List of stews

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This is a list of notable stews. A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables (such as carrots, potatoes, beans, onions, peppers and tomatoes, etc.), plus meat, especially tougher meats suitable for slow-cooking, such as beef. Poultry, pork, lamb or mutton, sausages, and seafood are also used.

Stews[edit]

Name Image Origin Description
Alicot France Stew made with poultry giblets and possibly the head, feet and wing tips.
Andrajos Spain (Jaén) Stew of tomato, onion, garlic, red pepper and rabbit, thickened with cake flour.
Asam pedas Ikan Asam Padeh Padang.jpg Indonesia
Malaysia
Sour and spicy stew dish made of seafood cooked in tamarind fruit juice, chili and other spices.
Beef bourguignon Boeuf bourguignon servi avec des pâtes.jpg France (Burgundy) Stew made of beef braised in red wine,[1] (traditionally red Burgundy) and beef broth, generally flavoured with garlic, onions and a bouquet garni, with pearl onions and mushrooms.
Bicol Express Bicol Express.jpg Philippines Stew made from long chilies, coconut milk, shrimp paste or stockfish, onion, pork, and garlic.
Bigos Bigos in Kraków (Rynek Główny).jpg Poland
Ukraine
Lithuania
Stew that features white cabbage, sauerkraut, various cuts of meat and sausages, often whole or puréed tomatoes, honey and mushrooms as ingredients.
Birnen, Bohnen und Speck Birnen, Bohnen und Speck.jpg Germany Typical dish in which pears, beans and bacon are cooked together.
Birria Plato de birria.jpg Mexico Spicy meat stew made of pork, goat, lamb, or mutton that is traditionally served on holidays such as Christmas.
Blanquette de veau Blanquette de veau.jpg France Bright veal ragout with mirepoix.
Booyah United States (Upper Midwestern) Thick stew popular in the Upper Midwestern United States with meat and vegetables. Often prepared communally in large kettles, with several different meats.
Bosnian Pot Bosanskilonac.jpg Bosnia Typical Bosnian dish with ingredients: beef, lamb, cabbage, potatoes, tomatoes, carrots, parsley, garlic, and peppercorns (whole, not ground).
Bouillabaisse Bullabessa.jpg France (Marseille) Bony fish and seafood stew with vegetables and Provençal herbs and spices. The name refers to a "simmering boil", the temperature of cooking the stew.
Brudet Croatia Fish stew that is usually eaten with polenta.
Brunswick stew Brunswick stew.jpg United States (Southern) Tomato-based stew containing various types of lima beans or butter beans, corn, okra, and other vegetables, and one or more types of meat. Most recipes claiming authenticity call for squirrel or rabbit meat, but chicken, pork, and beef are also common ingredients.
Buddha Jumps Over the Wall Buddha soup boul.jpg China Cantonese variation on shark fin soup.
Burgoo Kentucky burgoo.jpg United States (Midwestern and Southern) Traditionally made with wild game, this spicy thick stew is similar to Irish or Mulligan stew, often served with cornbread or corn muffins. Often prepared communally, with several different meats.
Cacciucco Cacciucco.jpg Italy Fish stew with several different types of fish and shellfish cooked in wine, tomatoes, and chili pepper.
Cachupa Cachupa frita.jpg Cape Verde Slow cooked stew of corn (hominy), beans, and fish or meat (sausage, beef, goat or chicken).
Caldeirada Caldeirada.jpg Portugal Portuguese stew consisting of a large variety of fish, and sometimes shellfish, with potatoes, tomato and onion.
Caldo gallego Caldo gallego - juantiagues.jpg Spain Stew made with fatty pork, white beans, and greens (cabbage or spring greens). Literally means "Galician stew".
Callaloo Caribbean Caribbean dish made of leaf vegetables, amaranth, and taro.
Caparrones Caparrones89.JPG Spain (La Rioja) Stew made of caparrón (a variety of red kidney bean) and a spicy chorizo sausage.
Carbonade flamande Ingredients carbonade.png Belgium Traditional Belgian sweet-sour beef and onion stew made with beer, and seasoned with thyme and bay.
Cassoulet Cassoulet.cuit.jpg France (Languedoc) Famous French dish that consists of slow-cooked meat (typically pork sausages, pork, goose, duck and sometimes mutton) with white haricot beans.
