][45]
Spanish: Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales
(National Space Activities Commission)
CONAE  Argentina 28 May 1991  — No Yes Yes No [44]
Indonesian: Lembaga Antariksa dan Penerbangan Nasional
(National Institute of Aeronautics and Space)
LAPAN  Indonesia 27 November 1964  — Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
National Remote Sensing Center of Mongolia[citation needed] NRSC  Mongolia 1987  — No No No No [46]
French: Centre national de télédétection
(Arabic: المركز الوطني للإستشعار عن بعد‎)
(National Remote Sensing Center of Tunisia)[citation needed]
CNT  Tunisia 1988  — No No No No  —
Uzbek State Space Research Agency (UzbekCosmos) USSRA (UzbekCosmos)  Uzbekistan 2001  — No No No No [7] [47]
Ukrainian: Національне космічне агентство України
(National Space Agency of Ukraine)
НКАУ
NSAU
 Ukraine 2 March 1992  — Yes Yes Yes No [8]
National Space Organization
(Chinese: 國家太空中心)
NSPO  Taiwan October 1991  — No Yes Yes No [48]
National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA  Nigeria 1998  — No Yes No No [citation needed]
Dutch: Stichting Ruimteonderzoek Nederland
(Netherlands Institute for Space Research)
SRON  Netherlands 1983  — No No No No [citation needed]
Norwegian: Norsk Romsenter
(Norwegian Space Centre)
NRS
NSC
 Norway 1987  — No Yes Yes No [49]
Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
(Urdu: پاکستان خلائی و بالا فضائی تحقی‍قاتی کمیشن‎)
SUPARCO
سپارکو
 Pakistan 16 September 1961  — No Yes Yes No [citation needed]
Portuguese: Gabinete do Espaço da FCT
(FCT Space Office)[citation needed]
[50]
FCT SO
 Portugal 2009  — No No No No  —
Romanian: Agenţia Spaţială Română
(Romanian Space Agency)
ASR
ROSA
 Romania 1991  — Yes Yes No No [citation needed]
former Egypt Remote Sensing Center EASRT-RSC  Egypt 1971 1994 No No No No [42]
French: Centre Royal de Télédétection Spatiale
Berber: Ammas Amrrukan n Tallunt
(Arabic: المركز الملكي للإستشعار البعدي الفضائي‎)
(Royal Centre for Remote Sensing)[citation needed]
CRTS  Morocco December 1989  — No No No No  —
Russian: Федеральное космическое агентство
(Russian Federal Space Agency)
ROSCOSMOS  Russia c.1992  — Yes Yes Yes Yes [citation needed]
Sri Lanka Space Agency[citation needed] SLSA  Sri Lanka 2010 (Proposed)[dated info]  — No Yes No No [51]
Turkish: TÜBİTAK Uzay Teknolojileri Araştırma Enstitüsü (TÜBİTAK UZAY)
(TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute)
TÜBİTAK UZAY  Turkey 1985  — Yes Yes No No  —
Russian: Советская космическая программа
(Soviet space program)
СССР  Soviet Union ca. 1955 ca. 1991 Yes Yes Yes Yes [citation needed]
Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization SPARRSO  Bangladesh 1980  — No No No No [52]
Polish: Centrum Badań Kosmicznych PAN
(Space Research Centre)
CBK-PAN
SRC
 Poland 1977  — Yes Yes No No [citation needed]
South African National Space Agency SANSA  South Africa 9 December 2010  — No No No No [53]
Space Research Institute of Saudi Arabia[citation needed]
(Arabic: معهد بحوث الفضاء ‎)
KACST-SRI  Saudi Arabia  —  — No Yes No No  —
Vietnamese: Viện Công nghệ vũ trụ
(Space Technology Institute)[citation needed]
CNVT
VAST-STI
 Vietnam 20 November 2006  — Yes Yes No No [54]
Swedish: Rymdstyrelsen
(Swedish National Space Board)
SNSB  Sweden 1972  — Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
Swiss Space Office SSO   Switzerland  —  — No No No No [citation needed]
Turkmenistan National Space Agency  Turkmenistan 2011  — No No No No [55]
United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs UNOOSA  United Nations 13 December 1958  —  —  —  —  — [56]
United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space UNCOPUOS 12 December 1959  —  —  —  —  —  —
Space Technology Institute[citation needed] STI  Vietnam 2006  — No No No No [57]

