List of Space Shuttle missions

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For missions flown by the Soviet Buran spacecraft, sometimes referred to as a Space Shuttle, see List of Buran missions.
U.S. shuttle Columbia landing at the end of STS-73 (November 5, 1995)

This is a list in table format of all missions flown by Space Shuttles launched between 1981 and 2011. It also includes lists of the 1977 manned test flights of the shuttle orbiter and of the shuttle's unflown rescue missions. The information displayed in the tables includes the flight order, mission designation, launch date, length of mission, shuttle used, number of crew members (launched/landed) and landing site. Summary statistics for all shuttle missions are provided in separate tables. Only the United States flew human spaceflight missions in its Space Shuttle program.[1][2] Several European countries and Japan were also involved in the Shuttle program through the participation of astronauts from those countries, sponsorship of scientific experiments, and the funding, building, and organizational and scientific control of the Spacelab module.

Flight numbering[edit]

Shuttle profiles.jpg

The U.S. space shuttle program was officially referred to as the Space Transportation System (STS). Specific shuttle missions were therefore designated with the prefix "STS".[3] Initially, the launches were given sequential numbers indicating order of launch, such as STS-9. This scheme continued for 25 launches and eight cancellations up to STS-33.[2]

Subsequent to the Apollo 13 mishap, due to NASA Administrator James M. Beggs' fear of the number 13 and consequent unwillingness to number a forthcoming flight as STS-13,[4][5][6][7] beginning in 1984, each mission was also assigned a code, such as STS-41-B, with the first digit indicating the federal fiscal year offset into the program (so 41-B was scheduled for FY 1984, 51-L originally for FY 1985 and the third flight in FY 1995 would have been named 151-C), the second digit indicating the launch site (1 was Kennedy Space Center and 2 was Shuttle Launch Complex (SLC) 6 at Vandenberg Air Force Base, although Vandenberg was never used), and the letter indicating scheduling sequence[8] . As with the sequential numbers, these codes were assigned when the launches were initially scheduled and were not changed as missions were delayed or rescheduled.[2]

Although the codes were adopted from STS-41-B through STS-51-L, the sequential numbers were used internally at NASA on all processing paperwork. Flights were assigned with sequential numbers from STS-9 through STS-33. With the resumption of flights in 1988, NASA restarted with STS-26R, the "reflight" suffix to disambiguate from prior missions. This continued through STS-33R.[2]

After the Challenger disaster, a sequential numbering system only was used, with the number according to counting from the beginning, although, unlike the initial system, the assignment of numbers was based on the initial schedule and may not reflect launch order. The letter indicated that the intermediate numbering system applied, and e.g. flight STS-51 (a mission carried out by Discovery in 1993) was many years after STS-51-A (Discovery's second flight in 1984).[2]

Flight statistics[edit]

Key
double-dagger  Test vehicle
dagger  Lost
Shuttle Designation Flights Flight days Orbits Longest flight First flight Last flight MIR/ISS
Docking
Sources
Flight Date Flight Date
Enterprise double-dagger OV-101,
Test Vehicle
5 00d 00h 19m 0 00d 00h 05m ALT-12 Aug 12, 1977 ALT-16 Oct 26, 1977 – / – [9][10][11][12]
Columbia dagger OV-102 28 300d 17h 47m 15s 4,808 17d 15h 53m 18s STS-1 Apr 12, 1981 STS-107 Jan 16, 2003 0 / 0 [9][10][13][14]
Challenger dagger OV-099 10 62d 07h 56m 15s 995 08d 05h 23m 33s STS-6 Apr 04, 1983 STS-51-L Jan 28, 1986 0 / 0 [9][10][15][16]
Discovery OV-103 39 364d 22h 39m 29s 5,830 15d 02h 48m 08s STS-41-D Aug 30, 1984 STS-133 Feb 24, 2011 1 / 13 [9][10][17][18]
Atlantis OV-104 33 306d 14h 12m 43s 4,848 13d 20h 12m 44s STS-51-J Oct 03, 1985 STS-135 July 8, 2011 7 / 12 [9][10][19][20]
Endeavour OV-105 25 296d 03h 34m 02s 4,677 16d 15h 08m 48s STS-49 May 7, 1992 STS-134 May 16, 2011 1 / 12 [9][10][21][22]
Total N/A 135 1330d 18h 9m 44s 21,158 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 9 / 37 N/A

List of shuttle flights[edit]

Test flights[edit]

The following list includes Enterprise's free flights, but not other captive-carry flight tests.

