List of state leaders in 1978

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This is a list of heads of state, government leaders, and other rulers in the year 1978.

Africa[edit]

Asia[edit]

Europe[edit]

North America[edit]

Oceania[edit]

South America[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Titled president between 1966 and 1976.
  2. ^ Lesotho only became independent in 1966.
  3. ^ Mauritius only became independent in 1968.
  4. ^ Bophuthatswana was only declared to be independent in 1977.
  5. ^ Transkei was only declared to be independent in 1976.
  6. ^ Swaziland only became independent in 1968, until when Sobhuza II was titled Paramount Chief of Swaziland.
  7. ^ Julius Nyerere was President of Tanganyika from 1962 to 1964.
  8. ^ Bahrain only became independent in 1971, until then the monarch was titled Hakim of Bahrain.
  9. ^ Bahrain only became independent in 1971.
  10. ^ a b In exile between 1990 and 1991.
  11. ^ Qatar only became independent in 1971.
  12. ^ Singapore only became independent in 1965.
  13. ^ William Gopallawa was titled Governor-General of Ceylon between 1962 and 1972 under the monarchy.
  14. ^ President of North Vietnam from 1969 to 1976.
  15. ^ Prime minister of North Vietnam from 1955 to 1976.
  16. ^ Ali Abdullah Saleh became President of Yemen upon unification in 1990.
  17. ^ The seven member Swiss Federal Council is the collective head of state and the government of Switzerland. Within the Council, the President of the Swiss Confederation serves solely in a primus inter pares capacity for one year.
  18. ^ The Bahamas only became independent on 1973.
  19. ^ Titled Premier until independence.
  20. ^ Grenada only became independent in 1974.
  21. ^ Ellis Clarke was titled Governor-General of Trinidad and Tobago between 1972 and 1976 under the monarchy.
  22. ^ Trinidad and Tobago only became independent in 1962.
  23. ^ Fiji only became independent in 1970, until then Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara was titled Chief Minister of Fiji.
  24. ^ Subordinated to the Governor of New Caledonia.
  25. ^ Papua New Guinea only became independent in 1975, before which Michael Somare was titled Chief Minister of Papua and New Guinea.
  26. ^ Titled Chief Minister until independence.
  27. ^ a b Tonga only became independent in 1970.
  28. ^ Titled Chief Minister before independence.
  29. ^ Guyana only became independent in 1966.
  30. ^ a b Suriname only became independent in 1975.