List of surahs in the Quran

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The Quran is divided into chapters (surah) and further divided into verses (ayat). For a preliminary discussion about the chronological order of chapters see page Surah.

Each surah, except for the ninth is preceded by the phrase bismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm ("In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful."), also known as the Basmala.[1] 29 surahs are preceded by Muqatta'at (lit. abbreviated or shortened), unique letter combinations whose meanings remain unclear.[2]

Table of Suras[edit]

Surah
# Arabic title(s) English title(s) Number of verses (Number of Rukūʿs) Meccan vs. Medinan Egyptian Standard Chronological Order[3][4][5] Nöldeke's Chronological Order[3] Muqatta'at (isolated letters)[2] Title refers to Main theme
1 Al-Fatiha[notes 1] The Opening 7 (01) Meccan 5 48 Whole Surah [6]
  • The fundamental principles of the Qur'an in a condensed form. [6]
2 Al-Baqara The Calf, The Cow 286 (40) Medinan 87 91 Alif Lam Mim v. 67-73 [6]
  • The necessity of God-consciousness. [6]
  • The errors committed by followers of earlier revelations. [6]
  • The abrogation of all earlier messages. (v. 106) [6]
  • Legal ordinances (ethics, social relations, warfare etc.). [6]
  • Abraham. [6]
  • Kaaba. [6]
  • Throne verse. (v. 255)[7]
3 Al Imran The Family of Imran, The House of 'Imrán 200 (20) Medinan 89 97 Alif Lam Mim v. 33, 35 [6]
4 An-Nisa The Women 176 (24) Medinan 92 100 Whole Surah [6]
  • Unity of the human race and the mutual obligations of men and women towards one another. (v. 1) [6]
  • Rights of women. [6]
  • Questions related to family life (including marriage and inheritance). [6]
  • Peace and war. [6]
  • Relations of believers with unbelievers. [6]
  • Striving in the Cause of God (Jihad). (v. 95-97) [8]
5 Al-Ma'ida The Food, The Repast 120 (16) Medinan 112 114 v. 112-114 [6]
  • A series of ordinances (incl. Religious rites and social obligations). [6]
  • Corruption of the original message of the Bible by Jews and Christians. (v. 68-77, 116-118) [6]
6 Al-An'am The Cattle 165 (20) Meccan 55 89 v. 136ff. [6]
  • Human nature of Muhammad. (v. 50) [6]
  • Oneness and uniqueness of God. (e.g. v. 100, 103) [6]
  • Pre-Islamic superstitions concerning animals. (v. 136ff) [6]
7 Al-A'raf The Heights, The Faculty of Discernment 206 (24) Meccan 39 87 Alif Lam Mim Sad v. 46, 48 [6]
8 Al-Anfal The Spoils of War 75 (10) Medinan 88 95 v. 1 [6]
9 At-Tawba The Repentance 129 (16) Medinan 113 113
10 Yunus Jonah 109 (11) Meccan 51 84 Alif Lam Ra v. 98 [6]
  • The revelation of the Qur'an to Muhammad (not Muhammad’s own work). (v. 15-17, 37-38, 94) [6]
  • References to earlier prophets. [6]
  • Fundamental tenets of Islam. [6]
11 Houd Hud 123 (10) Meccan 52 75 Alif Lam Ra v. 50-60
  • The revelation of God’s will through His prophets. [6]
  • More stories of earlier prophets. [6]
  • Just dealings between men. [6]
12 Yusuf Joseph 111 (12) Meccan 53 77 Alif Lam Ra Whole Surah
  • The story of the prophet Joseph (as an illustration of God’s unfathomable direction of men’s affairs). [6]
13 Ar-Ra'd The Thunder 43 (06) Medinan 96 90 Alif Lam Mim Ra v. 13 [6]
  • God’s revelation, through His prophets, of certain fundamental moral truths, and the concequences of accepting or rejecting them. [6]