Order Flight date Mission Shuttle Crew Duration[a] Landing Site Notes Sources
1 August 12, 1977 ALT-12[b] Enterprise 2 00d 00h 05m Edwards First free flight of Space Shuttle; first non-captive flight of Enterprise [23][24][25][26]
2 September 13, 1977 ALT-13 Enterprise 2 00d 00h 05m Edwards Second free flight [23][24]
3 September 23, 1977 ALT-14 Enterprise 2 00d 00h 05m Edwards Third free flight [23][24]
4 October 12, 1977 ALT-15 Enterprise 2 00d 00h 02m Edwards Fourth free flight; first flight without tailcone (operational configuration) [23][24][26][27]
5 October 26, 1977 ALT-16 Enterprise 2 00d 00h 02m Edwards Final free flight; final non-captive flight of Enterprise [23][24][28]

Launches and orbital flights[edit]

Order Launch Date Mission Shuttle Crew Duration Landing Site Notes Sources
1 April 12, 1981
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Columbia 2 02d 06h Edwards First reusable orbital spacecraft flight; first flight of Columbia [29][30][31]
2 November 12, 1981
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Columbia 2 02d 06h Edwards First reuse of a manned orbital space vehicle; first test of Canadarm robot arm; Truncated due to fuel cell problem. [32][33][34]
3 March 22, 1982
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Columbia 2 08d 00h White Sands Shuttle R&D flight, first and only landing at White Sands, New Mexico [35][36][37]
4 June 27, 1982
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Columbia 2 07d 01h Edwards Last shuttle R&D flight, first DoD payload [38][39][40][41]
5 November 11, 1982
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Columbia 4 05d 02h Edwards Multiple comsat deployments. First EVA of program canceled due to suit problems [31][42][43][44]
6 April 4, 1983
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Challenger 4 05d 00h Edwards TDRS deployment; first flight of Challenger; first space shuttle extra-vehicular activity [45][46]
7 June 18, 1983
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Challenger 5 06d 02h Edwards First US woman in space Sally Ride; Multiple comsat deployments; First deployment and retrieval of a Shuttle Pallet Satellite [47][48]
8 August 30, 1983
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Challenger 5 06d 01h Edwards Comsat deployment, first flight of an African American in space, Guion Bluford; test of robot arm on heavy payloads with Payload Flight Test Article, First night landing [49][50]
9 November 28, 1983
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Columbia 6 10d 07h Edwards First Spacelab mission, Flight of Ulf Merbold (first ESA Astronaut on a shuttle mission) [51][52]
10 February 3, 1984
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Challenger 5 07d 23h Kennedy Comsat deployments, first untethered spacewalk by Bruce McCandless II with Manned Maneuvering Unit; first landing at Kennedy Space Center; dry run of equipment for Solar Max rescue [53][54]
11 April 6, 1984
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Challenger 5 06d 23h Edwards Solar Max servicing (first satellite rescue by astronauts), Long Duration Exposure Facility deployment [55][56][57]
12 August 30, 1984
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Discovery 6 06d 00h Edwards Multiple comsat deployments; first flight of Discovery, test of OAST-1 Solar Array [58][59]
13 October 5, 1984
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Challenger 7 08d 05h Kennedy Earth Radiation Budget Satellite deployment; First flight of two women in space Ride and Sullivan; First spacewalk by US woman, Kathryn Sullivan; First Canadian in space Marc Garneau [60][61]
14 November 8, 1984
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Discovery 5 07d 23h Kennedy Multiple comsat deployments, retrieval of two other comsats Palapa B2 and Westar VI which were subsequently refurbished on Earth and reflown [62][63]
15 January 24, 1985
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Discovery 5 03d 01h Kennedy First classified Department of Defense (DoD) mission; Magnum satellite deployment [39][64][65]
16 April 12, 1985
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Discovery 7 06d 23h Kennedy Multiple comsat deployments, first flight of a sitting politician in space, Jake Garn, first impromptu EVA of program to fix Syncom F3 (Leasat 3) [66][67]
17 April 29, 1985
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Challenger 7 07d 00h Edwards Spacelab mission [68][69]
18 June 17, 1985
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Discovery 7 07d 01h Edwards Multiple comsat deployments. Flight of first member of royalty, Saudi, Muslim, and Arab in space, Sultan bin Salman Al Saud. [70][71]
19 July 29, 1985