List of space agencies with launch capability[edit]

Space agency Country Founded Terminated Capabilities of the space agency Ref(s)
Name Acronym Launch capable Multiple Satellites Launch capable Developed & Deployed Cryogenic Rocket Engines Operates Extraterrestrial Probe Recoverable Satellites capable
China National Space Administration
(Chinese: 中华人民共和国国家航天局)
CNSA  People's Republic of China 22 April 1993  — Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [14]
European Space Agency
(French: Agence spatiale européenne)
(German: Europäische Weltraumorganisation)
ESA
ASE
EWO
 Austria
 Belgium
 Czech Republic
 Denmark
 Finland
 France
 Germany
 Greece
 Ireland
 Italy
 Luxembourg
 Netherlands
 Norway
 Portugal
 Poland
 Romania
 Spain
 Sweden
  Switzerland
 United Kingdom
31 May 1975  — Yes Yes Yes Yes No [21][22]
Iranian Space Agency
(Persian: سازمان فضایی ایران‎)
ISA
ISA
 Iran 2003  — Yes No No No No [58]
Israeli Space Agency
(Hebrew: סוכנות החלל הישראלית‎)
(Arabic: وكالة الفضاء الإسرائيلية‎)
ISA
סל"ה
 Israel April 1983  — Yes No No No No [citation needed]
Italian Space Agency
(Italian: Agenzia Spaziale Italiana)
ASI  Italy 1988  — Yes Yes Yes Yes No [59]
Korea Aerospace Research Institute
(Korean: 한국항공우주연구원)
(Hanja: 韓國航空宇宙硏究院)
KCST  North Korea 1980s  — Yes No No No No [citation needed]
Korea Aerospace Research Institute
(Korean: 한국항공우주연구원)
(Hanja: 韓國航空宇宙硏究院)
KARI
항우연
 South Korea October 1989  — Yes No No No No [citation needed]
Indian Space Research Organization
(Hindi: भारतीय अंतरिक्ष अनुसंधान संगठन)
ISRO
इसरो
 India 15 August 1969  — Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [60]
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
(Japanese: 宇宙航空研究開発機構)
JAXA  Japan 1 October 2003  — Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [34]
National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA  United States 1 October 1958  — Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [41]
French: Centre National d’Études Spatiales
(National Center of Space Research)
CNES  France 19 December 1961  — Yes Yes Yes No No [43]
Ukrainian: Національне космічне агентство України
(National Space Agency of Ukraine)
НКАУ
NSAU
 Ukraine 2 March 1992  — Yes Yes No No No [citation needed]
Russian: Федеральное космическое агентство
(Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos))
ROSCOSMOS
RFSA
 Russia ca. 1992  — Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [citation needed]
Russian: Советская космическая программа
(Soviet space program)
СССР  Soviet Union ca. 1955 ca. 1991 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [citation needed]

List of space agencies with manned spaceflight capability[edit]

Space agency Country Founded Terminated Accomplished tasks by the Space Agency Ref(s)
Name Acronym Manned Spaceflight capable Manned Space launch capable Spacewalk capable Space Rendezvous and Docking capable Operates Space Station
China National Space Administration
(Chinese: 中华人民共和国国家航天局)
CNSA  People's Republic of China 22 April 1993  — Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [14][61]
National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA  United States 1 October 1958  — Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [41]
Russian: Федеральное космическое агентство
(Russian Federal Space Agency)
ROSCOSMOS
RFSA
 Russia ca. 1992  — Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [62]
Russian: Советская космическая программа
(Soviet space program)
СССР  Soviet Union ca. 1955 ca. 1991 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [62]