14 Ibraheem Abraham 52 (07) Meccan 72 76 Alif Lam Ra v. 35-41 [6]
  • The revelation of God’s word to all mankind, destined to lead man from darkness to light. [6]
15 Al-Hijr The Rocky Tract, The Stoneland, The Rock City, Al-Hijr 99 (06) Meccan 54 57 Alif Lam Ra v. 80 [6]
  • God’s guidance to man through revelation of the Qur'an, which will remain uncorrupted for all times. (v. 9) [6]
16 An-Nahl The Honey Bees, The Bee 128 (16) Meccan 70 73 v. 68-69 [6]
  • God’s creativeness: [6]
    • Manifesed in the instincts of the bee. [6]
    • Culmination: Guidance through His revealed word. [6]
17 Al-Isra The Night Journey 111 (12) Meccan 50 67 v. 1 [6]
18 Al-Kahf The Cave 110 (12) Meccan 69 69 v. 13-20 [6]
  • A series of parables or allegories on the theme of faith in God versus excessive attachment to the life of this world. Including: [6]
    • The men of the cave. (v. 13-20) [6]
    • The rich man and the poor man. (v. 32-44) [6]
    • Moses and the unnamed sage. (v. 60-82) [6]
    • The allegory of ‘Dhu’l-Qarnayn, the Two-Horned One’. (v. 83-98) [6]
19 Maryam Mary 98 (06) Meccan 44 58 Kaf Ha Ya 'Ayn Sad v. 16-37 [6]
  • The story of Zachariah and his son John, the precursor of Jesus. (v. 2-15) [6]
  • The story of Mary and Jesus. (v. 16-37) [6]
20 Ta-Ha Ta-Ha 135 (08) Meccan 45 55 Ta Ha [notes 2] v. 1 [6]
  • The guidance offered by God through His prophets. [6]
  • The fundamental truths inherent in all revealed religions are identical. [6]
    • The story of Moses. (v. 9-98) [6]
21 Al-Anbiya The Prophets 112 (07) Meccan 73 65 v. 48-91 [6]
  • The oneness, uniqueness and transcendence of God. [6]
  • The continuity and intrinsic unity of all divine revelation. [6]
    • Stories of the prophets of old. (v. 48-91) [6]
    • The believers of all faiths belong to one single community. (v. 92) [6]
22 Al-Hajj The Pilgrimage 78 (10) Medinan 103 107 v. 25-38 [6]
  • The Mecca pilgrimage and some of the rituals connected with it. (v. 25-38) [6]
23 Al-Mu'minoon The Believers 118 (06) Meccan 74 64 v. 1 [6]
  • True faith. [6]
  • The evidence of the existence of an almighty Creator, and man’s ultimate responsibility before Him. [6]
  • The unity of all religious communities, broken by man’s egotism, greed and striving after power. (v. 52-53) [6]
  • The impossibility to believe in God, without believing in life after death. [6]
24 An-Nour The Light 64 (09) Medinan 102 105 v. 35 [6]
  • Mutual relations and ethical rules between men and women. [6]
  • The mystic parable of the ‘light of God’ ("Verse of Light"). (v. 35) [6]
25 Al-Furqan The Criterion, The Standard, The Standard of True and False 77 (06) Meccan 42 66 v. 1 [6]
  • The purpose of every divine revelation is to provide a stable criterion of true and false. [6]
  • The humanness of every apostle sent by God to man. (v. 20) [6]
  • Divine revelation belongs to God’s creative activity. [6]
26 Ash-Shu'ara The Poets 227 (11) Meccan 47 56 Ta Sin Mim v. 224 [6]
  • Man’s weakness, which causes him to reject God’s message and worship power and wealth etc. [6]
27 An-Naml The Ant, The Ants 93 (07) Meccan 48 68 Ta Sin v. 18 [6]
28 Al-Qasas The Narrations, The Stories, The Story 88 (09) Meccan 49 79 Ta Sin Mim v. 25 [6]
  • Human aspects of the life of Moses. [6]
29 Al-Ankabut The Spider 69 (07) Meccan 85 81 Alif Lam Mim v. 41 [6]
  • The parable of ‘the spider house’, a symbol of false beliefs that are destined to be blown away by the winds of truth. (v. 41) [6]
