list of suffragists and suffragettes includes noted individuals active in the worldwide Women's Voting Rights Movement who have campaigned and strongly advocated for women's suffrage, the organizations which they formed or joined, and the publications which publicized – and in some nations continue to publicize – their goals. Suffragists and suffragettes, often members of different groups and societies, used or use differing tactics. For example, suffragettes in the British usage denotes a more " militant" type of campaigner, and suffragettes in the United States organized such events as the Silent Sentinels, the Suffrage Hikes, and the Woman Suffrage Parade of 1913.
American (United States) [ edit ]
Jane Addams (1860-1935) - social activist, president Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) - co-founder and leader National Women's Suffrage Association, created the National American Woman's Suffrage Association
Nina E. Allender (1873-1957)- speaker, organizer and cartoonist.
Annie Arniel (1873–1924) - member of the Silent Sentinels, arrested eight times in direct actions
Ida B. Wells-Barnett (1862-1931) - journalist, activist
Bertha Hirsch Baruch - writer, president of the Los Angeles Suffrage Association
Alva Belmont (1853–1933) - founder of the Political Equality League that was in 1913 merged into the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage
Alice Stone Blackwell (1857–1950) - journalist, activist
Antoinette Brown Blackwell (1825-1921) - co-founder, with Lucy Stone, of the American Woman Suffrage Association
Henry Browne Blackwell (1825-1909) - founded with Woman's Journal Lucy Stone
Harriot Eaton Stanton Blatch (1856–1940) - writer (major contributor to ), founded Women's Political Union, daughter of pioneering activist History of Woman Suffrage Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Amelia Bloomer (1818–1894) - women's rights and temperance advocate. Her name was associated with women's clothing reform style known as bloomers
Lucy Gwynne Branham (1892-1966) - professor, organizer, lobbyist, active in the National Women's Party and its Silent Sentinels, daughter of suffragette Lucy Fisher Gwynne Branham
Madeline McDowell Breckinridge (1872–1920) - suffrage leader, one-time vice president of the National Woman Suffrage Association, one of Kentucky's leading Progressive reformers
Sophonisba Breckinridge (1866–1948) - activist, Progressive Era social reformer, social scientist and innovator in higher education
Olympia Brown (1835–1926) - activist, first woman to graduate from a theological school, as well as becoming the first full-time ordained minister
Emma Bugbee (1888-1981) - journalist
Lucy Burns (1879–1966) - women's rights advocate, co-founder of the National Woman's Party
Frances Jennings Casement (1840–1928) - voting advocate, married General John S. Casement who lobbied for voting rights for women
Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947) - president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, founder of the League of Women Voters and the International Alliance of Women, campaigned for the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Tennessee Celeste Claflin (1844–1923) - one of the first women to open a Wall Street brokerage firm, advocate of legalized prostitution
Laura Clay (1849-1941), co-founder and first president of Kentucky Equal Rights Association, leader of women's suffrage movement, active in the Democratic Party
Ida Craft - known as the Colonel, took part in Suffrage Hikes
Minnie Fisher Cunningham (1882–1964) - first executive secretary of the League of Women Voters, member of the National American Women's Suffrage Association
Frederick Douglass (1818–1895) - African-American social reformer, orator, writer, statesman
Abigail Scott Duniway (1834–1915) - women's rights advocate, editor, writer
Max Eastman (1883–1969) - writer, philosopher, poet, prominent political activist
Katherine Philips Edson (1870 –1933) - a social worker and feminist, worked to add Women's Suffrage to the California State Constitution.
