List of sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous peoples

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Many sports teams have names or mascots derived from peoples that are indigenous to the region where the team is also located. There is not total agreement on the definition of indigenous peoples, but there are some criteria used by the United Nations[definition 1] and the International Labour Organization:[definition 2]

  • People descended from the pre-colonial/pre-invasion inhabitants of a region.
  • People that continue to have a distinct language or culture with close ties to the land.
  • People who suffer economic and political marginalization as a minority group.
  • People who identify themselves as indigenous.

This definition in international law is not identical to the American English dictionary definition of the word indigenous, which is broad enough to include native and born as synonyms.[definition 3] The additional criteria of a people both colonized or invaded and reduced to a marginalized minority is however part of the current majority understanding of the terms First Nations, Native American and Indigenous peoples of the Americas as referring to the decedents of pre-colonial peoples of the Americas, not everyone born there. There are team names derived from non-indigenous peoples, such as the Boston Celtics, the University of Notre Dame "Fighting Irish" and the Minnesota Vikings (the latter name was selected in reference to the Scandinavian settlers of that region), none of which belong on this list. There is no doubt that the Irish and other ethnic groups in America were subject to marginalization, but not colonization. Colonization of the Celtic peoples in their native lands by the English did occur, but lies outside of the scope of this article.

While the history of colonization and marginalization is not unique to the Americas, the practice of deriving sports team names, imagery, and mascots from indigenous peoples is a significant phenomena in the United States and Canada. The rise of indigenous rights movements in these counties has also led to controversy regarding the continuation of practices rooted in colonialism.[definition 4] Such practices maintain the power relationship between the dominant culture and the indigenous culture, and can be seen as a form of cultural imperialism.[definition 5] Such practices are seen as particularly harmful in schools and universities, which have the a stated purpose of promoting ethnic diversity and inclusion.[definition 6] In recognition of the responsibility of higher education to eliminate behaviors that creates a hostile environment for education, in 2005 the NCAA initiated a policy against "hostile and abusive" names and mascots that led to the change of many derived from Native American culture, with the exception of those that established an agreement with particular tribes for the use of their specific names. Other schools retain their names because they were founded for the education of Native Americans, and continue to have a significant number of indigenous students. In other former colonies in Asia, Africa and South America, the adoption of indigenous names for majority indigenous teams is also found.

The trend towards the elimination of indigenous names and mascots in local schools has been steady, with two thirds having been eliminated over the past 50 years according to the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI).[trends 1] Change has often come though individual communities becoming aware of the issue, such as when the Cooperstown Central School Board of Education (NY) voted 6-1 on March 6, 2013 to remove the Redskins mascot, a move prompted by a vote of the student body.[trends 2] However other efforts have met official opposition, as at Neshaminy High School in Pennsylvania.[trends 3][trends 4][trends 5] In a few states with significant Native American populations, change has been mandated by law, such in Wisconsin,[trends 6] Oregon,[trends 7] and Washington.[trends 8][trends 9] The list below for U.S. High Schools however remains substantial, with over 400 teams currently calling themselves "Indians", over 100 "Braves", 74 "Warriors" using indigenous imagery (there are many with the name but using generic, Greek or Roman mascots), and 61 "Redskins". The latter name has seen many changes due to its association with the Washington Redskins name controversy; 28 high schools in 18 states dropped the mascot between 1988 and early 2013.[trends 10] Several more have changed since that list was compiled in addition to Cooperstown, NY also in Driggs, Idaho,[trends 11] Dallas, Texas,[trends 12] Port Townsend, Washington.[trends 13] and Capitol Hill High School, Oklahoma City.[trends 14][trends 15]


Professional teams[edit]

Current usage[edit]

American football[edit]

Association football (soccer)[edit]




  • Colo-Colo, Santiago de Chile. Name relates to the Mapuche
  • Lautaro, Buin. Also called Guerreros de Buín (Warriors Buín)
See also: Guaraní people

Australian rules football[edit]


Major league[edit]
Further information: Major League Baseball
Further information: Liga Mexicana del Pacífico
Minor league[edit]

Affiliates of the Atlanta Braves: (An additional affiliate is the Lynchburg Hillcats)

Affiliate of the Cleveland Indians:

Affiliate of the Pittsburgh Pirates:

Affiliate of the Texas Rangers:


All three existing NBA teams that previously used indigenous imagery have stopped doing so. (See Prior usage list below).