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Challenger 7 07d 22h Edwards Spacelab mission, Abort to Orbit. Faulty temperature sensor incorrectly indicated that fuel turbine discharge temperature exceeded the limit. Therefore, one main engine was shut down at T+345 s, resulting in a much lower orbit than planned. All mission objectives achieved. [72][73]
20 August 27, 1985
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Discovery 5 07d 02h Edwards Multiple comsat deployments, rescue of Syncom F3 (Leasat-3) by Astronauts [74][75]
21 October 3, 1985
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Atlantis 5 04d 01h Edwards Second classified DoD mission; Defense Satellite Communications System satellite deployment; first flight of Atlantis [39][76][77]
22 October 30, 1985
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Challenger 8 07d 00h Edwards Spacelab-D1, mission funded by Germany, last successful mission of Challenger [78][79]
23 November 26, 1985
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Atlantis 7 06d 21h Edwards Multiple comsat deployment, EASE/ACCESS experiment. First Mexican in space, Rodolfo Neri Vela [80][81]
24 January 12, 1986
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Columbia 7 06d 02h Edwards Comsat deployment, flight of US Representative Bill Nelson [82][83]
25 January 28, 1986
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Challenger 7 00d 00h 01m 13s N/A (Ken.)[84] Planned tracking and data relay satellite deployment, Loss of vehicle and crew, Teacher in Space Flight [85][86]
26 September 29, 1988
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Discovery 5 04d 01h Edwards Tracking and data relay satellite deployment; first post Challenger flight [87][88]
27 December 2, 1988
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Atlantis 5 04d 09h Edwards Third classified DoD mission; Lacrosse 1 deployment [39][89][90]
28 March 13, 1989
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Discovery 5 04d 23h Edwards Tracking and data relay satellite deployment with attached Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), IMAX camera, Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element I space station radiator experiment. [91][92]
29 May 4, 1989
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Atlantis 5 04d 00h Edwards Magellan Venus probe deployment [93][94]
30 August 8, 1989
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Columbia 5 05d 01h Edwards Fourth classified DoD mission; Satellite Data System deployment [39][95][96]
31 October 18, 1989
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Atlantis 5 04d 23h Edwards Galileo Jupiter probe deployment, IMAX camera [97][98]
32 November 22, 1989
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Discovery 5 05d 00h Edwards Fifth classified DoD mission; Magnum [39][99][100]
33 January 9, 1990
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Columbia 5 10d 21h Edwards Syncom IV-F5 satellite deployment, Long Duration Exposure Facility retrieval, IMAX camera [101][102]
34 February 28, 1990
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Atlantis 5 04d 10h Edwards Sixth classified DoD mission; Misty reconnaissance satellite deployment [39][103][104]
35 April 24, 1990
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Discovery 5 05d 01h Edwards Hubble Space Telescope deployment [105][106]
36 October 6, 1990
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Discovery 5 04d 02h Edwards Ulysses/Inertial Upper Stage solar probe deployment [107][108]
37 November 15, 1990
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Atlantis 5 04d 21h Kennedy Seventh classified DoD mission. Likely SDS2-2 deployed. [39][109][110]
38 December 2, 1990
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Columbia 7 08d 23h Edwards Use of ASTRO-1 observatory [111][112]
39 April 5, 1991
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Atlantis 5 05d 23h Edwards Compton Gamma Ray Observatory deployment [113][114]
40 April 28, 1991
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Discovery 7 08d 07h Kennedy First unclassified DoD mission; military science experiments [39][115][116]
41 June 5, 1991
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Columbia 7 09d 02h Edwards Spacelab mission [117][118]
42 August 2, 1991
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Atlantis 5 08d 21h Kennedy Tracking and data relay satellite deployment [119][120]
43 September 12, 1991
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Discovery 5 05d 08h Edwards Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite deployment [121][122]
44 November 24, 1991
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Atlantis 6 06d 22h Edwards DSP satellite deployment [123][124]
45 January 22, 1992
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Discovery 7 08d 01h Edwards Spacelab mission [125][126]
46 March 24, 1992
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Atlantis 7 08d 22h Kennedy ATLAS-1 science platform [127][128]
47 May 7, 1992
