This is a list of monarchs of the Maldives. All the rulers before King Koimala only ruled over parts of the Maldives or Deeva Maari (and Dheeva Mahal) as it was known then. Koimala was the first king to rule over all the islands of the Maldives as we know today and the island of Maliku. The Maldives was turned into a Sultanate in 1153 when the Buddhist King Dhovemi converted to Islam. Prior to that the Maldives was a Buddhist Kingdom, a Hindu Kingdom and before that a matriarchal society with each atoll ruled by a chief queen according to some accounts or by others, several theocratic societies ruled by priests known as Sawamias of heliolatric, selenolatric and astrolatric religions. The formal title of the Sultan up to 1965 was, Sultan of Land and Sea, Lord of the twelve-thousand islands and Sultan of the Maldives which came with the style Highness. After independence in 1965 the Sultan assumed the title King with the style Majesty.
Solar Dynasty or the Kingdom of Adeetta Vansa
Exiled prince and son of King Sri Brahamaadittiya of the Kalinga Kingdom of India.
Last ruler of the Solar Dynasty. It is unclear from the records how many other rulers ruled between the reigns of King Adeettiya and Queen Damahaar. The Maapanansa, the copper plates on which the history of the Kings of Solar Dynasty was written were lost quite early on. Married Prince Sri Balaadeettiya from the Kalinga Kingdom who later became the first king of the Lunar Dynasty.
Early Lunar Dynasty or the Kingdom of Soma Vansa
Prince from Kalinga Kingdom of India. Married Queen Damahaar of the Solar Dynasty to become the ruler of Deeva Mahal. Early during his reign King Raja Dada invaded the northern atolls of the Maldives. Although some sources indicate the start of the reign as 900AD, a Chinese document from the Tang Dynasty, records the visit of Maldivians to China bringing with them gifts from their king, Balaadeettiya in 658 AD and also in 662 AD.
King of the Lunar Dynasty.
King Maha Sandura
Son of King Loakaabarana. He had a daughter Princess Kamanhaar (also known as Kamanaar or Rehendihaar) who was banished to the island then called Is-Midu (Addu Meedhoo today). With her she took the Maapanansa, the copper plates in which the history of the Kings of Solar Dynasty was written. The Maapanasa were later buried by Al-Muhaddith Hasan and this is why such little information survived about the Solar Dynasty.
King Bovana Aananda
Son of King Loakaabarana and brother of King Maha Sandura. He was the father of King Koimala.
Reigned as a Buddhist until 1153. Son of Henevi Maava Kilege, sister of Koimala. A member of the Soma or Homa (Lunar) Dynasty. Converted to Islam in 1153, assumed the title Sultan and founded the Theemuge Dynasty. He was the famous Dharumavantha Rasgefaanu or the Benevolent King.
Third accession assisted by his wife princess (later queen) Burecca who killed her brother Ali III
Sultan Hassan VIII
Son of Sultan Kalu Mohamed and Fatuma Dio, a concubine from Shiraz in Persia.
Sultan Mohamed III
Assassinated by his brother Hassan succeeded him. Son of Golhavahi Aysha Rani Kilege and Omar Maafaiy Kilege son of Kalu Mohamed and Aysha Rani Kilege daughter of Korari Kilege. Therefore Grandson of Sultan Kalu Mohamed.
Sultan Hassan IX
Brother of Mohamed III. He was the first Maldivian and only member of its royalty to renounce Islam and convert to Christianity. He was deposed upon conversion, and known subsequently by the Lusitanian name of Dom Manoel.
Maldives ruled by Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan of Utheemu after he assassinated Andiri Andirin, the regent of King Dom Manoel. As per a treaty he got refuge from Ali Raja of Cannanore, Mohamed Thakurufan's base of operation was Minicoy under the sovereignty of Cannanore. Keteeb Mohamed Thakurufan did not honour this promise. The Ali Raja demanded dominion over the Maldives, as promised to him by the Kateeb of Uteem.