Canadian football[edit]


Ice hockey[edit]

Lacrosse (Canada)[edit]

Motorcycle Racing[edit]


Rugby league[edit]

Prior usage[edit]

Many professional teams changed because they moved to another city, or went out of business ("defunct" in table below).

Old Name Sport/League City, State Year Changed New Name Notes
Akron Indians National Football League Akron, Ohio NA Akron Pros Changed back to the Indians in 1926, then folded
Tri-Cities "Blackhawks" National Basketball Association Moline, Illinois 1951 Atlanta Hawks Team was also the Milwaukee & St. Louis "Hawks"
Buffalo Braves National Basketball Association Buffalo, New York 1978 Los Angeles Clippers Also the San Diego Clippers
Burlington Indians Minor League Baseball Burlington, North Carolina 2006 Burlington Royals Changed affiliation from Cleveland Indians to Kansas City Royals
Canton/Akron Indians Minor League Baseball Akron, Ohio 1996 Aeros Former farm team for the Cleveland Indians
Cleveland Indians (1921) National Football League Cleveland, Ohio defunct
Cleveland Indians (1931) National Football League Cleveland, Ohio defunct
Duluth Eskimos National Football League Duluth, Minnesota 1927 NA, defunct also known as the Duluth "Kelleys"
Flint Indians Michigan Baseball League Flint, Michigan 1941 NA
Golden State Warriors National Basketball Association Oakland, California 1971 NA Originally Philadelphia Warriors, then San Francisco Warriors, dropped Indian imagery when they move to Oakland
Indios de Ciudad Juarez Minor League Baseball Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico 1984 defunct
Kansas City Scouts National Hockey League Kansas City, Missouri 1976 now the New Jersey Devils First moved to Colorado and became the "Rockies"
Kinston Indians Minor League Baseball Kinston, North Carolina 2012 NA replaced by the Carolina Mudcats
Mexico City Aztecas Continental Basketball Association Mexico City NA Only one season 1994-95
Oorang Indians National Football League NA, defunct Consisting mostly of Native Americans
Ottawa Tomahawks National Basketball League of Canada Ottawa 2013 Ottawa SkyHawks Name changed shortly after announced due to controversy, team folded after one season.
Peoria Chiefs Minor League Baseball Peoria, Illinois NA Adopted their name from a 1950s team, but did not use indigenous imagery, instead using imagery related to firefighters.[teams 4]
Salisbury Indians Minor League Baseball Salisbury, Maryland NA Defunct
Syracuse Chiefs Minor League Baseball Syracuse, New York First Became the "SkyChiefs" with a train Logo, then reverted to the old name while retaining the new logo.
Springfield Indians American Hockey League Peoria, Illinois Rivermen First moved to Worcester and became the IceCats
Toronto Tecumsehs National Hockey Association Toronto, Ontario 1913 Toronto Ontarios renamed the Toronto Shamrocks in 1915 and ceased operations later that year

Amateur and school teams[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

In 2005 the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) distributed a “self evaluation” to 31 colleges for teams to examine the use of potentially offensive imagery with their mascot choice.[trends 16] Subsequently 19 teams were cited as having potentially "hostile or abusive" names, mascots, or images, that would be banned from displaying them during post-season play, and prohibited from hosting tournaments.[trends 17] Since then, all of the colleges previously using the nickname Indians changed them except Catawba College which changed to Catawba Indians with approval of that tribe.[trends 18] Four additional colleges originally on the "hostile and abusive" list: Central Michigan University (Chippewas),[trends 19] Florida State University (Seminoles),[trends 20] Mississippi College (Choctaws)[trends 21] and University of Utah (Utes)[trends 22] were granted waivers to retain their nicknames after gaining support from those respective tribes.

Current Usage[edit]

Prior Usage[edit]