30 Ar-Roum The Romans, The Byzantines 60 (06) Meccan 84 74 Alif Lam Mim v. 1 [6]
  • Predictions of the near victory of the Byzantines [over the Persians] and the Battle of Badr (2 A.H.). (v. 1-7) [6]
  • God’s ability to resurrect the dead at the end of time, and the people’s ignorance of this. [6]
31 Luqman Luqman 34 Meccan 57 82 Alif Lam Mim v. 12-19 [6]
  • The story of Luqman, a legendary sage, counselling his son. (v. 12-19) [6]
32 As-Sajda The Prostration, Worship, Adoration 30 Meccan 75 70 Alif Lam Mim v. 15 [6]
  • God's creation.[10]
  • God's revelation and man's acceptance or denial.[10]
  • The Day of Judgement.[10]
33 Al-Ahzab The Clans, The Confederates, The Combined Forces 73 Medinan 90 103 v. 9-27 [6]
34 Saba Sheba 54 Meccan 58 85 v. 15-20 [6]
  • The insignificance of the knowledge accessible to man. (v. 9) [6]
  • The story of the people of Sheba, as an example of the impermanence of human power, wealth and glory. (v. 15-20) [6]
  • Always be conscious of God. (v. 46) [6]
35 Fatir The Originator 45 Meccan 43 86 v. 1 [6]
  • God’s power to create and resurrect. [6]
  • God’s revelation of His will through His prophets. [6]
36 Yaseen Yaseen 83 Meccan 41 60 Ya Sin [notes 3] v. 1 [6]
  • Man’s moral responsibility, resurrection and God’s judgment. [6]
  • To be recited over the dying and in the prayers of the dead. [6]
37 As-Saffat Those Who Set The Ranks, Drawn Up In Ranks, Those Ranged in Ranks 182 Meccan 56 50 v. 1 [6]
  • Resurrection and the certainty that all human beings will have to answer before God. [6]
  • Man’s constant need of prophetic guidance. [6]
    • Stories of earlier prophets. (v. 75-148) [6]
38 Sad Sad 88 Meccan 38 59 Sad v. 1 [6]
  • Divine guidance and its rejection by those who are lost in fast pride. [6]
39 Az-Zumar The Crowds, The Troops, Throngs 75 Meccan 59 80 v. 71, 73 [6]
  • The evidence of the existence and oneness of God in all manifestations of nature. [6]
  • God forgives all sins to him who repents before his death. [6]
  • Allegories of the Last Hour and the Day of Judgment. [6]
40 Ghafir The Forgiver (God), Forgiving 85 Meccan 60 78 Ha Mim v. 3 [6]
  • Man’s false pride, worship of false values (wealth, power etc.) and his denial of divine guidance. [6]
    • Stories of earlier prophets. [6]
41 Fussilat Expounded, Explained In Detail, Clearly Spelled Out 54 Meccan 61 71 Ha Mim v. 3[6]
  • Man’s acceptance or rejection of divine revelation. [6]
42 Ash-Shura The Consultation 53 Meccan 62 83 Ha Mim 'Ayn Sin Qaf v. 36 [6]
  • God is undefinable and unfathomable. (v. 11, 16) [6]
  • All prophets taught the oneness of God, so all believers of all ‘denominations’ should see themselves as ‘one single community’. (v. 13, 15) [6]
  • The law of cause and effect: In the life to come man will only harvest ‘what his own hands have wrought’ in this world. [6]
43 Az-Zukhruf The Gold Adornments, The Ornaments of Gold, Luxury, Gold 89 Meccan 63 61 Ha Mim v. 35 [6]
  • To equal anyone or anything with God is sprititually destructive and logically unacceptable. [6]
  • People’s blind adherence to the faith of their forefathers. (v. 22-23) [6]
44 Ad-Dukhan The Smoke 59 Meccan 64 53 Ha Mim v. 10 [6]
  • Through revelation worldly pride is eventually brought to naught.[10]
45 Al-Jathiya The Kneeling Down, Crouching 37 Meccan 65 72 Ha Mim v. 28 [6]