Helga Estby (1860-1942) - Norwegian immigrant, noted for her walk across the United States during 1896 to save her family farm
Janet Ayer Fairbank (1878-1951) - author and champion of progressive causes
Sara Bard Field (1882–1974) active with the National Woman's Party, and in Oregon and Nevada. Crossed the U.S. to deliver a peition with 500,000 signatures to President Wilson
Clara S. Foltz (1849–1934) - lawyer, sister of U.S. Senator Samuel M. Shortridge
Elisabeth Freeman (1876–1942) - Suffrage Hike participant
Matilda Joslyn Gage (1826–1898) - activist, freethinker, author
Edna Fischel Gellhorn (1878–1970) - reformer, co-founder of the National League of Women Voters
Sarah Grimke (1792–1873) - abolitionist, writer
Eliza Caroline "Lida" Calvert Obenchain (pen name Eliza Calvert Hall) (1856-1935) - author, women's rights advocate
Ida Husted Harper (1851-1931) - organizer, major writer and historian of U.S. suffrage movement
Florence Jaffray Harriman (1870–1967) - social reformer, organiser and diplomat
Josephine K. Henry (1846–1928) - Progressive Era women's rights leader, social reformer and writer
Katharine Houghton Hepburn (1878-1951) - social reformer
Elsie Hill - activist
Helena Hill - activist, geologist
Julia Ward Howe (1819–1910) - prominent abolitionist, social activist and poet
Inez Haynes Irwin (1873–1970) - co-founder College Equal Suffrage League, active in National Women's Party, wrote the parties' history
Ada James (1876–1952) - social worker and reformer
Izetta Jewel (1883–1978) - stage actress, women's rights activist, politician and the first woman to address a major American political party convention
Rosalie Gardiner Jones (1883-1978) - socialite, took part in Suffrage Hike, known as "General Jones"
Belle Kearney (1863-1939) - speaker and lobbyist for the National American Woman Suffrage Association; first woman elected to the Mississippi State Senate
Edna Buckman Kearns (1882–1934) - National Woman's Party campaigner, known for her horse-drawn suffrage campaign wagon (now in the collection of New York State Museum)
Helen Keller (1880-1968) - Author and political activist
Abby Kelley (1811–1887) - abolitionist, radical social reformer, fundraiser, lecturer and committee organiser for American Anti-Slavery Society
Daisy Elizabeth Adams Lampkin (1883–1965) - civil rights activist, organization executive, and community practitioner
Clara Chan Lee (1886–1993) - first Chinese American to register to vote in the U.S., November 8, 1911 [1 ]
Mary Livermore (1820–1905) - journalist and advocate of women's rights
Florence Luscomb (1887–1985) - architect and prominent leader of Massachusetts suffragists
Anne Henrietta Martin (1875-1951) - Vice-chairman National Woman's Party, arrested as a Silent Sentinel, president Nevada Equal Franchise Society, first U.S. woman to run for Senate
Ellis Meredith (1865-1955) - journalist
Jane Hungerford Milbank (1871-1931) - author and poet
Inez Milholland (1886–1916) - key participant in the National Woman's Party and the Woman Suffrage Parade of 1913
Harriet May Mills (1857-1936) - prominent civil rights leader, played a major role in women's rights movement
Virginia Minor (1824–1894) - co-founder, president, Woman's Suffrage Association of Missouri, she unsuccessfully argued in Minor v. Happersett (1874 Supreme Court case) that the Fourteenth Amendment gave women the right to vote.
Esther Hobart Morris (1814–1902) - first female Justice of the Peace in the United States
Lucretia Mott (1793–1880) - Quaker, abolitionist, a women's rights activist, and a social reformer
Maud Wood Park (1871–1955) - founder College Equal Suffrage League, co-founder Boston Equal Suffrage Association for Good Government (BESAGG), worked for passage of the 19th Amendment
Alice Paul (1885 - 1977) - Leader, main strategist, and inspiration for the 1910s Women's Voting Rights Movement for the 19th Amendment. Founder National Woman's Party, initiator of the Silent Sentinels and Woman's Suffrage Parade of 1913, author of the Equal Rights Amendment
Helen Pitts (1838–1903) - active in women's rights movement and co-edited The Alpha
Anita Pollitzer (1894-1975) - photographer, served as National Chairman in the National Woman's Party
Florence Kenyon Hayden Rector (1882-1973) - first licensed female architect in the state of Ohio and the only female architect practicing in central Ohio between 1900 and 1930
Margaret Sanger (1879–1966) - birth control activist, sex educator, nurse, established Planned Parenthood Federation of America
Julia Sears (1840-1929) - pioneering academic and first woman in the U.S. to head a public college, now Minnesota State University
Anna Howard Shaw (1847-1919) - president of National Women's Suffrage Association 1904-1915
Mary Shaw (1854–1929) - early feminist, playwright and actress
May Gorslin Preston Slosson (1858-1943) - educator and first woman to obtain a doctoral degree in Philosophy in the United States
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815–1902) - initiator of the Seneca Falls Convention, author of the Declaration of Sentiments, co-founder National Women's Suffrage Association, major pioneer of women's rights in America
Doris Stevens (1892-1963) organizer for National American Women Suffrage Association and the National Woman's Party, prominent Silent Sentinels participant, author Jailed for Freedom
Lucy Stone (1818–1893) - prominent orator, abolitionist, and a vocal advocate and organizer promoting rights for women
Helen Taft (1891-1987) - daughter of President William Howard Taft, she traveled the nation giving pro-suffrage speeches.