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Endeavour 7 08d 21h Edwards Intelsat VI repair; first flight of Endeavour. First 3 person EVA. ASEM space station truss experiment EVA, record four EVAs total for mission. [129][130]
48 June 25, 1992
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Columbia 7 13d 19h Kennedy Spacelab mission [131][132]
49 July 31, 1992
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Atlantis 7 07d 23h Kennedy EURECA and the joint NASA/Italian Space Agency Tethered Satellite System (TSS) [133][134]
50 September 12, 1992
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Endeavour 7 07d 22h Kennedy Spacelab-J, first flight of an African American woman in space, Mae Jemison, Japan funded mission [135][136]
51 October 22, 1992
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Columbia 6 09d 20h Kennedy LAGEOS II, microgravity experiments [137][138]
52 December 2, 1992
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Discovery 5 07d 07h Edwards Partially classified 10th and final DoD mission. Likely deployment of SDS2 satellite. [39][139][140]
53 January 13, 1993
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Endeavour 5 05d 23h Kennedy TDRS-F/IUS deployment [141][142]
54 April 8, 1993
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Discovery 5 09d 06h Kennedy ATLAS-2 science platform [143][144]
55 April 26, 1993
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Columbia 7 09d 23h Edwards Spacelab-D2, mission funded by Germany [145][146]
56 June 21, 1993
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Endeavour 6 09d 23h Kennedy SPACEHAB, EURECA [147][148]
57 September 12, 1993
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Discovery 5 09d 20h Kennedy ACTS satellite deployed, Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer with IMAX camera deployed [149][150]
58 October 18, 1993
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Columbia 7 14d 00h Edwards Spacelab mission [151][152]
59 December 2, 1993
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Endeavour 7 10d 19h Kennedy Hubble Space Telescope servicing [153][154]
60 February 3, 1994
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Discovery 6 07d 06h Kennedy SPACEHAB, Wake Shield Facility [155][156]
61 March 4, 1994
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Columbia 5 13d 23h Kennedy Microgravity experiments [157][158]
62 April 9, 1994
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Endeavour 6 11d 05h Edwards Shuttle Radar Laboratory-1 [159][160]
63 July 8, 1994
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Columbia 7 14d 17h Kennedy Spacelab mission [161][162]
64 September 9, 1994
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Discovery 6 10d 22h Edwards Multiple science experiments; SPARTAN [163][164]
65 September 30, 1994
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Endeavour 6 11d 05h Edwards Space Radar Laboratory-2 [165][166]
66 November 3, 1994
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Atlantis 6 10d 22h Edwards ATLAS-3 science platform [167][168]
67 February 3, 1995
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Discovery 6 08d 06h Kennedy Mir rendezvous, Spacehab, IMAX camera [169][170]
68 March 2, 1995
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Endeavour 7 16d 15h Edwards ASTRO-2 [171][172]
69 June 27, 1995
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Atlantis 7/8 09d 19h Kennedy First Shuttle-Mir docking [173][174]
70 July 13, 1995
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Discovery 5 08d 22h Kennedy TDRS-G/IUS deployed [175][176]
71 September 7, 1995
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Endeavour 5 10d 20h Kennedy Wake Shield Facility, SPARTAN [177][178]
72 October 20, 1995
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Columbia 7 15d 21h Kennedy Spacelab mission [179][180]
73 November 12, 1995
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Atlantis 5 08d 04h Kennedy 2nd Shuttle-Mir docking. Delivered docking module. IMAX cargo bay camera. [172][181]
74 January 11, 1996
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Endeavour 6 08d 22h Kennedy Retrieved Japan's Space Flyer Unit, 2 EVAs. [182][183]
75 February 22, 1996
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Columbia 7 15d 17h Kennedy Tethered satellite reflight, lost due to broken tether. [184][185]
76 March 22, 1996
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Atlantis 6/5 09d 05h Edwards Shuttle-Mir docking [186][187]
77 May 19, 1996
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Endeavour 6 10d 00h Kennedy SPACEHAB, SPARTAN [188][189]
78 June 20, 1996
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Columbia 7 16d 21h Kennedy Spacelab mission [190][191]
79 September 16, 1996
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Atlantis 6/6 10d 03h Kennedy Shuttle-Mir docking [192][193]