  • The humility with which all human beings will face their final judgment on resurrection. (v. 28) [6]
46 Al-Ahqaf Winding Sand-tracts, The Dunes, The Sand-Dunes 35 Meccan 66 88 Ha Mim v. 21 [6]
47 Muhammad Muhammad 38 Medinan 95 96 v. 2 [6]
  • Fighting (qital) in God’s cause. [6]
48 Al-Fath The Victory, Conquest 29 Medinan 111 108 v. 1 [6]
49 Al-Hujurat The Private Apartments, The Inner Apartments 18 Medinan 106 112 v. 4 [6]
  • Social ethics. [6]
    • Reverence to the Prophet and the righteous leaders after him. [6]
    • The brotherhood of all believers and all mankind. (v. 10, 13) [6]
    • The difference between true faith and outward observance of religious formalities. (v. 14 ff.) [6]
50 Qaf Qaf 45 Meccan 34 54 Qaf v. 1 [6]
  • Death and resurrection. [6]
  • God is closer to man than his neck-vein. (v. 16)[10]
51 Adh-Dhariyat The Wind That Scatter, The Winnowing Winds, The Dust-Scattering Winds 60 Meccan 67 39 v. 1 [6]
52 At-Tour The Mount, Mount Sinai 49 Meccan 76 40 v. 1 [6]
53 An-Najm The Star, The Unfolding 62 Meccan 23 28 v. 1 [6]
  • Muhammad’s mystic experience of an ascension to heaven (Mi’raj, including his vision of the Sidrat al-Muntaha, the Lote-Tree of the Extremity). (v. 13-18) [6]
54 Al-Qamar The Moon 55 Meccan 37 49 v. 1 [6]
55 Ar-Rahman The Most Merciful, The Most Gracious 78 Medinan 97 43 v. 1 [6]
56 Al-Waqi'a The Inevitable, The Event, That Which Must Come to Pass 96 Meccan 46 41 v. 1 [6]
57 Al-Hadeed The Iron 29 Medinan 94 99 v. 25 [6]
58 Al-Mujadila The Pleading, The Pleading Woman 22 Medinan 105 106 v. 1 [6]
  • Divorce. [6]
  • Faith and denial. [6]
  • Hypocrisy. [6]
  • The attitude believers should have toward non-believers. [6]
59 Al-Hashr The Mustering, The Gathering, Exile, Banishment 24 Medinan 101 102 v. 2 [6]
  • The conflict between the Muslim coummunity and the Jewish tribe of Banu’n-Nadir of Medina. [6]
60 Al-Mumtahana The Examined One, She That Is To Be Examined 13 Medinan 91 110 v. 10 [6]
  • The believers’ relations with unbelievers. [6]
61 As-Saff The Ranks, Battle Array 14 Medinan 109 98 v. 4 [6]
  • A call to unity between professed belief and actual behaviour. [6]
62 Al-Jumu'aa The Congregation, Friday 11 Medinan 110 94 v. 9-10 [6]
63 Al-Munafiqoun The Hypocrites 11 Medinan 104 104 Whole Surah [6]
  • Hypocrisy. [6]
64 At-Taghabun The Cheating, The Mutual Disillusion, The Mutual Loss and Gain, Loss and Gain 18 (02) Medinan 108 93 v. 9 [6]
65 At-Talaq Divorce 12 (02) Medinan 99 101 Whole Surah
  • Divorce (waiting period, remarriage). [6]
66 At-Tahreem The Prohibition 12 (02) Medinan 107 109 v. 1 [6]
  • Certain aspects of Muhammad’s personal and family life. [6]
67 Al-Mulk The Dominion, Sovereignty, Control 30 (02) Meccan 77 63 v. 1 [6]
  • Man’s inability to understand the mysteries of the universe, and his dependence on guidance through divine revelation. [6]
68 Al-Qalam The Pen 52 (02) Meccan 2 18 Nun v. 1 [6]
69 Al-Haqqa The Sure Reality, The Laying-Bare of the Truth 52 (02) Meccan 78 38 v. 1
70 Al-Ma'aarij The Ways of Ascent, The Ascending Stairways 44 (02) Meccan 79 42 v. 3 [6]
  • The unwillingness to believe, caused by the restlessness inherent in human nature. [6]
71 Nouh Noah 28 (02) Meccan 71 51 Whole Surah
  • The story of Noah. [6]
    • The struggle against blind materialism and the lack of spiritual values. [6]
72 Al-Jinn The Spirits, The Unseen Beings 28 (02) Meccan 40 62 v. 1 [6]
