List of spacecraft manufacturers
|Some or all of this article's listed sources may not be reliable. (December 2014)|
During the early years of spaceflight only nation states had the resources to develop and fly spacecraft. Both the U.S. space program and Soviet space program were operated using mainly military pilots as astronauts. During this period, no commercial space launches were available to private operators, and no private organization was able to offer space launches.
In 1980s, the European Space Agency created Arianespace, the world's first commercial space transportation company, and, following the Challenger disaster, the American government deregulated the American space transportation market as well. In the 1990s the Russian government sold their majority stake in RSC Energia to private investors (although it has recently renationalized the Russian space sector in 2013–2014.) These events for the first time allowed private organizations to purchase, develop and offer space launch services; beginning the period of private spaceflight in the late-1980s and early-1990s.
The following is a list of non-government-owned spacecraft manufacturing companies and contractors.
There are six major companies that build large, commercial, Geosynchronous satellite platforms:
|Company||Location||No of satellites launched||Comments|
|Airbus Defence and Space||Europe ( France/ Germany/ Spain/ United Kingdom)||formerly Astrium|
|Thales Alenia Space||Europe ( France/ Italy)||formerly Alcatel Alenia Space|
|JSC Information Satellite Systems||Russia||1160||formerly NPO PM|
|Lockheed Martin||United States|
|Indian Space Research Organisation||India||74||INSAT and GSAT series communication satellites, IRS series remote sensing satellites, CARTOSAT mapping and imaging, RISAT imaging etc. More details at List of Indian satellites|
|Space Systems/Loral||United States||240|
In addition to those above, the following companies have successfully built and launched satellite platforms:
Launch vehicle manufactures and providers of third party services
Commercial wings of national space agencies:
- Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation (AIDC) and Taiwan Aerospace Industry Association (TAIA) Taiwan
- Antrix Corporation India
- China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation People's Republic of China
Lander, rover and probe manufacturers
|Company||Location||No. of probes launched||Comments|
|Lavochkin||Russia||rovers for Lunokhod 1|
|Brown Engineering Company||Huntsville, AL United States||Rover for Apollo lunar program|
|China National Space Administration||People's Republic of China||for Chang'e 3 program in 2013|
|Deep Space Industries||Private||DragonFly for asteroid material return mission|
|Robotics Institute||Pittsburgh, PA United States||for Scarab|
|NASA JPL||United States||for ATHLETE lunar missions|
|NASA||United States||Space Exploration Vehicle for future lunar mission|
|ISRO||India||Chandrayaan-1, Chandrayaan-2, Mars Orbiter Mission|
|Planetary Resources||Private||Arkyd-100 for asteroid searching|
Spacecraft component manufacturers
|Astro- und Feinwerktechnik Adlershof GmbH||Berlin, Germany||Design, Manufacturing, Assembly, Integration and Verification of small satellite buses (TET-1, launched July 2012) and components. Attitude control components (reaction wheels, gyro system, GPS receiver, magnetometer)
Supplier of space systems and ISS payload NightPod
|DSI GmbH||Bremen, Germany||Cryptography Units (e.g. SAR-Lupe, GökTürk), Payload Data Handling Units (e.g. EnMAP, ExoMars), On-board Computers (e.g. TET, JAXA Hayabusa-II/MASCOT), Data Processing Units, Communication Systems, Ground Test & Simulation Equipment|
