2-step garage- chaotic style of UK garage that replaces the typical four-on-the-floor drum beat with kicks on the first and third beats only, but keeps at the same speed by injecting unusual snare and accent places, as well as scattered basslines.
2 tone- second wave of ska which borrowed elements of punk, new wave, reggae, and rocksteady.
4-beat- breakbeat hardcore subgenre played between 150 and 170 BPM consisting of a fast looped breakbeat and a drum at every 4 beats.
Ambient - a special form of incredibly slow electronic music that, rather than creating a beat or melody, uses long repetitive sounds to generate a sense of calm and atmosphere; initially devised as a way to wind down after raves, it is now used by itself for relaxation or meditation.
Americana - a combination of all forms of roots music - folk, country, and blues; as well as R&B and rock n roll.
Anasheed - Islamic vocal music, usually sung a capella, or accompanied by a daff.
Ancient - music created in the early stages of literate cultures.
Anime - music, usually J-pop, used in anime soundtracks
Anti-folk - a mocking subgenre of folk that subverts the earnest, politically-informed lyrics of folk-revivalists with humorous or surreal ones.
Apala - a special kind of Nigerian music used by the Yoruba people to wake worshippers after their fasting during the Islamic period of Ramadan, but later evolved into a style of its own, inspired by Afro-Cuban music.
Arabic pop - pop music informed by traditional Arabic styles.
Ars antiqua - European music from the Late Middle Ages, which advanced concepts of rhytmn.
Ars nova - style of French music from the Late Middle Ages, rejected fiercely by the Catholic Church.
Ars subtilior - style of French music from the Late Middle Ages, known mostly for the way it was written - using both black and red notes, and writing notes into larger shapes, such as hearts for love songs.
Ashik - music performed by mystic or travelling Turkish, Azerbaijian, Georgian, Armenia, and Iranian bands, using vocals and the saz, performed since ancient times; Turkish battle commanders were often accompanied by ashik bands, who would sing heroic songs.
Bachata - Afro-Dominican style of rock music that became popular among Dominican farmers
Baggy - a British style that combined alternative rock and acid house, often creating a psychedelic and funky sound
Baião - a Brazilian rhythmic formula based around the zabumba drum that later combined itself with elements of mestizo, European, and African styles
Bakersfield sound - a raw and gritty country style that acted as a reaction against the slick, overproduced Nashville sound
Baila - Sri Lankan style that begun among the Afro-Sinhalese (or Kariff) community; utilizing various European instruments, combined with traditional Kariff rhythms and vocals
Baisha xiyue - orchestral Chinese style used by the Naxi people, often found in Taoist or Confucian ceremonies
Bajourou - initially an acoustic style of Malian pop music played at gatherings (particularly weddings), which has since become mostly electronic
Bal-musette - 19th century style of French accordion-based dance music
Balakadri - Guadeloupean music made from the quadrille, usually performed at balls
Balinese Gamelan - Javanese and Balinese style made from xylophones, drums, and plucked strings
Balearic beat, also known as Balearic house, electronic dance music that was popular into the mid-1990s.
Balkan Brass Band - Serbian music made my soldiers that combined military brass with folk music
Ballad - generic term for usually slow, romantic, despairing and catastrophic songs
Ballata - 13th-15th century Italian musical and poetic form based around an AbbaA structure that acted as a form of dance music
Ballet - specific style of French classical music created to accompany the ballet dance
Baltimore Club - combination of hip hop and house music; playing at 130 BPM, it has an intentionally hurried sound similar to the earlier breakbeat hardcore, and includes heavy sampling of TV series such as SpongeBob SquarePants
Bhangra - fusion of South Asian and British popular styles, initially developed by Punjabi Indian-English as a combination of their respective cultural styles, but later used to refer to any South Asian/European fusion
Bhangragga - a fusion of bhangra and reggae and dancehall
Blues-rock - a hybrid musical genre combining bluesy improvisations over the 12-bar blues and extended boogie jams with rock and roll styles.
Biomusic - a form of experimental music which deals with sounds created or performed by living things.
Bitpop - electronic music, where at least part of the music is made using old 8-bit computers, game consoles and little toy instruments. Popular choices are the Commodore 64, Game Boy, Atari 2600 and Nintendo Entertainment System.