73 Al-Muzzammil The Enfolded One, The Enshrouded One, Bundled Up, The Enwrapped One 20 (02) Meccan 3 23 v. 1 [6]
74 Al-Muddathir The One Wrapped Up, The Cloaked One, The Man Wearing A Cloak, The Enfolded One 56 (02) Meccan 4 2 v. 1 [6]
  • This short early surah outlines almost all fundamental Qur'anic concepts. [6]
75 Al-Qiyama Resurrection, The Day of Resurrection, Rising Of The Dead 40 (02) Meccan 31 36 v. 1 [6]
  • The concept of resurrection. [6]
76 Al-Insan The Human, Man 31 (02) Medinan 98 52 v. 1 [6]
77 Al-Mursalat Those Sent Forth, The Emissaries, Winds Sent Forth 50 (02) Meccan 33 32 v. 1 [6]
  • The gradual revelation of the Qur'an. [6]
78 An-Naba' The Great News, The Announcement, The Tiding 40 (02) Meccan 80 33 v. 2 [6]
  • Life after death. [6]
  • Resurrection and God’s ultimate judgment. [6]
79 An-Nazi'at Those Who Tear Out, Those Who Drag Forth, Soul-snatchers, Those That Rise 46 (02) Meccan 81 31 v. 1 [6]
80 Abasa He Frowned 42 (01) Meccan 24 17 v. 1 [6]
81 At-Takweer The Folding Up, The Overthrowing, Shrouding in Darkness 29 (01) Meccan 7 27 v. 1 [6]
  • The Last Hour and man’s resurrection. [6]
82 Al-Infitar The Cleaving Asunder, Bursting Apart 19 (01) Meccan 82 26 v. 1 [6]
83 Al-Mutaffifeen The Dealers in Fraud, Defrauding, The Cheats, Those Who Give Short Measure 36 (01) Meccan 86 37 v. 1 [6]
84 Al-Inshiqaq The Rending Asunder, The Sundering, Splitting Open, The Splitting Asunder 25 (01) Meccan 83 29 v. 1 [6]
85 Al-Burooj The Mansions Of The Stars, Constellations, The Great Constellations 22 (01) Meccan 27 22 v. 1 [6]
86 At-Tariq The Night-Visitant, The Morning Star, The Nightcomer, That Which Comes in the Night 17 (01) Meccan 36 15 v. 1 [6]
87 Al-A'la The Most High, The All-Highest, Glory To Your Lord In The Highest 19 (01) Meccan 8 19 v. 1 [6]
88 Al-Ghashiyah The Overwhelming Event, The Overshadowing Event, The Pall 26 (01) Meccan 68 34 v. 1 [6]
89 Al-Fajr The Break of Day, The Daybreak, The Dawn 30 (01) Meccan 10 35 v. 1 [6]
90 Al-Balad The City, The Land 20 (01) Meccan 35 11 v. 1 [6]
91 Ash-Shams The Sun 15 (01) Meccan 26 16 v. 1 [6]
92 Al-Lail The Night 21 (01) Meccan 9 10 v. 1 [6]
93 Ad-Dhuha The Glorious Morning Light, The Forenoon, Morning Hours, Morning Bright, The Bright Morning Hours 11 (01) Meccan 11 13 v. 1 [6]
  • Man’s suffering and God’s justice. [6]
94 Al-Inshirah The Expansion of Breast, Solace, Consolation, Relief, Patient, The Opening-Up of the Heart 8 (01) Meccan 12 12 v. 1
95 At-Teen The Fig Tree, The Fig 8 (01) Meccan 28 20 v. 1 [6]
  • A fundamental moral verity, common to all true religious teachings. [6]
96 Al-Alaq The Clinging Clot, Clot of Blood, The Germ-Cell 19 (01) Meccan 1 1 v. 2 [6]
  • The first five verses revealed to Muhammad. (v. 1-5) [6]
97 Al-Qadr The Night of Honor, The Night of Decree, Power, Fate, Destiny 5 (01) Meccan 25 14 v. 1 [6]
98 Al-Bayyina The Clear Evidence, The Evidence of the Truth 8 (01) Medinan 100 92 v. 1 [6]
99 Az-Zalzala The Earthquake 8 (01) Medinan 93 25 v. 1 [6]
100 Al-Adiyat The Courser, The Chargers, The War Horse 11 (01) Meccan 14 30 v. 1 [6]
101 Al-Qaria The Striking Hour, The Great Calamity, The Stunning Blow, The Sudden Calamity 11 (01) Meccan 30 24 v. 1 [6]
102 At-Takathur The Piling Up, Rivalry in World Increase, Competition, Greed for More and More 8 (01) Meccan 16 8 v. 1 [6]
  • Man’s greed and tendencies. [6]