Old Name School City, State Year Changed New Name Notes
Apaches Illinois Valley Community College Oglesby, Illinois 2001 Eagle
Apaches Southwestern College Chula Vista, California 2001 Jaguars Community College
Beothuk Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada 1987 Sea-Hawks The Beothuk aboriginal peoples went extinct in 1829 and the university deemed the use of the Beothuk name to be offensive
Braves Bradley University Peoria, Illinois Their logo is now a block B and mascot is a gargoyle.
Braves University of West Georgia Carrollton, Georgia 2006 Wolves
Braves Seneca College Toronto, Ontario 1999-2000 The Sting
Braves Quinnipiac University Hamden, Connecticut 2002 Bobcats
Brown Indians/Squaws St. Bonaventure University Allegany (town), New York 1979 Bonnies
Chief Ouabache Indiana State University Terre Haute, Indiana 1989 NA The team name was always the Sycamores, Chief Ouabache and "Indian Princess" were the on-field mascots.
Chiefs Oklahoma City University Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Stars
Chiefs Springfield College Springfield, Massachusetts Pride
Chieftains Seattle University Seattle, Washington Redhawks
Chieftains Stonehill College Easton, Massachusetts Skyhawks
Fighting Illini University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 2007 Old name was retained as referring to the state[teams 6] Chief Illiniwek has been officially retired, but is widely used by students and fans
Fighting Sioux University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota 2012 None yet selected
Hurons Eastern Michigan University Ypsilanti, Michigan 1991 Eastern Michigan Eagles The mascot is "Swoop"
Indians Adams State University Alamosa, Colorado Grizzlies
Indians Arkansas State University Jonesboro, Arkansas Arkansas State Red Wolves
Indians University of the Cumberlands Williamsburg, Kentucky 2002 Patriots Originally Cumberland College, name changed 2005
Indians Dartmouth College Hanover, New Hampshire 1970s Dartmouth Big Green Indians was not official
Indians Midwestern State University Wichita Falls, Texas 2006 Mustangs
Indians McMurry University Abilene, Texas 2006 War Hawks
Indians University of Louisiana at Monroe Monroe, Louisiana 2006 Warhawks "Chief Brave Spirit" mascot also retired
Indians Indiana University of Pennsylvania Indiana County, Pennsylvania 2007 IUP Crimson Hawks
Indians Stanford University Stanford, California 1972 Stanford Cardinal for the school color, a shade of red
Indians College of William & Mary Williamsburg, Virginia 1978 Tribe Mascot is the Griffin
Indians and Otahkians Southeast Missouri State University Cape Girardeau, Missouri 2004 Southeast Missouri State Redhawks "H" is NOT capitalized here, unlike the case with Miami's nickname.
Mohawks Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts North Adams, Massachusetts Trailblazers
Plainsmen Nebraska Wesleyan University Lincoln, Nebraska Prairie Wolves
Red Raiders Colgate University Hamilton (village), New York Raiders
Redmen Carthage College Kenosha, Wisconsin Red Men/Lady Reds
Redmen University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 1972 UMass Minutemen According to the University Redmen referred to the color of uniforms worn by the athletics teams
Redmen Northeastern State University Tahlequah, Oklahoma RiverHawks Founded as the Cherokee National Female Seminary
Redmen St. John's University New York City 1995 Red Storm The school's website indicates that the name did not refer to American Indians, but to the school color, a bright cardinal red.
Redmen and Lady Reds Simpson College Indianola, Iowa 1992 The Storm
Redskins Miami University Oxford, Ohio 1997 Miami RedHawks
Redskins Southern Nazarene University Bethany, Oklahoma Crimson Storm
Saltine Warrior Syracuse University Syracuse, New York Syracuse Orange
Savages Dickinson State University Dickinson, North Dakota 1972 Blue Hawks
Savages Eastern Washington University Cheney, Washington 1973 Eagles
Savages Southeastern Oklahoma State University Durant, Oklahoma 2006 Savage Storm
Warriors Hartwick College Oneonta, New York 1994 Hawks
Warriors Marquette University Milwaukee, Wisconsin 1994 Marquette Golden Eagles Retired the mascot "Willie Wampum" in 1971[mascots 2]

High schools[edit]

Current usage[edit]

The following high schools are listed in alphabetical order by team name:

Big Reds[edit]
Blackhawks / Black Hawk[edit]

Most of the schools with the name use a bird logo, therefore are not directly derived from an indigenous people although there may be an indirect reference to Chief Black Hawk. The following do use Native American images/symbols.

Dine' Warriors[edit]
Eskimos or Eskymos[edit]
Indian / Indians / Indian Arrows[edit]