Cawl Cawl Cymreig.jpg United Kingdom (Wales) Meat stew which includes vegetables such as leeks and potatoes as well as, carrots, celery, onion, parsnip, swede, and turnip.
Chairo Bolivia Vegetable and meat stew with potato starch (chuños), onions, carrots, potatoes, white corn, beef and wheat kernels.
Chapea Dominican Republic Traditional dish from the countryside that consists of cooked red beans with longaniza (Dominican sausage), rice, ripe plantain and mashed squash which is used as a thickener.
Chicken mull United States (Southern) Traditional dish from North Carolina and Georgia. It is a type of stew consisting of parboiled whole chicken in a cream or milk based broth, and butter seasoned with salt, pepper and other ingredients. Traditionally, the stew is served in the late fall and winter months. Often prepared communally.
Chili con carne Pot-o-chili.jpg United States (Texas) Very famous spicy, normally tomato-based stew that features kidney beans, chopped or ground beef, and other ingredients.
Cholent Chamin.jpg Jewish Slowly simmered Jewish stew that cooks overnight and is traditionally served on Shabbat. Main ingredients are meat, potatoes, beans, and barley; some recipes (Sephardi) include rice and substitute chicken for beef.
Ciambotta Ciambotta.jpg Italy Based on vegetables, but may have other ingredients such as meat or fish. The vegetable choices are usually potatoes, eggplant, tomatoes, sweet peppers, chilli, onion and herbs.
Cincinnati chili Skyline 4-way.jpg United States (Midwestern) Regional style of chili con carne characterized by the use of unusual seasonings such as cinnamon, cloves, allspice or chocolate.
Cioppino Cioppino.jpg United States (San Francisco) Italian-American fish stew that is traditionally made from the catch of the day, which in the dish's place of origin is typically a combination of Dungeness crab, clams, shrimp, scallops, squid, mussels and fish. The seafood is then combined with fresh tomatoes in a wine sauce, and served with toasted bread, either sourdough or baguette.
Cocido madrileño CocidoMadrileño.jpg Spain (Madrid) Stew whose main ingredient is the chickpea or garbanzo bean, preferably of its larger variety (also known as kabuli). Vegetables are added: potatoes mainly, but also cabbage, carrots, and turnips. In some cases, green beans, mangold, or cardoon are also added.
Compote Game stew made for example from rabbit, partridge, or pigeon.
Coq au vin Coq au vin.jpg France Famous French braise of chicken cooked with wine, lardons, mushrooms, and optionally garlic.
Cotriade France (Brittany) Breton-style stew made with potatoes and many kinds of fish, but without shellfish.
Cozido Cozido a portuguesa 1.JPG Portugal
Spain
Stew made with different meats and vegetables; numerous regional variations exist throughout Portugal and Spain.
Daube Daube de boeuf carottes.jpg France (Provence) Classic Provençal stew made with inexpensive beef braised in wine, vegetables, garlic, and herbes de Provence, and traditionally cooked in a daubière, a braising pan.
Dimlama Uzbekistan Stew made with various combinations of meat, potatoes, onions, vegetables, and sometimes fruits.
Dinuguan Dinuguan with puto.jpg Philippines Filipino savory stew of meat and/or offal (typically lungs, kidneys, intestines, ears, heart and snout) simmered in a rich, spicy dark gravy of pig blood, garlic, chili (most often siling mahaba), and vinegar.
Drokpa Katsa Tibet Stewed tripe, with curry, fennel, monosodium glutamate, and salt.
Đuveč Djuvec.jpg Balkans Vegetable stew made with beef, olives, tomatoes, mushrooms, rice, onions, herbs, and spices; often served with "Balkan mixed salad", a combination of roasted eggplant, sweet peppers, garlic, tomatoes, and vinegar.
Escudella i carn d'olla Escudella.jpg Spain (Catalonia) Stew that contains a pilota (a very big meatball spiced with garlic and parsley); it also contains vegetables as celery, cabbage, carrots, etc. depending on the season. Additionally, bones, sausages called botifarras, and other types of meat can be used.
Étouffée 053107-crayfishetouffee.jpg United States (Louisiana) Seafood dish of the Creole cuisine of Louisiana that is usually served with shellfish over rice. Literally means "smothered" in French.