Lydia Taft (1712–1778) - first woman known to legally vote in colonial America
M. Carey Thomas (1857-1935) - educator, linguist, and second President of Bryn Mawr College
Dorothy Thompson (1893–1961) - Buffalo and New York activist, later journalist and radio broadcaster
Sojourner Truth ( c. 1797–1883) - abolitionist, women's rights activist, speaker, gave women's rights speech " Ain't I a Woman?"
Harriet Tubman (1822–1913) - African-American abolitionist, humanitarian and Union spy during the American Civil War
Mina Van Winkle (1875-1932) - crusading social worker, groundbreaking police lieutenant and national leader in the protection of girls and other women during the law enforcement and judicial process
Mabel Vernon (1883–1975) - principal member of the Congressional Union for Women Suffrage, major organizer for the Silent Sentinels
Ida B. Wells (1862–1931) - African-American journalist, newspaper editor, suffragist, sociologist, and early leader in the civil rights movement
Rosa Welt-Straus (1856–1938) - feminist, born in Austria, first Austrian woman to earn a medical degree, first female eye doctor in Europe
Frances Willard (1839-1898) - leader of the Women's Christian Temperance Union and International Council of Women, lecturer, writer
Victoria Woodhull (1838–1927) - leader of woman's suffrage movement, first female candidate for President of the United States, first woman to start a weekly newspaper, activist for women's rights and labor reforms, advocate of free love
Argentina [ edit ]
Eva Perón (1919–1952) - Speaker and writer for suffrage, women's suffrage passed during her first year as First Lady of Argentina
Australian [ edit ]
Dora Meeson Coates (1869–1955) - Artist, member of Royal Institute of Oil Painters in London, member of British Artists' Suffrage League
Edith Cowan (1861–1932) - politician, social campaigner, first woman elected to an Australian parliament
Fanny Furner (1864–1938) - activist
Vida Goldstein 1869–1949) - feminist politician, first woman in British Empire to stand for election to a national parliament
Louisa Lawson (1848–1920) - poet, writer, publisher, feminist, mother of the poet and author Henry Lawson
Mary Lee (1821–1909) - Irish-Australian social reformer
Muriel Matters (1877–1969) - lecturer, journalist, educator, actress, elocutionist, best known for her work on behalf of Women's Freedom League
Emma Miller (1839-1917) - pioneer trade union organiser, key figure in organisations which led to the founding of the Australian Labor Party in Brisbane, Queensland
Rose Scott (1847–1925) - women's rights activist in New South Wales
Catherine Helen Spence (1825–1910) - Scottish-born author, teacher, journalist, politician, called the "Greatest Australian Woman," commemorated on the Australian five-dollar note issued for the Centenary of Federation of Australia
Jessie Street (1889–1970) - feminist, human rights campaigner
Austrian [ edit ]
Marianne Hainisch (1839–1936) - founder and leader of the Austrian women's movement, mother of first President of Austria
Rosa Welt-Straus (1856 – 1938) - feminist, first Austrian woman to earn a medical degree
Belgian [ edit ]
Marie Popelin (1846-1913) - founded the Belgian League for Women's Rights in 1892
Isala Van Diest (1842-1916) - first female medical doctor and first female university graduate in Belgium
British [ edit ]
(3rd from right, with petition) and fellow Suffragettes 1910
Mary Sophia Allen (1878–1964) - women's rights activist, involved in far right political activity
Katharine Russell, Viscountess Amberley (1844–1874) - early advocate of birth control, mother of philosopher Bertrand Russell
Elizabeth Garrett Anderson (1836–1917) - physician, feminist, co-founder of first hospital staffed by women, first dean of a British medical school, first female mayor and magistrate in Britain
Louisa Garrett Anderson (1873–1943) - medical pioneer, member of Women's Social and Political Union, social reformer, Chief Surgeon of Women's Hospital Corps, Fellow of Royal Society of Medicine
Nancy Astor, Viscountess Astor (1879-1964) - politician, socialite, first woman to sit as a Member of Parliament in the English House of Commons
Frances Balfour (1858–1931) - highest-ranking members of British aristocracy to assume a leadership role in the women's suffrage movement
Dorothea Beale (1831–1906) - educational reformer, author, Principal of the Cheltenham Ladies' College
Mary Gawthorpe (1881-1973) - socialist, trade unionist, editor
Lydia Becker (1827–1890) - amateur scientist with interests in biology and astronomy, best remembered for founding and publishing the Women's Suffrage Journal
Ethel Bentham (1861–1931) - doctor, politician
Annie Besant (1847–1933) - prominent socialist, theosophist, women's rights activist, writer, orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule
Rosa May Billinghurst (1875-1953) - member of the Women's Social and Political Union