Pinson Valley High School

  • Pocahontas High School, Pocahontas, VA
  • Pocahontas High School, Pocahontas, IA
  • Pocahontas/Pomeroy-Palmer High School, Pomeroy IA
  • Pocatello High School, Pocatello, ID
  • Pocola High School, Pocola, OK
  • Ponca High School, Ponca, NE
  • Pontiac High School, Pontiac, IL
  • Poplar High School, Poplar, MT
  • Port Neches-Groves High School, Port Neches, TX
  • Portage High School, Portage, IN
  • Powell Valley High School, Speedwell, TN
  • Powhatan High School, Powhatan, VA
  • Poyen High School, Poyen, AR
  • Prairie Lea High School, Prairie Lea, TX
  • Preston High School, Preston, ID
  • Puxico High School, Puxico, MO
  • Quanah High School, Quanah, TX
  • Rahway High School, Rahway, NJ
  • Ravena-Coeymans-Selkirk High School, Ravena, NY
  • Reardan High School, Reardan, WA
  • Red Jacket High School, Shortsville, NY
  • Renton High School, Renton, WA
  • Richfield Springs Central High School, Richfield Springs, NY
  • Riesel High School, Riesel, TX
  • Ripon High School, Ripon, CA
  • Rittman High School, Rittman, OH
  • Roosevelt High School, Yonkers, NY
  • Roseburg High School, Roseburg, OR
  • Roxborough High School, Philadelphia, PA
  • Rural Retreat High School, Rural Retreat, VA
  • Russellville High School, Russellville, MO
  • Sac City High School, Sac City, IA
  • Sacred Heart Catholic School, Hallettsville, TX
  • Sanborn Regional High School, Kingston, NH
  • Sandwich Community High School, Sandwich, IL
  • Sanford High School, Sanford, CO
  • Sanger High School, Sanger, TX
  • Santa Fe High School, Santa Fe, TX
  • Satanta High School, Satanta, KS
  • Saugatuck High School, Saugatuck, MI[mascots 4]
  • Sauquoit Valley High School, Sauquoit, NY
  • Scappoose High School, Scappoose, OR
  • Schoharie High School, Schoharie, NY
  • Seminole High School, Seminole, TX
  • Seminole County High School, Donalsonville, GA
  • Seneca High School, Seneca, WI
  • Seneca High School, Seneca, MO
  • Sequatchie County High School, Dunlap, TN
  • Sequoyah High School, Tahlequah, OK
  • Sewanhaka High School, Floral Park, NY
  • Seymour High School, Payson, IL
  • Shady Side Academy, Pittsburgh, PA
  • Shamokin Area High School, Coal Township, PA
  • Shattuck High School, Shattuck, OK
  • Shawnee High School (Lima, Ohio)
  • Shelter Island High School, Shelter Island, NY
  • Shelter Island/Ross High School, Shelter Island, NY
  • Shoshone High School, Shoshone, ID
  • Sissonville High School, Charleston, WV
  • Skowhegan Area High School, Skowhegan, ME
  • Sleepy Eye High School, Sleepy Eye, MN
  • Souderton High School, Souderton, PA
  • South Bend High School, South Bend, WA
  • Southampton High School, Courtland, VA
  • Southern High School, Salineville, OH
  • Southern Choctaw High School, Gilbertown, AL
  • Southern Fulton High School, Warfordsburg, PA
  • Spirit Lake High School, Spirit Lake, IA
  • St. Francis High School, St. Francis, KS
  • St. Joseph High School, South Bend, IN
  • St. Paul High School, St. Paul, KS
  • St. Stephens High School, Hickory, NC
  • St. Vincent High School, Perryville, MO
  • Stafford High School, Falmouth, VA
  • Stamford Central High School, Stamford, NY
  • Stebbins High School, Riverside, OH
  • Stephens County High School, Toccoa, GA
  • Stilwell High School, Stilwell, OK
  • Stockbridge Valley High School, Munnsville, NY
  • Strafford High School, Strafford, MO
  • Strasburg High School, Strasburg, CO
  • Susquehanna Township High School, Harrisburg, PA
  • Swett High School, Crockett, CA
  • Tallulah Falls High School, Tallulah Falls, GA
  • Tarkio High School, Tarkio, MO
  • Tecumseh High School (Michigan), Tecumseh, MI
  • Tekonsha High School, Tekonsha, MI
  • Tioga High School, Tioga, LA
  • Tishomingo High School, Tishomingo, OK
  • Toledo High School, Toledo, WA
  • Toms River South High School, Toms River, NJ
  • Touchet High School, Touchet, WA
  • Towns County High School, Hiawassee, GA
  • Turners Falls High School, Montague, MA
  • Twin Lakes High School, Monticello, IN
  • Union City High School, Union City, IN
  • Unionville High School, Kennett Square, PA
  • Upper Perkiomen High School, Pennsburg, PA
  • Valley High School, Lucasville, OH
  • Van-Far High School, Vandalia, MO
  • Venice High School, Venice, FL
  • Vero Beach High School, Vero Beach, FL
  • Vici High School, Vici, OK
  • Vidalia High School, Vidalia, GA
  • Waite High School, Toledo, OH
  • Wapanucka High School, Wapanucka, OK
  • Wapello Jr/Sr High School, Wapello, Iowa - "Indian Arrows"
  • Ware High School, Ware, MA
  • Washington-Marion High School, Lake Charles, LA
  • Waterloo High School, Waterloo, NY
  • Watertown High School, Watertown, CT
  • Watertown/Pomperaug High School, Watertown, CT
  • Waterville High School, Waterville, NY
  • Waterville/Madison Central High School, Waterville, NY
  • Waukon High School, Waukon, IA
  • Wauseon High School, Wauseon, OH
  • Waxahachie High School, Waxahachie, TX
  • Wayne City High School, Wayne City, IL
  • Wayne Valley High School, Wayne, NJ
  • Waynesboro High School, Waynesboro, PA
  • Weehawken High School, Weehawken, NJ
  • Weeping Water High School, Weeping Water, NE
  • Weequahic High School, Newark, NJ
  • Wells High School, Wells, NY
  • West Allegheny High School, Imperial, PA
  • West Canada Valley High School, Newport, NY
  • West Forest High School, Tionesta, PA
  • West Seneca High School, West Seneca, NY
  • Western High School, Latham, OH [teams 12]
  • Westminster Catawba Christian High School, Rock Hill, SC[teams 13]
  • Wetumpka High School, Wetumpka AL[teams 14]
  • Weyauwega-Fremont High School, Weyauwega, Wisconsin[teams 15]
  • White Cloud High School, White Cloud, MI[teams 16]
  • Wichita County High School, Leoti, KS[teams 17]
  • Wicomico High School, Salisbury, MD[teams 18]
  • Wilcox RVT, Meriden CT
  • Williford High School, Williford AR[teams 19]
  • Winnebago High School, Winnebago, Illinois
  • Winnebago High School, Winnebago, NE[teams 20]
  • Yazoo City High School, Yazoo City, MS
  • Ysleta High School, El Paso TX
  • Yuma High School, Yuma, CO
Red Raiders/Raiders[edit]