List of achievements of space agencies with lunar landing capability[edit]

Space agency Country Founded Terminated Accomplished tasks by the Space Agency Ref(s)
Name Acronym Circumlunar Manned Spaceflight Unmanned Moon Soft Landing Unmanned (automated) lunar rover operation Automated Lunar sample return mission Manned Moon Landing and sample return
China National Space Administration
(Chinese: 中华人民共和国国家航天局)
CNSA  People's Republic of China 22 April 1993  — No Yes Yes No No
National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA  United States 1 October 1958  — Yes Yes No[63] No[64] Yes [41]
Russian: Советская космическая программа
(Soviet space program)
СССР  Soviet Union ca. 1955 ca. 1991 No Yes Yes[65] Yes[66][67] No [68]

Expected and proposed future space agencies[edit]

Space agency Country Possible expected date of foundation Current status Ref(s)
Name Acronym
Pan-Arab Space Agency
PASA Arab League Arab League At proposal stage [69]
African Space Agency AfriSpace African Union At proposal stage [70][71][72][73]
South American Space Agency South America At proposal stage [74]
Philippine Space Agency PSA  Philippines At proposal stage [75]
Sri Lanka Aeronautics and Space Agency SLASA  Sri Lanka Immediate goal is to construct and launch two satellites. Sri Lankan Telecommunications Regulatory Commission has signed an agreement with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd to get relevant help and resources. [76][77]

Budgets[edit]

The annual budgets listed are the official budgets for national space agencies available in public domain. The budgets are not normalized to the expenses of space research in different countries, i.e. higher budget does not necessarily mean more activity or better performance in space exploration.[78][79] Note also that budget could be used for different projects: e.g. positioning system GPS is maintained from US defence budget, while ESA's money is used for developing European Galileo positioning system. The data for authoritarian countries are unreliable. For European contributors to ESA, the national budgets shown are separate from their contributions to ESA.

Budgets of different space agencies.
Agency (country/region) Budget (in millions of US $)
NASA (USA)
17,800
Roscosmos (Russia)
5,600
ESA (Europe)
5,510
CNES (France)
2,500
JAXA (Japan)
2,460
DLR (Germany)
2,000
ASI (Italy)
1,800
CNSA (China)
1,300
ISRO (India)
1,100
CSA (Canada)
488.7
UKSA (UK)
414
KARI (South Korea)
366
AEB (Brazil)
275
SSAU (Ukraine)
250
CoNAE (Argentina)
180
ISA and ISRC (Iran)
139
INTA (Spain)
135
NSO (Netherlands)
110
SNSB (Sweden)
100
SUPARCO (Pakistan)
82
SANSA (South Africa)
11.8
SSO (Switzerland)
10
AEM (Mexico)
8.34
Country/
region
Agency Budget
(in millions of US $)
Year
 United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration 17,800[80] FY 2012
 Russia Russian Federal Space Agency 5,600[81] 2013
European Space Agency 5,510[82] 2013
 France French Space Agency 2,500[83] 2012
 Japan Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 2,460[84] FY 2010
 Germany German Aerospace Center 2,000[85] 2010
 Italy Italian Space Agency 1,800[86] 2014
 China China National Space Administration 1,300 (Euroconsult) [87]
500 (official)
 India Indian Space Research Organization 1,100[88][89] 2013-14
 Canada Canadian Space Agency 488.7[90]
 United Kingdom UK Space Agency 414[91]
 South Korea Korea Aerospace Research Institute 366[92] FY 2007
 Brazil Brazilian Space Agency 275[93] 2011
 Ukraine State Space Agency of Ukraine 250[94]
 Argentina Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales 180[95] 2014
 Iran Iranian Space Agency and Iranian Space Research Center 72 + 67 = 139[96] 2014-15
 Spain Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial 135[97] 2009
 Netherlands Netherlands Space Office 110[98]
 Sweden Swedish National Space Board 100[99] 2011
 Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission 75.1[100] 2010-11
 South Africa South African National Space Agency 11.8[101] 2014-15
  Switzerland Swiss Space Office 10[102]
 Mexico Mexican Space Agency 8.34[103]
  World All space agencies (Total of listed budgets) About 41,800