Teresa Billington-Greig ((1877–1964) - founder of Women's Freedom League
Barbara Bodichon (1827–1891) - educationalist, artist, feminist, activist for women's rights
Margaret Bondfield (1873–1953) - Labour politician, feminist, first woman Cabinet minister in the United Kingdom
Catherine Booth (1829–1890) - speaker, known as the 'Mother of The Salvation Army'
Elsie Bowerman (1889-1973) - lawyer, RMS Titanic survivor
Vera Brittain (1893–1970) - writer, feminist, pacifist
Frances Buss (1827–1894) - headmistress, pioneer of women's education
Josephine Butler (1828–1906) - feminist, social reformer concerned about the welfare of prostitutes
Mona Caird (1854–1932) - Scottish novelist, essayist
Mabel Capper (1888–1966) - activist in the Women's Social and Political Union, devoted to the struggle against bad luck and discrimination
Anne Clough (1820–1892) - promoter of higher education for women
Jane Cobden (1851–1947) - Liberal politician who was active in many radical causes
Leonora Cohen (1873–1978) - regional activist who was also an appointed OBE
Margaret Cole (1893–1980) - socialist politician, champion of comprehensive education
Selina Cooper (1864–1946) - local magistrate, campaigner against fascism, first woman to represent the Independent Labour Party in 1901 when elected as Poor Law Guardian
Richmal Crompton (1890–1969) - schoolmistress, writer who is best known for her humorous short stories
Mary Crudelius (1839-1877) - campaigner for women's education
Emily Davies (1830–1921) - feminist, campaigner for women's rights to university access, co-founder and first Mistress of Girton College, Cambridge University
Emily Davison (1872–1913) - militant activist, key member of the Women's Social and Political Union, died in a protest action at a racetrack
Charlotte Despard (1844–1939) - novelist, Sinn Féin activist, vegetarian, anti-vivisection advocate
Flora Drummond (1878–1949) - organiser for Women's Social and Political Union, imprisoned nine times for her activism in Women's Suffrage movement, inspiring orator
Norah Elam(1878–1961) - radical feminist, militant suffragette, anti-vivisectionist and fascist
Millicent Fawcett (1847–1929) - feminist, intellectual, political leader, Union leader, writer
Elizabeth Fry (1780–1845) - prison reformer, social reformer, philanthropist
Edith Margaret Garrud (1872–1971) - professional arts instructor
Nellie Hall (1895-1929) - god-daughter of Emmeline Pankhurst (the leader of British suffragette movement)
Cicely Hamilton (1872–1952) - actress, writer, journalist, feminist
Marion Coates Hansen (1870–1947) - early member Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), founding member Women's Freedom League, important activist for suffrage
Jane Ellen Harrison (1850–1928) - linguist, feminist, scholar, co-founder of modern studies in Greek mythology
Evelina Haverfield (1867–1920) - aid worker, involved in the Women's Social and Political Union
Emily Hobhouse (1860–1926) - campaigner, worked to change the conditions inside the concentration camps in South Africa during the Second Boer War
Winifred Holtby (1898–1935) - novelist, journalist
Winifred Horrabin (1887-1971) - socialist activist, journalist
Clemence Housman (1861–1955) - author, illustrator, activist
Laurence Housman (1865-1959) - playwright, writer, illustrator
Elizabeth How-Martyn (1875-1954) - member of the Women's Social and Political Union
Elsie Inglis (1864–1917) - innovative Scottish doctor
Sophia Jex-Blake (1840–1912) - physician, teacher, feminist, a leading campaigner for medical education for women
Ellen Isabel Jones (-1948) - close associate of the Pankhursts
Annie Kenney (1879–1953) - leading figure in the Women's Social and Political Union
Grace Kimmins (1871–1954) - active in the foundation of charitable foundations, particularly those concerned with the welfare of poor and disabled children
Anne Knight (1786–1862) - social reformer, pioneer of feminism
Aeta Adelaide Lamb
Harriet Taylor Mill
John Stuart Mill
Alison Roberta Noble Neilans
Ada Nield Chew
Christabel Pankhurst (1880–1958) - co-founder and leader of the Women's Social and Political Union
Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928) - a main founder and the leader of the British Suffragette Movement
Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence (1867–1954) - member Suffrage Society, secretary Women's Social and Political Union
Sophia Duleep Singh
Lucy Deane Streatfeild
Marion Wallace Dunlop
Harriet Shaw Weaver
Canadian [ edit ]
Egyptian [ edit ]
Iceland [ edit ]
Bríet Bjarnhéðinsdóttir (1856–1940) - founded the first women's magazine and first suffrage organization in Iceland
Italian [ edit ]
Japanese [ edit ]
New Zealander [ edit ]
Norwegian [ edit ]
Peruvian [ edit ]
Puerto Rican [ edit ]
Russian [ edit ]
Scottish [ edit ]
Spanish [ edit ]
Clara Campoamor (1888–1972) - added language into the writing of the Spanish constitution of 1931 giving women the right to vote in Spain.