The nature of the relationship between Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan and the Ali Raja of Cannanore was outlined in a letter sent by a later Ali Raja, Mariambe Ali-Adi Raja Bibi, to the Sultan Mohamed Mueenuddine I of the Maldives. The letter was dated Friday 17 Jamada-el-oula Anno Hegirae 1243 (7 December AD 1827). According to the letter Mohamed Thakurufan had entered into a treaty ceding sovereignty of the Maldives to the Ali Raja of Cannanore in the event Thakurufan was established in power in Male. (refer page 294 of Divehi Tarikh).
King Dom Manoel
Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan concluded a Treaty with King Dom Manoel in order to ward off the Ali Raja of Cannanore with whose help the Kateeb seized power in Male.
Under the treaty, Dom Manoel was restored but remained in Goa. The co-regents were Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan of Utheem and his brother Hassan Thakurufan. The kateeb conferred on himself the title of sultan in 1583 upon Dom Manoel's death. This was in breach of the Treaty and was not legally binding.
King Dom João
Son of King Manoel, who remained in Goa. He had two brothers, Dom Francisco and Dom Pedro. Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan and his brother Hassan Thakurufan ruled for King Dom João as co-regents. Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan assumed the title of Sultan following the death of King Dom Manoel. He married a Portuguese Christian noblewoman, Donna Francisca Vasconelles and had two children, Dom Philippe and Dona Inez.
Ibrahim, also known as Kalaafaan (literally "Lord") was the de facto sultan, but legally the regent of Kings Dom João and Dom Philippe who resided in Goa. He reigned from 1585 to 1609. Son of Mohamed Thakurufan, kateeb of Utheemu and Rehendiye Goyye daughter of Cat Fatima of Boarhi Woods in Baarah.
Ibrahim Kalaafaan was the regent at the time of Pyrard's detainment in the Maldives after the shipwreck.
King Dom Philippe
Son of King Dom João and Donna Francisca Vasconelles. Hussain Faamuladeyri Kilege acted as regent from 1609 to 1620. Muhammad Imaduddin I acted as regent from 1620 to 1632. De-recognised in the Maldives after an abortive expedition with Portuguese assistance in order to abolish regency and assume power.
Arab mentor of Sultan Muhammad Mohyeddine. He first visited Male during the reign of Ibrahim Iskandar I. He was Probably poisoned to death. He coutuned the re-establishment of the Islamic Penal code held by the previous Sultan Muhammad Mohyeddine and assigned Scholars to teach in Mosques. In his Sultanate Maldives was very peaceful and citizens became educated and religious. (refer page 67 to 69 of Divehi Tarikh)
Prime Minister to Sultan Ibrahim Mudzhiruddine. First of the Dhiyamigili Dynasty.Son of Ibrahim Dorhimeyna Kaloge and Amina Dio.
Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II
Son of Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin II and Amina Dio of Fenfushi.
Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin III
Son of Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin II and Amina Dio of Fenfushi. Held captive on Kavaratti island from 1752 until his death in 1757. While in captivity the Maldives was ruled by regents.
In 1752 he was seized by the Ali Raja of Cannanore and transported to Kavaratti island in the Laccadives. Male was occupied. The occupation was ended by Muleegey Dom Hassan Maniku, a direct descendant of the penultimate Christian King Joao. The sultan died in captivity. Ruled by nominal regents who were in turn, the captive sultan’s sister Sanfa Rendi Kabafa'anu and his daughter, Amina of the Maldives. The de facto regent was Muleegey Dom Hassam Maniku.
Abdul Majeed Didi was elected Sultan but was never installed and continued to live in Sri Lanka. Maldives ruled by Council of Regency headed for a time by former Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen II. Following the death of Abdul Majeed the Maldives became a republic.
Grandson of Muhammad Mueenuddeen II. Took the title of King in 1965, when the British protectorate of the Maldives ended. Deposed by a national referendum which decided to replace the sultanate with a republic.