A number of schools with the name "Warriors" never used indigenous imagery, or changed in response to the controversy. An example of the latter is the Hall High School (Connecticut) which dropped its Indian logo in 2012.[mascots 20]

Prior usage[edit]

General William J. Palmer High School, Colorado Springs, Colorado - Did not change the name "Terrors", but the original mascot was a caricature of a Native American called "Eagle Beak", replaced in 1985 with an Eagle (the bird).

Middle school[edit]

  • Antioch Redskins of Plant City, FL, Youth Football[teams 44]
  • Carey Junior High School, Cheyenne, Wyoming (Braves)
  • Dearborn Heights Redskins Jr. Football, Dearborn Heights, MI[teams 45]
  • Gaffney Middle School, Gaffney, South Carolina (Chiefs)
  • Gettysburg Area Middle School Braves
  • Granard Middle School, Gaffney, South Carolina (Warriors)
  • Grayling Redskins Youth Football, Grayling, MI[teams 46]
  • J.D. Meisler Middle School, Metairie, Louisiana (Chiefs)
  • Lakeview Middle School, Rossville, Georgia (Warriors)
  • Lancaster Junior Redskins, Lancaster (village), NY[teams 47]
  • McCormick Junior High School, Cheyenne, Wyoming (Warriors)
  • Morden Redskins, South Eastern Manitoba Hockey League (amateur adult)[teams 48]
  • Morris, IL – Little Redskins IKWF sanctioned wrestling club (K-8th grade) Uses a version of the DC team logo[teams 49]
  • New Rock Redskins, Conyers, GA (Ages 6–12) Uses the DC team logo[teams 50]
  • Orangeview J.H.S (Buena Park, CA) Warriors
  • Ohio Redskins Youth Sports (age 4-14), Columbus, OH[teams 51]
  • Patterson Redskins Football (youth) Patterson, CA[teams 52]
  • Pocahontas Middle School, Powhatan County, Virginia (Squaws)
  • Rochester Redskins, Rochester Hills, MI[teams 53]
  • Sarasota Redskins Youth Football, Sarasota, FL (age 4-14)[teams 54]
  • South Cherokee Recreation Association (SCRA) Youth Footfall, Woodstock, GA Uses the DC team logo[teams 55]
  • Sterling Heights Redskins, Sterling Heights, MI (youth) Uses the DC team logo[teams 56]
  • Wayland Redskins, Wayland, NY (Youth Football ages 6–12)[teams 57]
  • Woonsocket Redskins, Woonsocket, RI – Youth Football (K-9th grade) Uses the DC team logo[teams 58]