Fabada Asturiana Fabada y sidra.jpg Spain (Asturias) Fabada is made with dried large white beans (fabes de la Granja, soaked overnight before use), shoulder of pork (Lacón Gallego) or bacon (tocino), black pudding (morcilla), chorizo, and often saffron (azafrán). Some recipes also call for longaniza.
Fabes con almejas Fabes con almejas - Jlastras.jpg Spain (Asturias) Clam stew that calls for small clams, fava beans, onions, garlic, salt, saffron, bay leaves, olive oil, parsley, bread crumbs and sometimes sweet paprika.
Fahsa Fahsa.jpg Yemen Stew made of lamb cutlets with lamb soup, spices and holba (fenugreek) after it’s cooked.
Fårikål Får i kål.jpg Norway Traditional dish, consisting of pieces of mutton with bone, cabbage, whole black pepper and a little wheat flour, cooked for several hours in a casserole, traditionally served with potatoes boiled in their skins. Literally means "mutton in cabbage"
Fasole cu cârnaţi Fasole cu afumatura.jpg Romania Dish consisting of baked beans, sausages and/or smoked ham.
Feijoada Feijoada à transmontada.jpg Brazil
Portugal
Stew of beans with beef or pork, and may include other vegetables.
Fesenjān Khoresht-e fesenjan.jpg Iran Thick, tart stew made from pomegranate juice and ground walnuts; traditionally made with poultry, but variants using balls of ground meat, ghormeh cut lamb, fish, or no meat at all are not unusual.
Flaki Flaki (2).JPG Poland Meat stew with common ingredients including beef tripe, beef, bay leaf, parsley, carrot, beef broth, and spices to taste, including salt, black pepper, nutmeg, sweet paprika, and marjoram.
Főzelék Fozelek.jpg Hungary Very thick vegetable soup, so it may be considered a stew. Sometimes served with meatballs and often eaten as a side dish.
Fricot Canada (Acadia) Consists of potatoes, onions, and whatever meat was available, cooked in a stew and topped with dumplings. The common meats used are chicken (fricot au poulet), clams (fricot aux coques), rabbit (fricot au lapin des bois), beef, or pork.
Gaisburger Marsch Gaisburger Marsch.jpg Germany (Swabia) Swabian dish made from meat with cooked potatoes and spätzle.
Galinhada Galinhada.jpg Brazil Stew of rice and chicken.
Garbure Garbure.jpg France (Gascony) Stew of ham with cabbage and other vegetables, usually with cheese and stale bread added.
Ghapama Ղափամա 2.JPG Armenia Sweet pumpkin stew, traditionally cooked in the pumpkin shell; does not contain meat.
Ghormeh sabzi Ghormeh Sabzi.JPG Iran Dish that consist of a mixture of sautéed herbs, consisting mainly of parsley, leek, and a smaller amount of fenugreek leaves, where this is usually the dry herb of the mix.
Goulash Gulyas080.jpg Hungary Soup or stew of meat, noodles and vegetables (especially potato), seasoned with paprika and other spices.
Guatitas Chile
Ecuador
Stew whose main ingredient is pieces of tripe.
Gumbo Shrimp gumbo.jpg United States (Louisiana) Stew or soup that consists primarily of a strongly-flavored stock, meat or shellfish, a thickener, and the vegetable "holy trinity" of celery, bell peppers, and onions.
Guyana Pepperpot Guyana Stewed meat dish, strongly flavored with cinnamon, hot peppers, and cassareep (a special sauce made from the cassava root). Beef, pork, and mutton are the most popular meats used, though chicken is also used.
Hachee Hachee 1.jpeg Netherlands Traditional Dutch stew based on diced meat, fish or poultry, and vegetables.
Hasenpfeffer Germany Traditional German stew made from marinated rabbit or hare, cut into stewing-meat sized pieces and braised with onions and wine, in a marinade thickened with the animal's blood.
Hoosh United States Thick stew made from pemmican (a mix of dried meat, fat, and cereal) or other meat, thickener such as ground biscuits, and water. Used on expeditions to frozen polar regions.
Hot pot Day177lilybday.JPG China
Mongolia
Stew made with a variety of raw meats, seafood, vegetables, noodles, dumplings, etc., all cooked at the table in a simmering hot pot of broth.