Swedish [ edit ]
Major suffrage organizations [ edit ]
American Equal Rights Association - from 1866 to 1869, early attempt at a national organization by Lucy Stone, Susan B. Anthony and others.
American Woman Suffrage Association - American suffrage organization formed in 1869 by Lucy Stone and Antoinette Brown Blackwell after a split in the American Equal Rights Association. It joined NAWSA in 1890.
Canadian Women's Suffrage Association - founded 1877, name changed in 1883 to Toronto Women's Suffrage Association.
College Equal Suffrage League U.S. group founded in 1900 by Maud Wood Park and Inez Haynes Irwin to attract younger women to the movement. Merged with the National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1908
Congressional Union - radical U.S. organization formed in 1913 to campaign for a constitutional amendment for women's voting rights. Led by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns, In 1915 changed its name to National Woman's Party.
Country Association for Women's Suffrage - Swedish organization from 1902 to 1921
Dublin Women's Suffrage Association - major Irish organization
International Alliance of Women - founded in 1904 to promote women's suffrage
Irish Women's Franchise League - founded in 1908, more radical than the Dublin Association
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) - formed in 1890 by the joining of the American Woman Suffrage Association and the National Woman Suffrage Association.
National Society for Women's Suffrage - Britain's first large suffrage organization, founded in 1867 by Lydia Becker.
National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies - a major United Kingdom organization
National Woman's Party - major United States organization founded in 1915 by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns to campaign for a constitutional amendment. Organized the Silent Sentinels. From 1913-1915 the same core group's name was the Congressional Union.
National Women's Rights Convention - a series of major U.S. organizing conventions, held from 1850 to 1869.
National Woman Suffrage Association - American organization founded in 1869 by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton after the split in the American Equal Rights Association, joined NAWSA in 1890.
New England Woman Suffrage Association (NEWSA) - formed in 1868 as the first major political organization with women's suffrage as its goal, active until 1920, principal leaders were Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone, played key role in forming the American Woman Suffrage Association
Silent Sentinels - Members of the National Woman's Party who picketed America's White House from Jan. 1917 to June 1919 during Woodrow Wilson's presidency and until the 19th Amendment was passed, initiated and led by Alice Paul.
Woman's Christian Temperance Union - active in the suffrage movement, especially in the U.S. and New Zealand.
Women's Franchise League - major British group created in 1889 by Emmeline Pankhurst.
Women's Freedom League - British group founded in 1907 by 70 members of the Women's Social and Political Union in a breakaway following rules changes by Christabel Pankhurst.
Women's Social and Political Union - a major suffrage organization in United Kingdom (breakaway from the National Union for Women's Suffrage).
Women's Trade Union League - American organization formed in 1903, later involved with the campaign for the 19th amendment.
Women's suffrage publications [ edit ]
Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution - drafted by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1878, ratified in 1920
Declaration of Sentiments - major statement for women's rights, including the right to vote, passed and signed at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. Mainly written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
- six books produced from 1881 to 1922 by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, History of Woman Suffrage Matilda Joslyn Gage and Ida Husted Harper.
Suffrage Atelier - publishing collective in England, founded 1909
- weekly newspaper published by The Liberator William Lloyd Garrison which, although primarily supporting abolition of slavery, also took up the suffrage cause from 1838 until it closed in 1865.
- weekly U.S. newspaper, 1868-1872. Official publication of the The Revolution National Woman Suffrage Association
- major weekly newspaper founded by Woman's Journal and Suffrage News Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell in 1870, eventually absorbed other suffrage publications
- magazine published from 1870-1890 in the United Kingdom. Women's Suffrage Journal
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Yung, Judy (1995). Unbound Feet: A Social History of Chinese Women in San Francisco. University of California Press.