80 November 19, 1996
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Columbia 5 17d 15h Kennedy Wake Shield Facility; Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Shuttle Pallet Satellite II [194][195]
81 January 12, 1997
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Atlantis 6/6 10d 04h Kennedy Shuttle-Mir docking [196][197]
82 February 11, 1997
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Discovery 7 09d 23h Kennedy Hubble Space Telescope servicing [198][199]
83 April 4, 1997
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Columbia 7 03d 23h Kennedy Truncated due to fuel cell problem [200][201]
84 May 15, 1997
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Atlantis 7/7 09d 05h Kennedy Shuttle-Mir docking [202][203]
85 July 1, 1997
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Columbia 7 15d 16h Kennedy Spacelab mission [204][205]
86 August 7, 1997
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Discovery 6 11d 20h Kennedy Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (CRISTA-SPAS) [206][207]
87 September 25, 1997
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Atlantis 7/7 10d 19h Kennedy Shuttle-Mir docking [208][209]
88 November 19, 1997
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Columbia 6 15d 16h Kennedy Microgravity experiments, 2 EVAs, SPARTAN [210][211]
89 January 22, 1998
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Endeavour 7/7 08d 19h Kennedy Shuttle-Mir docking [212][213]
90 April 17, 1998
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Columbia 7 15d 21h Kennedy Spacelab mission [214][215]
91 June 2, 1998
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Discovery 6/7 09d 19h Kennedy Last Shuttle-Mir docking [216][217]
92 October 29, 1998
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Discovery 7 08d 21h Kennedy SPACEHAB, John Glenn flies again [218][219]
93 December 4, 1998
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Endeavour 6 11d 19h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 2A: Node 1. First Shuttle ISS assembly flight [220][221]
94 May 27, 1999
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Discovery 7 09d 19h Kennedy ISS supply [222][223]
95 July 23, 1999
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Columbia 5 04d 22h Kennedy Chandra X-ray Observatory deployed [224][225]
96 December 19, 1999
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Discovery 7 07d 23h Kennedy Hubble Space Telescope servicing [226][227]
97 February 11, 2000
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Endeavour 6 11d 05h Kennedy Shuttle Radar Topography Mission [228][229]
98 May 19, 2000
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Atlantis 7 09d 21h Kennedy ISS supply [230][231]
99 September 8, 2000
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Atlantis 7 11d 19h Kennedy ISS supply [232][233]
100 October 11, 2000
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Discovery 7 12d 21h Edwards ISS assembly flight 3A: Z1 truss [234][235]
101 November 30, 2000
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Endeavour 5 10d 19h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 4A: P6 solar arrays, radiators [236][237]
102 February 7, 2001
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Atlantis 5 12d 21h Edwards ISS assembly flight 5A: Destiny lab [238][239]
103 March 8, 2001
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Discovery 7/7 12d 19h Kennedy ISS supply, crew rotation [240][241]
104 April 19, 2001
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Endeavour 7 11d 21h Edwards ISS assembly flight 6A: robotic arm; First spacewalk by a Canadian Chris Hadfield [242][243]
105 July 12, 2001
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Atlantis 5 12d 18h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 7A: Quest Joint Airlock [244][245]
106 August 10, 2001
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Discovery 7/7 11d 21h Kennedy ISS supply, crew rotation [246][247]
107 December 5, 2001
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Endeavour 7/7 11d 19h Kennedy ISS supply, crew rotation [248][249]
108 March 1, 2002
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Columbia 7 10d 22h Kennedy Hubble Space Telescope servicing, last successful mission for Columbia [250][251]
109 April 8, 2002
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Atlantis 7 10d 19h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 8A: S0 truss [252][253]
110 June 5, 2002
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Endeavour 7/7 13d 20h Edwards ISS supply, crew rotation, Mobile Base System [254][255]
111 October 7, 2002
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Atlantis 6 10d 19h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 9A: S1 truss [256][257]
112 November 23, 2002