|American Technology Consortium||Oxnard, CA United States||Mars Pathfinder Airbag Retraction Actuator Planetary Gearboxes, Mars Pathfinder Camera Pointing Mechanisms, Stardust Scan Mirror Mechanism, Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robot Arm Brush Motors, MVACS Camera Pointing Mechanisms, Genesis Array Deployment Mechanism, Shuttle Radar Topography Mapper (SRTM) Mast Deployment Actuators, SRTM Harmonic Drive Actuators, A2100 & A2100M Bus Antenna Pointing Mechanism Linear Actuators, Orbview 3 & 4 Antenna Gimbals, Sirius Satellite Radio Antenna Gimbal Motors, Champollion Cryogenic Comet Drill Actuator, TES Filter Wheel Actuator, Mars Odyssey Mission PanCam Mast Deployment Actuator, Mars Odyssey PanCam Azimuth Twist Capsule and Actuator Assembly, Mars Odyssey PanCam Elevation Actuator, Mars Odyssey Drill Mechanism Gearboxes, and Mars Phoenix Camera Pointing Mechanisms||Asset sale to competitor in 2000, Original corporation renamed to Rocketstar Robotics Inc in 2006|
|Tethers Unlimited,Inc.||Seattle, WA United States||De-Orbiting Devices, Deployable Solar Arrays, Propulsion Systems, Radio Communications, and Robotics|
|Protoshop Ltd.||Finland||Precision control mechanism for the Satellite Laser ( telescope ),- Construction of several generations of SMS EUTELSA, - Construction of the Aspera plasma instrument for the Phobos - Mars flight, - Development of SIXA X-ray detector for Russian Spektrum, - Design and construction of ERNE particle detector for SOHO, - ERS- 1 SAR satellite sea ice observation system software with VTT, - Development of the NOAA -12 Forest fire station software with VTT, - Development of forest fire observation software by ERS-2 satellite, - Construction of SWAN solar wind monitor for SOHO, - Construction of IBS ion beam spectrometer mechanics with NASA, - Construction of Rotating actuator for CASSINI Saturn mission, - Development and construction of rotating mechanisms and launch latch (ESA), - Development and construction of SSA ( small sample acquisition robot), - Construction of ROSA2 micro robot for SSF and ESA, - dDesign of Spicam Plasma instrument for the Mars flight (imaging spectrometer), - DDevelopment and construction of GOMOS ozone monitor for Envisat, - JEM-X X-ray monitor for Integral mission with Metorex and ESA, - Sub-contracting of Coala ozone monitor definition phase for ESA onboard ISS, - Construction of rotating actuators for NASA satellites with LANL (TWINS and SMEX), - OMI ozone monitor for NASA’s EOS Aura satellite with FMI, - Microwave receiver LFI for Planck satellite for ESA with VTT, - Study of OMI ozone monitor for METOP -1 satellite as an AO instrument, - XMM door mechanism and LSS motion simulator, - Development of Coala and OMI-Ims/Metop ozone monitors mapping spectrometer, - Construction of ESA Actively Cooled RF front End, - Design of general mechanics for the ESA, NASA and Russian space programs, - MAXI structural design for Metorex, - NASA's certificate for the excellent work in CASSINI project (2009)|
|RUAG Space||Switzerland||Structures, Fairings, Mechanisms, Opto-Electronics|
|Andrews Space||Seattle, WA United States|
|EADS Astrium Satellites||Europe|
|Final Frontier Construction LLC||Ashton, MD United States||Scaled examples of Gershin Class and Shia Class inverse truss hulls with artificial gravity capability|
|Jena-Optronik||Jena, Germany||Attitude and Orbit Control Systems (AOCS) sensors: star sensors, sun sensors, redezvous- and docking sensors; Optical space instruments and components: multi-spectral imager (e.g. JSS 56 for RapidEye satellite constellation, efficient radiometer (e.g. METimage), electronic as well as opto-mechanical subsystems and components for operational Earth observation (e.g. for Copernicus Sentinel missions)|
|Pumpkin, Inc||San Francisco, CA United States||CubeSat Kits|
|Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace||Kongsberg Norway||Kongsberg Adaptive Rotational Mechanism Assembly [KARMA] in configuration as Solar Array Drive Mechanism (SADM),used on Rosetta (spacecraft), Mars Express, Venus Express, Sentinel 1, Sentinel 3 and BepiColombo MTM.|
|Rocketstar Robotics Inc||Camarillo, CA United States||Space Interferometry Mission Optical Shutter Mechanisms|
|Thortek Laboratories, Inc.||Irvine, KY United States||merged with SpaceDev|
|Starsys||Sparks, NV United States||merged with SpaceDev|
|SpaceDev||Sparks, NV United States|
|Clyde Space||United Kingdom||Power System Electronics, Batteries, Solar Panels, Attitude Control Systems|