Irish stew Irish-stew.jpg Ireland Traditional stew made from lamb or mutton, as well as potatoes, carrots, onions, and parsley.
Istrian stew Croatia Stew whose main ingredients are beans, sauerkraut, potatoes, bacon, and spare ribs; the main seasoning is garlic.
Jambalaya Jambalaya.jpg United States (Louisiana) Famous dish of the Creole cuisine of Louisiana that consists of three parts: meat, rice and vegetables. Many variations that include seafood do exist.
Kadhi Gujaratikadhi.jpg India
Pakistan
Spicy stew whose thick gravy is based on chickpea flour (called besan in Hindi) and contains vegetable fritters called pakoras, to which sour yoghurt is added to give it little sour taste.
Kaldereta Philippines Famous dish whose common ingredients are goat shoulders with tomato paste and liver spread.
Kare-kare Kare-kare.jpg Philippines Popular stew made from peanut sauce with a variety of vegetables, stewed oxtail, beef, and occasionally offal or tripe. Meat variants may include goat meat or (rarely) chicken.
Karelian hot pot Karelskastek1.jpg Finland Stew that features a combination of pork and beef, but lamb can also be used. The hot pot is usually seasoned with black peppercorns and salt. Other seasonings such as allspice and bay leaf may be used too. Common vegetables such as carrot, onion, and root vegetables are acceptable additions to the stew.
Kig ha farz Kig-ha-farz.jpg France (Brittany) Stew consisting of various meats simmered in a broth with a buckwheat flour based pudding. Literally means "meat and stuffing" in Breton.
Lancashire hotpot Lancashire hotpot.jpg United Kingdom (England) Dish made traditionally from lamb or mutton, and onion topped with sliced potatoes, left to bake in the oven all day in a heavy pot and on a low heat.
Lecsó Lecso.JPG Hungary
Czech Republic
Thick vegetable stew which features peppers and tomato, onion, lard, salt, sugar and ground paprika as a base recipe.
Lobster stew Caldereta.jpg Spain (Minorca) Stew made from lobster, which is added to a sofrito, onion, tomato, garlic and parsley; then boiled, and is eaten with thin slices of bread.
Locro Locro Stevage.jpg Peru
Ecuador
Bolivia
Argentina
Hearty thick stew whose main ingredients are corn, some form of meat (usually beef, but sometimes beef jerky or chorizo), and vegetables. Other ingredients vary widely, and typically include onion, beans, squash or pumpkin.
Lunggoi Katsa Tibet Dish consisting of stewed sheep's head, with curry, fennel, monosodium glutamate, and salt.
Maafe Mafe SN.JPG West Africa Stew that is made from lamb, beef, or chicken, cooked with a sauce based on tomato and groundnuts (peanuts).
Maconochie United Kingdom (England) Stew of sliced turnips and carrots in a thin soup that was especially made by the "Maconochie Company" for soldiers during World War I
Mechado Cooked mechado.JPG Philippines Stew of Spanish origin, traditionally made with larded beef, but now also made with leaner cuts. Marinating in soy sauce and calamansi juice give a Filipino flavor.
Mjave lobio Lobyo1.jpg Georgia Dish of stewed beans, tomatoes and onion.
Moambe MIddle Africa Sauce or a dish prepared with a sauce usually made from the pericarp (not the seeds) of palm nuts, the fruit of the African oil palm.
Mocotó Mocoto Gaucho.JPG Brazil Dish made from cow's feet, stewed with beans and vegetables.
Molagoottal India South Indian stew with coconut and lentils as a base.
Mulligan stew United States Dish similar to Irish stew, Brunswick stew, or burgoo, as improvised by American hobos from available or scavenged ingredients, such as squirrel or opossum.
Navarin Navarin of lamb.jpg France French ragoût (stew) of lamb or mutton. Often, vegetables are added.
Ndolé Ndolé camerounais.JPG Cameroon National dish of Cameroon, a stew of nuts, ndoleh (bitter leaves indigenous to West Africa), and fish or ground beef.
Nikujaga Nikujyaga.png Japan Japanese dish of meat, potatoes and onion stewed in sweetened soy sauce, sometimes with ito konnyaku and vegetables.
Olla podrida Olla podrida Covarrubias - Santaorosia Photographic Colectivity.jpg Spain Spanish stew made from pork and beans and an inconsistent, wide variety of other meats and vegetables, often including chickpeas, depending on the recipe used.