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Endeavour 7/7 13d 18h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 11A: P1 truss, crew rotation, last successful mission before STS-107 [258][259]
113 January 16, 2003
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Columbia 7 15d 22h N/A (Ken.) SPACEHAB; Loss of vehicle and crew [260][261]
114 July 26, 2005
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Discovery 7 13d 21h Edwards First post Columbia flight. Flight safety evaluation/testing, ISS supply/repair, MPLM Raffaello [262][263]
115 July 4, 2006
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Discovery 7/6 12d 18h Kennedy ISS Flight ULF1.1: Supply, crew rotation, MPLM Leonardo [264][265]
116 September 9, 2006
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Atlantis 6 11d 19h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 12A: P3/P4 Truss, Solar Arrays [266][267]
117 December 9, 2006
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Discovery 7/7 12d 21h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 12A.1: P5 Truss & Spacehab-SM, crew rotation [268][269]
118 June 8, 2007
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Atlantis 7/7 13d 20h Edwards ISS assembly flight 13A: S3/S4 Truss, Solar Arrays, crew rotation [270][271]
119 August 8, 2007
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Endeavour 7 12d 18h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 13A.1: S5 Truss & Spacehab-SM & ESP3. First use of SSPTS (Station-to-Shuttle Power Transfer System) [272][273]
120 October 23, 2007
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Discovery 7/7 15d 02h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 10A: US Harmony module, crew rotation [274][275]
121 February 7, 2008
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Atlantis 7/7 12d 18h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 1E: European Laboratory Columbus, crew rotation [276][277]
122 March 11, 2008
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Endeavour 7/7 15d 18h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 1J/A: Japanese Experiment Module ELM PS & SPDM, crew rotation [278][279]
123 May 31, 2008
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Discovery 7/7 13d 18h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 1J: JEM - Japanese module Kibo & Japanese Experiment Modoule RMS [280][281]
124 November 14, 2008
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Endeavour 7/7 15d 20h Edwards ISS assembly flight ULF2: MPLM Leonardo, crew rotation [282][283]
125 March 15, 2009
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Discovery 7/7 12d 19h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 15A: S6 Truss, Solar Arrays [284][285]
126 May 11, 2009
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Atlantis 7 12d 21h Edwards Last Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, Final Non-ISS flight. [286][287][288]
127 July 15, 2009
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Endeavour 7/7 15d 16h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 2J/A: Japanese Experiment Modoule Exposed Facility (EF) & JEM ELM ES. [289][290]
128 August 28, 2009
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Discovery 7/7 13d 21h Edwards ISS assembly flight 17A: MPLM Leonardo & 6 person ISS crew. [291][292]
129 November 16, 2009
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Atlantis 6/7 10d 19h Kennedy ISS assembly flight ULF3: ExPRESS Logistics Carriers (ELCs) 1 & 2. [293][294]
130 February 8, 2010
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Endeavour 6 13d 18h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 20A: Node 3 and Cupola [295][296]
131 April 5, 2010
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Discovery 7 15d 03h Kennedy ISS assembly flight 19A: Utility and Logistics Flight 4: Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Leonardo. Last night launch of the Shuttle Program [297][298]
132 May 14, 2010
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Atlantis 6 11d 18h Kennedy ISS assembly flight ULF4: Mini-Research Module 1. [299][300]
133 February 24, 2011
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Discovery 6 12d 19h Kennedy ISS assembly flight ULF5, Pressurized Multipurpose Module Leonardo (to be left permanently attached), Express Logistics Carrier 4. Final flight of Discovery. [301][302]
134 May 16, 2011
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Endeavour 6 15d 18h Kennedy ISS assembly flight ULF6, ELC 3, Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. Final flight of Endeavour. [303][304]
135 July 8, 2011
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Atlantis 4 12d 18h Kennedy Payload Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Raffaello. Final flight of Atlantis, final flight of the Space Shuttle program. [305][306][307]