|Astro Aerospace||Carpinteria, CA United States||Deployable mechanisms, spacecraft structures, AstroMesh deployable reflector, deployable booms, large and small aperature mesh reflector antennas,STEM (Storable Tubular Extendable Member), hinge mechanisms,||A special business unit of Northrop Grumman|
|TRANSPACE Technologies||Bangalore, KA India||On-Board Satellite Sub-Systems Fabrication,Testing,Reliability Analysis and PCB Design||Approved Vendor for ISRO Satellite Center, India|
|RadioBro Corporation||Huntsville, Alabama United States||Small Spacecraft Communications, Flight Readiness Testing, Training Services|
|Company name||Country||Engine||Engine type||Comments|
|Moog-ISP (In Space Propulsion)||Westcott, Buckinghamshire United Kingdom
Niagara Falls, NY United States
|All Forms of Chemical Propulsion including Main Apogee Engines and AOCS Thrusters||Bipropellant and Monopropellant Product Families Include: LEROS, MONARC Thruster, LTT Thruster||Division of Moog Inc.|
|Busek||Natick, Massachusetts United States||BHT-200, BHT-1500, BHT-20k, BET-1, BmP-220, BIT-1, BIT-3, BIT-7, uPPT-3||Hall Effect, Gridded Ion, Electrospray, micro Pulsed Plasma, Green Monopropellant, Electrothermal, Hollow Cathodes, Field Emission Cathode||TacSat-2, FalconSat-5, FalconSat-6, ST-7/LISA Pathfinder. Licensed technology for BPT-4000 aboard AEHF 1, AEHF 2, AEHF 3. Propulsion options ranging from CubeSats to GEO Communications Satellites to Asteroid Redirect Mission Spacecraft.|
|Aerojet||Rancho Cordova, California United States||Numerous||Numerous liquid engines (e.g. Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System) and solid motor rockets (e.g. Atlas V SRB)||Division of GenCorp.|
|American Rocket Company||United States||hybrid rocket||intellectual property acquired by SpaceDev|
|CU Aerospace||Champaign, IL United States||PUC, CHIPS, PPT-11||MCD / Resistojet / PPT||Small satellite / CubeSat Propulsion Modules |
|Frontier Astronautics||Valencia, CA United States||VIPER||liquid oxygen|
|Asp||high test peroxide|
|AE Aerospace||Louisville, KY United States||HIRE||hybrid ion rocket engine|||
|Orion Propulsion (Dynetics)||Madison, AL United States||used on Sundancer and Ares I|
|Rocketdyne||Canoga Park, Los Angeles United States||Liquid||Acquired By Aerojet, Formerly a Division of Pratt & Whitney|
|Ad Astra Rocket Company||Webster, TX United States||VASIMR||magnetoplasma||may be used for future Mars missions|
|Reaction Engines Ltd.||Oxfordshire, England United Kingdom||SABRE||rocket/turbojet/ramjet||planned to be used in Skylon|
|SpaceDev||Poway, CA United States||hybrid rocket||used on SpaceShipOne and SpaceShipTwo|
|SpaceX||Hawthorne, California, United States||Numerous||Merlin/ Raptor / Draco / Kestrel||used on Falcon Rockets|
|Snecma||Courcouronnes, France||Numerous||Vinci / Viking / Vulcain / HM7B||used on Ariane rockets|
- List of private spaceflight companies including only companies with primarily private funding and missions ("NewSpace")
- Russian aerospace industry
- Messier, Doug (2013-10-09). "Rogozin Outlines Plans for Consolidating Russia’s Space Industry". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2014-07-31.
- SSL Overview
- "Iran unveils three new home-made satellites". Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Dhruva Space". Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "ISIS". Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- Werner, Debra (2012-08-13). "Builder Packing More Capability into Small Satellites". Space News. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "TRANSPACE". Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "BDLI manufacturer for space". Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Kongsberg Gruppen". Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Rocketstar Robotics". Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Astro Aerospace". Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- "TRANSPACE". Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- "RadioBro". Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- "Advances in Microcavity Discharge Thruster Technology", AIAA 2010-6616.
- "Geometric Optimization of a Coaxial Pulsed Plasma Thuster", AIAA 2003-5025.
- CU Aerospace Propulsion Module Specifications
- HIRE engine-AE Aerospace's Andrew Edwards 2010
- HIRE Engine