Ollada Spain (Valencia) Stew based on boiling vegetables and meat in a casserole.
Ostropel Romania Stew that is primarily made from chicken mixed with a thick tomato sauce.
Paila marina S4020436.JPG Chile Typical stew that is usually made of a shellfish stock containing different kinds of cooked shellfish and fish. These are complemented with a variety of herbs and spices such as garlic, cilantro, and onion.
Palaver sauce West Africa Stew popular in Western Africa that has many regional varieties and may contain beef, fish, shrimp, pepitas, cassava, taro (cocoyam) leaves, and palm oil. It is served with boiled rice, potatoes, garri, fufu, or yams.
Paomo Paomo.jpg China Stew of chopped-up baked unleavened bread cooked in lamb broth and served with lamb meat. It is often eaten with pickled garlic and chilli sauce.
Philadelphia Pepper Pot United States (Pennsylvania) Thick stew of beef tripe, vegetables and other seasonings; originates in the cuisine of the Pennsylvania Dutch.
Pichelsteiner Pichelsteiner Eintopf.jpg Germany Famous German stew that consists of several types of meats and vegetables. Common ingredients are beef, pork and mutton as well as potatoes, carrots and leek.
Pinangat Philippines Filipino stew made of taro leaves, chilli, meat and coconut milk wrapped in gabi leaves and tied securely with coconut leaf.
Piperade Pipérade.jpg Spain (Basque country) Typical Basque dish prepared with onion, green peppers, and tomatoes sautéed and flavored with red Espelette pepper.[2]
Pisto Pisto.jpg Spain (Murcia) Stew made of tomatoes, onions, eggplant or courgettes, green and red peppers and olive oil.
Pörkölt Gulasch.jpg Hungary Hungarian stew that consists of meat, paprika, sometimes vegetables, but no potatoes. It should not be confused with goulash which does always contain potatoes and is more like a soup.
Pot-au-feu Pot au feu2.jpg France French beef stew. Other ingredients may differ from region to region, but commonly various kinds of vegetables are included such as carrots, turnips, leeks, celery and onions.
Potjiekos Potjiekos2.jpg South Africa South African stew that is usually prepared outdoors. The recipe commonly contains meat, vegetables, starches like rice or potatoes, all slow-cooked with Dutch-Malay spices, the distinctive spicing of South Africa's early culinary melting pot. Other common ingredients include fruits and flour-based products like pasta.
Pottage Yam pottage.jpg United Kingdom Thick soup or stew made by boiling vegetables, grains, and, if available, meat or fish. Pottage commonly consisted of various ingredients easily available to serfs and peasants, and could be kept over the fire for a period of days, during which time some of it was eaten and more ingredients added. The result was a dish that was slowly but constantly evolving, a "perpetual stew".
Pozole Pozole.jpg Mexico Mexican stew with ritual significance made from maize with meat, usually pork, chicken, turkey, pork rinds, chili peppers, and other seasonings and garnish. Vegetarian and vegan versions also exist.
Puchero Puchero canario.jpg South America
Spain
Stew whose ingredients may vary greatly according to region. Its equivalent may be the Spanish cocido.
Qoiri Tibet Stew of mutton chops, made with flour, shredded wheat, chillies, dry curd cheese, water and salt.
Ragout Ragoût aux lentilles.jpg France Refers to a main-dish stew. Ragouts may be prepared with or without meat, a wide variety of vegetables may be incorporated, and they may be more or less heavily spiced and seasoned. Pictured is ragout with lentils.
Ratatouille Ratatouille.jpg France (Provence) Famous vegetable stew from the Provence that consists mainly of tomatoes with garlic, onions, courgettes (zucchini), aubergine (eggplant), poivron (bell peppers), marjoram and basil, or bay leaf and thyme, or a mix of green herbs such as herbes de Provence.
Red cooked pork RedCookedPorkBelly.jpg China Braised stew made with soy sauce, Chinese rice wine, caramelized sugar, and spices. Usually made with pork, but other meats such as beef or chicken are also cooked in this style.
Rössypottu Rössypottua.JPG Finland Stew made using potatoes (potty, peruna), some pork and the main ingredient, so-called "rössy" (i.e. blood pudding made of blood, beer, rye flour and some spices).