Cancelled and shortened missions[edit]

One initial emergency flight abort (RTLS) sub-orbital test mission was canceled due to high risk. Many other planned missions were canceled due to the late development of the shuttle, and the Challenger and Columbia disasters.

The following missions were cut short by a day or more: STS-2 (equipment failure), STS-35 (weather), STS-44 (equipment failure), STS-51-L (catastrophic failure), and STS-83 (equipment failure, relaunched as STS-94).

Contingency missions[edit]

Main article: STS-3xx

STS-300 was the designation for the Space Shuttle Launch on Need (LON) missions to be launched on short notice for STS-114 and STS-121, in the event that the shuttle became disabled or damaged and could not safely return to Earth.[308][309][310] After STS-121, the rescue flight for STS-115, if needed, would have been STS-301. After STS-115, the rescue mission designations were based on the corresponding regular mission that would be replaced should the rescue mission be needed. For example, the STS-116 rescue mission was branded STS-317, because the normal mission scheduled after STS-116 was STS-117. Should the rescue mission have been needed, the crew and vehicle for STS-117 would assume the rescue mission profile and become STS-317. All potential rescue missions were to be launched with a crew of four, and would return with ten or eleven crew members, depending on the number of crew launched on the rescued shuttle. Missions were expected to last approximately eleven days. None of the planned contingency missions was ever flown.

No contingency mission was planned for STS-135, the final shuttle mission. Instead, NASA planned to effect any required rescues one-by-one, using Russian Soyuz spacecraft.[311]

Year Contingency mission Supported mission Year Contingency mission Supported mission
2005 STS-300 Atlantis STS-114 Discovery 2007 STS-320 Atlantis[c][312] STS-120 Discovery
2006 STS-300 Atlantis STS-121 Discovery 2008 STS-323 Discovery [d][313] STS-122 Atlantis
STS-301 Discovery STS-115 Atlantis STS-324 Discovery STS-123 Endeavour
2007 STS-317 Atlantis STS-116 Discovery STS-326 Endeavour STS-124 Discovery
STS-318 Endeavour STS-117 Atlantis 2009 STS-400 Endeavour STS-125 Atlantis
STS-322 Discovery STS-118 Endeavour 2011 STS-335 Atlantis STS-134 Endeavour

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Note - The durations listed count only the orbiter free-flight time, and not total time aloft along with airborne time atop of the Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA).
  2. ^ The Approach and Landing Test Programme encompassed 16 separate tests of Enterprise, covering taxi tests, unmanned and manned flights on the SCA, and finally the free flight tests.
  3. ^ NASA called this mission STS-320 instead of STS-321.
  4. ^ Originally scheduled to be Endeavour, changed to Discovery due to contamination issues.

References[edit]

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