Pop Warner Football League[edit]

Further information: Pop Warner Little Scholars

Little league baseball[edit]

Youth/Little league football[edit]

Junior League Lacrosse (Canada)[edit]


Youth football (England)[edit]

Fictional teams[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Sources of data on teams/mascots[edit]

  • MaxPreps is a site for U.S. High School sports information, and can be searched by mascot name as well as school name, but the data is not kept up to date so it is only a starting place.
  • MascotDB is a searchable database of mascots from Pro to High School.
  • List of Semi-Pro Football Teams



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  2. ^ "Who Are Indigenous Peoples". Retrieved November 15, 2014. 
  3. ^ "Indigenous: Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Retrieved November 15, 2014. 
  4. ^ Pewewardy, Cornel (1999). "From enemy to mascot: The deculturation of Indian mascots in sports culture". Canadian Journal of Native Education 23 (2): 176–189. ISSN 0710-1481. Retrieved 2014-11-22. 
  5. ^ Longwell-Grice, Robert; Hope Longwell-Grice (2003). "Chiefs, Braves, and Tomahawks: The Use of American Indians as University Mascots". NASPA Journal (National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, Inc.) 40 (3): 1–12. ISSN 0027-6014. Retrieved 2014-10-29. 
  6. ^ "Statement of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights on the Use of Native American Images and Nicknames as Sports Symbols". The United States Commission on Civil Rights. April 13, 2001. Retrieved 2012-06-13. 


  1. ^ "Anti-Defamation and Mascots". National Congress of American Indians. Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  2. ^ "Oneida Indian Nation Congratulates Cooperstown Central School Board for Voting to Remove Redskins Mascot". March 7, 2013. Retrieved March 14, 2013. 
  3. ^ Omari Fleming (October 25, 2013). "Parent Asks School To Change Mascot Name". Fox News. 
  4. ^ Anna Schiffbauer (September 17, 2014). "Playwickian adviser, student editor suspended for defying administrative orders with Redskins ban". Student Press Law Center. 
  5. ^ "Neshaminy journalists to be honored by ACLU". September 10, 2014. 
  6. ^ Keen, Judy (Oct 7, 2010). "Wis. law lets residents challenge race-based mascots". USA Today. 
  7. ^ "State Board of Education Bans Use of Native American Mascots". Oregon State Department of Education. Retrieved February 10, 2013. 
  8. ^ Abby Ellin (Sep 29, 2012). "Washington State Wants Schools to Ban Native American Mascots". ABC News. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  9. ^ "2012 Native American Mascot Resolution". Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  10. ^ "The Other Redskins". Capitol News Service. Retrieved July 16, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Idaho High School Drops Redskins Logo, Mascot". Huffington Post. 2013-06-12. Retrieved 2014-10-21. 
  12. ^ Ericka Mellon (April 15, 2014). "New HISD mascots: Huskies, Wolf Pack, Texans". The Houston Chronicle. 
  13. ^ Charlie Bermant (June 25, 2013). "'Redskins' dropped as team name and mascot for Port Townsend High School". Peninsula Daily News. 
  14. ^ Heide Brandes (December 10, 2014). "Oklahoma City high school drops the name 'Redskins' for its team". Reuters. 
  15. ^ L. Noland (December 10, 2014). "Update: Oklahoma City students protest mascot change". KFOR-TV. 
  16. ^ Brutlag Hosick, Michelle (March 14, 2005). "Mascot matter fits into proper-environment discussion". The NCAA News. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  17. ^ Brand, Myles (October 24, 2005). "NCAA correctly positioned as a catalyst for social change". National Collegiate Athletic Association. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  18. ^ "NCAA says Catawba College can use Indians nickname". May 30, 2006. Retrieved February 1, 2013. 
  19. ^ Doug Lederman (September 6, 2005). "Two More Universities Off NCAA's Mascot List". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved November 4, 2013. 
  20. ^ Wieberg, Steve (2005-08-12). "Fla. State gets backing". USA Today. 
  21. ^ Associated Press (February 23, 2006). "NCAA: Mississippi College Can Keep Choctaws Nickname". Retrieved November 4, 2013. 
  22. ^ Associated Press (September 3, 2005). "NCAA takes Utah off banned mascots list". ESPN. Retrieved November 4, 2013. 