Rubaboo North America Basic stew or porridge consumed by coureurs des bois and voyageurs (fur traders) and Métis people of North America, traditionally made of peas or corn (or both) with grease (bear or pork) and a thickening agent (bread or flour).
Sagamite North America Native-American stew made from hominy or Indian corn. Additional ingredients may include vegetables, wild rice, brown sugar, animal fat, beans, smoked fish or animal brains.
Saksang Saksang.jpg Indonesia Spicy stew made from minced pork or dog meat (or more rarely, water buffalo meat) stewed in blood, coconut milk, and spices.
Saltah Saltah.gif Yemen Considered the national dish of Yemen, a meat stew with fenugreek and a mixture of chillies, tomatoes, garlic and herbs. Common additions are rice, scrambled eggs, and vegetables.
Scouse Cookbook-beef-stew.jpg United Kingdom (England) Variation of labskaus; a type of meat or beef stew.
Seco Ecuador Stewed meat.
Semur Semur Ayam.jpg Indonesia Type of meat stew that is processed in thick brown gravy. The main material used in semur gravy is shallots, onions, garlic, kecap manis (sweet soy sauce), nutmeg, and cloves.
Shiro Taita and shiro.jpg Eritrea Homogenous stew whose primary ingredient is powdered chickpeas or broad bean meal.
Sinigang Sinigang na Baboy.jpg Philippines Filipino soup or stew characterized by its sour flavor most often associated with tamarind (sampalok).
Skirts and kidneys Ireland Irish stew made from pork and pork kidneys.
Sonofabitch stew United States (Western) Cowboy dish consisting of whatever is on hand. Most recipes call for meat and offal from a calf.
Tajine ZnuTjn2a.jpg North Africa Berber dish from North Africa, that is named after the special earthenware pot in which it is cooked. Includes different ingredients according to region, but commonly several kinds of vegetables and spices
Tatws Pum Munud Tatws Pum Munud2.JPG United Kingdom (Wales) Traditional Welsh stew, made with smoked bacon, stock, potatoes and other vegetables.
Tharid LambTharid2.jpg Arabia Dish made of pieces of bread in vegetable or meat broth. Pictured is lamb tharid.
Tocană Romania Prepared with tomato, garlic and sweet paprika, it's traditionally consumed with a cornmeal mush named mămăligă
Tomato bredie South Africa South African stew with Dutch origin that usually features mutton, is cooked for a very long time, and includes cinnamon, cardamom, ginger, cloves, and chili as seasonings.
Tombet Tombet6116.JPG Spain (Mallorca) Traditional vegetable stew that contains layers of sliced potatoes, aubergines and red bell peppers previously fried in olive oil. The aubergines and red peppers should not be peeled. The whole is topped with tomato fried with garlic and parsley, and presented in a way that it looks like a pie without a crust.
Tuna pot Marmitako.JPG Spain (Basque country) Fish stew that was eaten on tuna fishing boats in the Cantabrian Sea; a beautiful and simple dish with potatoes, onions, pimientos, and tomatoes.
Wat (food) Ethiopian wat.jpg Ethiopia
Eritrea
Stew or curry which may be prepared with chicken, beef, lamb, a variety of vegetables, and spice mixtures such as berbers and niter kibbeh (a seasoned clarified butter).
Waterblommetjiebredie Aponogeton distachyos - Waterblommetjies from tin.JPG South Africa Meat, typically lamb, stewed together with waterblommetjies (Aponogeton distachyos flowers, commonly known as Cape pondweed, Cape hawthorn or Cape asparagus). Literally means "small water flower stew" in Afrikaans.
Waterzooi Waterzooi at De Vlaamsche Pot (2175547879).jpg Belgium (Flanders) Stew made of the fish or chicken, vegetables including carrots, leeks and potatoes, herbs, eggs, cream, and butter.
Zoervleis Germany (Limburg) Traditional dish similar to German sauerbraten which features meat (normally horse meat) that was marinated in vinegar or apple cider. Contrary to what one would expect, it is sweet, as it is served with gingerbread.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Definition of boeuf bourguignon". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2013-04-18. 
  2. ^ Larousse Gastronomique (1998). Paris: Larousse-Bordas. p. 804. ISBN 2-03-507300-6