Breakcore - fast and frantic style of breakbeat known for its intentionally diverse range of samples, which make it a hard-to-define genre
Breton - folk music of Brittany, France, known for its use of woodwind
Brill Building Sound - a distinct style of jazz and Latin-inspired pop developed in the Brill Building of New York, USA
Brit funk - funk performed by the British, often influenced by soul, jazz, and Caribbean music
Britpop - British rock music from the 1990s that subverted the depressing themes of the then-popular grunge movement in favor of jangly, optimistic, guitar-pop often based around themes of partying and working class life
Bubblegum pop - pop music known for its simplicity, happy and cute lyrics, and emphasis on image rather than substance; bubblegum is often regarded as a pure expression of pop music, or even pop culture in general
Bikutsi - Cameroonian EDM, originating in the Beti community; it is known for a 6/8 rhythm, quarternote tempo, and lyrics dealing with working class life
Ca trù - a style of Vietnamese chamber music performed by one lute player and a geisha-esque female singer, used to entertain wealthy audiences, who would be included in the performances, and to perform in religious ceremonies
Cabaret - an often jazz-informed style of music played at upbeat stageplays or burlesque shows
Country music - American roots music played with acoustic guitars, banjos, fiddles, and harmonicas; popular among working class, particularly Southern, white Americans, and often dealing with themes thereof; or a romanticized Wild Wild West
Crust punk - fusion of anarcho- and hardcore punk and extreme metal; it takes hardcore's energetic instrumentation and combines it with anarcho-'s far-left lyrics, sung in metal's pessimistic and dark mindset
Darkcore - techno with a dark and foreboding feel, acting as a reaction to the optimism of rave music in general
Darkcore - chaotic and sinister style of jungle, which relied on pitch-shifting and horror movie audio samples; usually played at 160 BPM; a reaction to the optimistic rave music of the day, similar to the techno subgenre of the same name; considered a precursor to drum & bass
Darkstep - style of darkcore jungle that takes its signature sinister feel and fuses it with upbeat breakbeats and ambient noises, creating an excessively chaotic tone
Dark wave - excessively pessimistic style of post-punk, which relied on tales of realistic sorrow, rather than the fantasy elements of the then-popular gothic rock
Digital hardcore - fusion of hardcore punk and hardcore techno, known for its far-left lyrics
Dirge - a song of mourning, often played at a funeral
Dirty rap - hip hop with sexual and pornographic themes
Disco - a pop style known for its use of synths and electronic instruments; disco was played almost entirely at clubs, rather than the album-oriented styles of rock and pop at the time; it is thus considered the first style of EDM
Dub - subgenre of reggae in which pre-existing tracks are heavily remixed, emphasizing the drum and bass (or riddim) and dubbing snippets from other works; dub acted as a major influence on hip hop and EDM
Eremwu eu - work songs of the female bakers of the Garifuna people of west Africa
Ethereal wave - atmospheric subgenre of dark wave; informed by ambient
Eurobeat - antecedent to Italo disco; eurobeat contained elements of British dance-pop; and was more textured and produced; in America, eurobeat was marketed as hi-NRG, despite being a completely different style
Eurodance - evolution of Euro disco that adapted elements of house and hi-NRG; Eurodance has continued to the present and has adapted elements of hip hop, techno, and trance
Euro disco - European disco music, which incorporated elements of rock and synthpop
Exotica - fusion of many popular international genres from the 1950s marketed at Americans, who were attracted to the exotic label; it was used as a form of escapism similar to pulp novels; exotica is considered an example of cross-cultural ignorance and exotification by contemporary sociologists
Experimental - any music that breaches contemporary standards of music
Folk rock - fusion of folk and rock music; the initial folk rock movement began in America, but was not an adaptation of American folk music - country, Native-American, or blues - but rather an attempt at voicing working class struggles in the frame of the left-wing policies of the beatniks and hippies whilst retaining a kind of authenticity, usually through using acoustic instruments
Folktronica - fusion of folk and electronic music; heavily linked to the indie pop scene
Forró - popular Brazilian folk dance music; heavily linked to the June Festivals, in which various Catholic saints are worshipped
Freakbeat - a frantic, raw style of beat and British Invasion music; considered the British equivalent to the American garage rock scene that became punk; freakbeat acts were considered part of the overall beat scene when they were popular, and were only set aside from other acts long after their popularity declined
Freak folk - experimental style of folk, often folk-rock; linked heavily to the New Weird America subculture; and later the indie pop scene
Free improvisation - completely uncontrolled improvisation; an artist aloud to channel their most primal instincts to create, often barely coherent music