  1. ^ "How the Atlanta Braves adopted the tomahawk chop from the Florida State Seminoles". Retrieved November 15, 2014. 
  2. ^ Staurowsky, Ellen (December 1998). "An Act of Honor or Exploitation? The Cleveland Indians' Use of the Louis Francis Sockalexis Story". Sociology of Sports Journal. 15(4): 299. 
  3. ^ The Hockey News: Special Features:'s NHL Logo Rankings
  4. ^ "History: Peoria Chiefs". Retrieved November 14, 2014. 
  5. ^ "About Bacone College". 
  6. ^ 'Fighting Illini FAQ' | University of Illinois Archives
  7. ^ Gary Fuller. "Arcadia High School's Apache Name Continues To Spark Controversy". Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  8. ^ "Ugh! to Agawam's Nickname". The Los Angeles Times. April 25, 1987. Retrieved 2014-01-17. 
  9. ^ "Bibb County High School, Centreville, Alabama". 
  10. ^ "Escanaba Area Public Schools: Indian Education Program". 
  11. ^ Alan Boraas (September 19, 2014). "Aniak Halfbreeds? Proud name; Washington Redskins? Racist slur". Alaska Dispatch News. 
  12. ^ "Western Local Schools". 
  13. ^ "Westminster Catawba Christian School". 
  14. ^ "Wetumpka, Alabama". 
  15. ^ Weyauwega-Fremont
  16. ^ "White Cloud". 
  17. ^ "Leoti Kansas". 
  18. ^ "Salisbury, Maryland". 
  19. ^ "Williford, Arkansas". 
  20. ^ "Winnebago Nebraska". 
  21. ^ "Killingly High School". 
  22. ^ "Belding Michigan". 
  23. ^ "Camden-Frontier High School". 
  24. ^ "Chowchilla High School, California". 
  25. ^ "Kingston High School, Oklahoma". 
  26. ^ "Little River High School, Kansas". 
  27. ^ "Momence High School, Illinois". 
  28. ^ Oriskany NY
  29. ^ Ringgold LA
  30. ^ Rush Springs OK
  31. ^ Saranac MI
  32. ^ Sayre PA
  33. ^ Wolf Lake, Illinois
  34. ^
  35. ^ South Stokes High School, North Carolina
  36. ^ Broken Bow OK
  37. ^ Hot Springs HS
  38. ^ Lamar CO
  39. ^ Leflore OK
  40. ^ Quinton OK
  41. ^ Salmon, ID
  42. ^ Salmon River ID
  43. ^ Sigourney IA
  44. ^ Antioch Redskins
  45. ^ Dearborn Heights Redskins Jr. Football
  46. ^ Grayling Redskins Youth Football
  47. ^ Lancaster Junior Redskins
  48. ^ Morden Redskins
  49. ^ Little Redskins
  50. ^ New Rock Redskins
  51. ^ Ohio Redskins Youth Sports
  52. ^ Patterson Redskins Football
  53. ^ Rochester Redskins
  54. ^ Sarasota Redskins
  55. ^ South Cherokee Recreation Association
  56. ^ Sterling Heights Redskins
  57. ^ Wayland Redskins
  58. ^ Woonsocket Redskins
  59. ^ Albemarle Redskins Virginia
  60. ^ Bennetts Creek Warriors
  61. ^ Derby Red Raiders, CT
  62. ^ East Bay Warriors, Oakland CA
  63. ^ Fort Braden Chiefs, FL
  64. ^ Immokalee Seminoles, FL
  65. ^ Lower Sussex Indians, DE
  66. ^ Nonnewaug Chiefs, CT
  67. ^ [1]
  68. ^ Phoenix, AZ
  69. ^ Pomperaug Warriors, CT
  70. ^ Reynolds Corner Redskins, Toledo OH
  71. ^ Southeast Apaches, San Antonio, Texas
  72. ^ Southland Comanches, CO
  73. ^ Stratford Redskin, CT
  74. ^ Water Oak Indians , CT
  75. ^ Western Albemarle Chiefs
  76. ^ Willamette Redskins, Eugene OR
  77. ^ Skokie Indians, Illinois
  78. ^ "Antioch Redskins, Plant City, Florida". 
  79. ^ DeRon Talley (November 15, 2012). "D'ville Redskins headed to the Superbowl". The Donaldsonville Chief. 
  80. ^ Fauquier Youth Football, Fauquier County, Virginia
  81. ^ [2]
  82. ^ Kanawha Youth Football Redskins, Richmond, Virginia
  83. ^ Loudon Redskins Youth Football, Loudon, Tennessee
  84. ^ [3]
  85. ^ Rochester Redskins, Rochester, Michigan
  86. ^ "Local Redskins youth league not feeling pressure to change name". WWSB. June 19, 2014. 
  87. ^ [4]
  88. ^ South Cherokee Redskins Association, Woodstock, Georgia
  89. ^ Southwest Redskins, Houston, Texas
  90. ^ Washington Redskins Midget Football, Washington, New Jersey