World maps[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Belarusian satellite takes pictures of Bahrain, Mozambique - Society / News / Belarus News | Belarusian news | Belarus today | news in Belarus | Minsk news | BELTA - Belarus News | Belarusian news | Belarus today | news in Belarus | Minsk news | BELTA". News.belta.by. Retrieved 2013-10-21. 
  2. ^ "Central American Association for Aeronautics and Space – ACAE". Retrieved 18 Feb 2014. 
  3. ^ Besser, Bruno (January 2004). "Austria’s History in Space" (PDF). pp. 25–28. Retrieved 24 June 2009. 
  4. ^ "ESA – Human Spaceflight and Exploration – Other space agencies". 3 January 2007. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  5. ^ "Aeronomy.be – Contact – Who are we?". Retrieved 7 March 2008. 
  6. ^ "Press release from Venezuela's space agency citing presidency decree directing to incorporate the space agency". Retrieved 27 November 2008. [dead link]
  7. ^ Brazil's Atlantic Spaceports SpaceToday. Retrieved 1 March 2011.
  8. ^ "Presidency of Brazil: Law 8.854 of 02/10/1994 – "That creates the Brazilian Space Agency, and other measures".". Retrieved 6 April 2008. 
  9. ^ Lin, Zhi. "Bolivia creates space agency for Chinese satellite". Xinhua. Retrieved 4 November 2008. 
  10. ^ Carroll, Rory (12 February 2010). "Bolivia to launch satellite into space". The Guardian. 
  11. ^ "China to launch Bolivian satellite in 2013: Chinese Ambassador". Space-travel.com. Retrieved 2013-10-21. 
  12. ^ Space research in Bulgaria is coordinated by the Inter-Department Commission for Space Research (Bulgarian: Междуведомствена комисия по космически изследвания) [1] which is constituted from the deputy ministers of several ministries and representatives of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
  13. ^ "Canadian Space Milestones". Retrieved 1 April 2009. 
  14. ^ a b c "China National Space Administration – Organization and Function". Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  15. ^ "Colombian Space Commission – CCE". Retrieved 1 April 2009. 
  16. ^ No current Space Agency. Senate inquiry has called for formation of one. "Australian Senate inquiry into Space Science – Report". 
  17. ^ a b c Committee headquartered in France, within the International Council for Science (ICSU).
  18. ^ "HSA Hrvatske svemirske agencija" (in Croatian). Retrieved 25 May 2010. 
  19. ^ a b "About Space Technologies and Satellite Systems Department - Ministry of transport of The Czech Republic". Retrieved 1 December 2012. 
  20. ^ "About DTU Space". Retrieved 1 April 2009. 
  21. ^ a b "ESA – About ESA – What is ESA?". ESA. Retrieved 1 March 2008. 
  22. ^ a b "ESA – About ESA – History of the European Space Agency". ESA. Retrieved 1 March 2008. 
  23. ^ "Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency - About Us". 
  24. ^ a b "Das DLR im Überblick". 
  25. ^ "MaSat-1". 
  26. ^ El astronauta español de la ESA vuelve al espacio (Spanish)
  27. ^ Programas de Alta Tecnología de Nanosatélites, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial
  28. ^ Sounding Rocket Station El Arenosillo
  29. ^ Iran Test-fires Rocket Carrying Experimental Biological Capsule
  30. ^ "Iran tests sounding rocket, unveils first homemade satellite | World | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. 28 October 2005. Retrieved 13 June 2011. 
  31. ^ "Iran launches homegrown satellite". BBC News. 3 February 2009. 
  32. ^ ASI official site "ASI MISSIONS AND PROJECTS-ACTIVITY". Retrieved 21 June 2014. 
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