103 Al-Asr The Time, The Declining Day, The Epoch, The Flight of Time 3 (01) Meccan 13 21 v. 1 [6]
104 Al-Humaza The Scandalmonger, The Traducer, The Gossipmonger, The Slanderer 9 (01) Meccan 32 6 v. 1 [6]
105 Al-Feel The Elephant 5 (01) Meccan 19 9 v. 1 [6]
106 Quraysh Quraysh 4 (01) Meccan 29 4 v. 1 [6]
  • The Quraysh, custodians of the Kaaba, should be thankful to God for protecting them from hunger and danger.[10]
107 Al-Maa'oun The Neighbourly Assistance, Small Kindnesses, Almsgiving, Assistance 7 (01) Meccan 17 7 v. 7 [6]
  • The meaning of true worship through sincere devotion and helping those in need.[10]
108 Al-Kawthar Abundance, Plenty, Good in Abundance 3 (01) Meccan 15 5 v. 1 [6]
  • Spiritual riches through devotion and sacrifice.
  • Hatred results in the cutting off of all hope.[10]
109 Al-Kafiroun The Disbelievers, The Kafirs, Those Who Deny the Truth 6 (01) Meccan 18 45 v. 1 [6]
  • The correct attitude towards those who reject faith. [10]
110 An-Nasr The Help, Divine Support, Victory, Succour 3 (01) Medinan 114 111 v. 1 [6]
  • The last complete surah revealed before Muhammad’s death. [6]
111 Al-Masad The Plaited Rope, The Palm Fibre, The Twisted Strands 5 (01) Meccan 6 3 v. 5 [6]
112 Al-Ikhlas Purity of Faith, The Fidelity, The Declaration of [God's] Perfection 4 (01) Meccan 22 44
  • The oneness of God. [6]
113 Al-Falaq The Daybreak, Dawn, The Rising Dawn 5 (05) Meccan 20 46 v. 1 [6]
  • Seek refuge in God from evil of others.[10]
114 Al-Nas Mankind, Men 6 (01) Meccan 21 47 v. 1 [6]
  • Trust in God's protection from temptations.[10]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Also known as: Fatihat al-Kitab ("The Opening of the Divine Writ"), Umm al-Kitab ("The Essence of the Divine Writ"), Surat al-Hamd ("The Surah of Praise"), Asas al-Qur'an ("The Foundation of the Qur'an"), and As-Sab' al-Mathani ("The Seven Oft-Repeated [Verses]"). Asad 1980, Introduction to the Sura..
  2. ^ 'Ta Ha' has also been interpreted as the invocation 'O man'. In this case, it is not counted as a Muqatta'at. Asad 1980, Footnote to the verse.
  3. ^ 'Ya Sin' has also been interpreted as the invocation 'O thou human being'. In this case, it is not counted as a Muqatta'at. Asad 1980, Footnote to the verse.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Asad 1980, Introduction to Sura 1.
  2. ^ a b Asad 1980, Appendix II.
  3. ^ a b Robinson, Neal (2003). Discovering the Qurʼan: A Contemporary Approach to a Veiled Text. Georgetown University Press. pp. 25–97. ISBN 1589010248. 
  4. ^ Qran.org: Quran Verses in Chronological Order
  5. ^ Chronological Order of Quranic Surahs, by Kevin P. Edgecomb (2002).
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij Asad 1980, Introduction to the Sura.
  7. ^ Peters, F.E. (1993). A Reader on Classical Islam. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 176–177. ISBN 9781400821181. 
  8. ^ a b c Asad 1980, Footnote(s) to the verse(s).
  9. ^ Gwynne, Rosalind Ward (2014). Logic, Rhetoric and Legal Reasoning in the Qur'an: God's Arguments. Routledge Studies in the Qur'an. Routledge, UK. ISBN 1134345003. pp. 1-2.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1934). The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary. Introduction to the Sura.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Al-Quran, open source multi-language Quran project