  1. ^ "Warpaint". Kansas City Chiefs. Retrieved November 13, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Willie Wampum". 
  3. ^ Bañes, Lanz Christian (2013-11-18). "Vallejo: Apache mascot at high school may be changed". Retrieved 23 November 2013. 
  4. ^ "Indian mascots for schools and sports teams? Contentious Saugatuck forum revives debate". The Grand Rapids Press. April 21, 2009. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  5. ^ DAN SEUFERT (April 16, 2014). "Students say they want to change the face of Belmont mascot". 
  6. ^ "Mascot spotlights Indian grievances". 
  7. ^ Cindy Kranz (August 14, 2003). "Student, school at odds on mascot". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  8. ^ Gray George (January 21, 2014). "Redskins mascot a source of pride, outrage". Calaveras Enterprise. 
  9. ^ "Redskins nickname causing new uproar". June 12, 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  10. ^ Colleen Wells (April 29, 2010). "Controversial Clinton School's Redskins mascot will stay". Toledo News Now. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  11. ^ "Conrad: ReskinsSports". 
  12. ^ "Dustin High School, Oklahoma". 
  13. ^ Annie Chang (July 30, 2013). "Goshen High's mascot stays the Redskins". WSBT-TV. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  14. ^ Mike Florio (July 19, 2013). "Another high school looks at whether to keep Redskins name". NBC Sports. Retrieved 2013-10-15. 
  15. ^ Stephen W Butera (October 18, 2013). "Redskins name at Loudon H.S. a tradition, despite national controversy". WBIR. 
  16. ^ "McLoud: Our-Community Is Proud Of Our Name". 
  17. ^ Omari Fleming (Oct 25, 2013). "Parent Asks School To Change Mascot Name". Fox News. 
  18. ^ Christian Menno (October 25, 2013). "Student newspaper to stop using school's 'Redskin' nickname". The Morning Call. 
  19. ^ Logo relates to Air Force?
  20. ^ "Hall High School Warriors removes Indian mascot". West Hartford News. June 15, 2012. 
  21. ^ Cooperstown CS
  22. ^ "Cooperstown Redskins No More: NY School Board Votes To Retire Nickname After Criticism". AP. March 7, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2013. 
  23. ^ No longer "Indians"?
  24. ^ Joe Vazquez (February 12, 2015). "John Swett High School In Crockett Drops ‘Indians’ Mascot". KCBS. 
  25. ^ "History of the NCHS Mascot". Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  26. ^ Charlie Bermant. "Redhawks logo selected for Port Townsend High School". Peninsula Daily News. 
  27. ^
  28. ^ Ryan McLaughlin (June 8, 2012). "Sanford High School replaces Redskins with Spartans". Bangor Daily News. 
  29. ^ Sherrell Hubbard (June 11, 2014). "Before Washington Redskins controversy, Louisville had Seneca". 
  30. ^ Tamalpais High School official site: A Brief History of Tam, accessed 10/21/2013
  31. ^ Jerry Ulmer (August 29, 2014). "The Dalles becomes latest Oregon school to drop Native American mascot". The Oregonian. 
  32. ^ Bañes, Lanz Christian (2013-11-21). "Vallejo school board votes to drop Apaches' name". Vallejo Times Herald. Retrieved 23 November 2013. 
  33. ^ Schaefer, Samantha (November 21, 2013). "Controversial Apache mascot dropped by Northern California school". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 23 November 2013. 
  34. ^ Lanz Christian Bañes (February 6, 2014). "Redhawks chosen as new Vallejo High mascot, replacing Apaches". Times-Herald. 
  35. ^ [5]
  36. ^ "Indians"?
  37. ^ Seth Koenig (March 19, 2011). "Wiscasset High to keep ‘Redskins’ mascot through end of school year". Times Record. 
  38. ^ Seth Koenig (April 15, 2011). "Wiscasset High releases poll on proposals to replace controversial ‘Redskins’ moniker". Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  39. ^ Hawk Logo