List of sweet potato cultivars

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Trumpet-shaped flowers and large, heart-shaped leaves emerge the stems of a sweet potato plant.
A sweet potato plant in bloom at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology botanical garden.
Close-up view of a pile of golden sweet potato roots
Edible sweet potato roots photographed in Karlsruhe, Germany.

This list of sweet potato cultivars provides some information about varieties or cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Sweet potato was first domesticated in the Americas more than 5,000 years ago.[1] As of 2013, there are approximately 7,000 sweet potato cultivars. People grow sweet potato in many parts of the world, such as New Zealand, Australia, the Philippines, Japan, Hawaii, China, and North America. However, sweet potato is not widely cultivated in Europe.[2]

People breed sweet potatoes mainly either for food (their nutritious roots) or for their attractive flowering vines. (The cultivar 'Vardaman' is grown for both.) The first table below lists sweet potato cultivars grown for their edible roots; the second table lists cultivars bred as ornamental vines. In the first table, the Parentage column briefly explains how the sweet potato cultivar was bred. Sweet potato plants with desirable traits are selectively bred to produce new cultivars.

Sweet potato cultivars differ in many ways. One way people compare them is by the size, shape, and color of the roots. The more orange the flesh of a sweet potato root is, the more nutritious carotene it has. (Humans metabolize carotene into vitamin A.) The skin of a sweet potato root is a different color than the flesh. The biological word for the outer skin is epidermis; the flesh is also called the pith or medulla. The first table below has a general description of the color of the root's flesh and skin.

Many of the sweet potato cultivars below were bred at agricultural experiment stations. An agricultural experiment station (AES) is a research center where scientists work to increase the quality and quantity of food production. Agricultural experiment stations are usually operated by a government agency and/or a university.

Cultivars bred for edible roots[edit]

Name Plant breeder Parentage Root skin (epidermis) colour Root flesh (medulla) colour Notes
Acadian Louisiana State University[3] L21 × L131[3] copper deep orange flesh
Allgold / Okla. 240 Oklahoma State University–Stillwater[3] Creole × Triumph (Parent 10)[3] tan[1] orange
Americana ? ? ? ?
Apache USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)[3] (Yellow Yam 149 × Nancy Hall 42-1) × (Pelican Processor Triumph)[3] orange ?
Australian Canner Department of Agriculture (Australia)[3] ? ? ? Adaptation trials/naming by USDA et al.[3]
Ayamurasaki ? ? sangria plum
Baker / V 2158 Norfolk, Virginia[3] Virginian × numbered seedling[3] ? ?
Beauregard Baton Rouge, Louisiana[3] open-pollinated seedling of L78-21[3] rose[4] orange[4] First cultivated in 1987[4]
Bonara ? ? ? ?
Canbake / G-52-15-1 Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station (AES)[3] ? ? ?
Caro-Gold Clemson College[3] C317 × Goldrush[3] ? ?
Carolina Bunch US Vegetable Laboratory (USDA Agricultural Research Service); South Carolina AES[3] open pollinated seedling of Excel[3] light copper deep orange
Carolina Nugget North Carolina State University[3] HM1-36 × Lakan[3] rosy medium orange First cultivated in 1954[3]
Carolina Ruby North Carolina Agricultural Research Service (NCARS)[3] open pollinated seedling of Beauregard[3] dark red to purple-red[4] dark orange[4] First cultivated in 1988[4]
Caromex North Carolina State University[3] NC228 × NC234[3] dark copper deep orange First cultivated in 1971[3]
Carver Tuskegee Institute[3] Centennial × Jewel[3] deep rose deep orange
Centennial / L-3-77 Louisiana AES (Baton Rouge, Louisiana)[3] Unit IPR × Pelican Processor[3] orange[5] orange[5]
Chipper ? ? ? ?
Covington NC98-608 North Carolina State University[3] ? rose[4] orange[4] Smooth skin[4]
Cliett Bunch Porto Rico / Georgia Bunch Porto Rico University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station (Tifton, Georgia)[3] mutation from Vining Porto Rico[3] ? ? Similar to Vining Porto Rico[3]
Coastal Red University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station (Tifton, Georgia)[3] open-pollenated seedling from GA-76[3] red medium orange First cultivated in 1978[3]
Coppergold L. A. Sharum (Fort Smith, Arkansas)[3] selected mutation in Allgold[3] russet copper ?
Cordner Texas AES and Oklahoma State University[3] copper[4] medium orange[4] ? First cultivated in 1983[4]
Creole ? ? ? ?
Darby Louisiana AES (Baton Rouge, Louisiana)[3] open pollinated seedling of L 83-523[3] dark rose orange Purple stems[3]
Don Juan Puerto Rico AES (Río Piedras, Puerto Rico)[3] selected from native stock[3] ? ?
Earlyport Louisiana AES (Baton Rouge, Louisiana)[3] (Mameyita × seedling L-4-6) × (seedling L-5 × Triumph)[3] copper orange Similar to Porto Rico[3]
Earlysweet / T-3 University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station (Tifton, Georgia)[3] Porto Rico × unnamed breeding lines[3] light-skinned deep orange
Eureka Louisiana State University AES; University of California AES[3] L9-163 × LO-132[3] copper orange
Evangeline Louisiana[6] ? rose orange[6]
Excel USDA and the South Carolina AES[3] open-pollinated seedling of Regal polycrossed in 1981 to 29 other parental selections[3] light copper orange Skin color is slightly lighter than that of Jewel[3]
GA90-16 Georgia AES; US Vegetable Laboratory (USDA ARS)[3] ? ? white flesh Low sugar, low maltose[3]
Garnet ? ? pale copper brilliant orange Commonly called "yams" in the United States to distinguish them from O'Henry sweet potatoes[3]
Georgia Jet ? ? purplish red deep orange
Georgia Red / T-6 University of Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station (Tifton, Georgia)[3] Porto Rican crosses[3] coppery-red skin ? Similar to Porto Rico[3]
Gold Rush Louisiana AES (Baton Rouge, Louisiana)[3] (Mameyita × Seedling L4-6) × (Seedling L-5 × Triumph)[3] light copper deep orange Purple stems[3]
Golden Belle Bryce Woods (Rogers, Arkansas)[3] Nancy Gold mutation[3] ? golden Flesh color differs from Nancy Hall.
Goldmar Maryland AES (College Park, Maryland)[3] Redmar mutation[3] golden ? Cultivated in 1973. Similar to Redmar, but different skin color.[3]
Hannah Sweet ? ? ? ?
Hayman White ? ? tan[7] cream[7] An heirloom variety of the Eastern United States[8][9]
Heartogold Louisiana State University[3] Mameyita × Yellow Yam[3] flesh-colored deep orange
Hernandez Louisiana State University AES[3] seedling of L70-323[3] burnt orange[4] deep orange[4] First cultivated in 1992[4]
HiDry Clemson University; USDA[3] fourth-generation, open-pollinated selection from MK-14[3] white cream Cultivated for industrial use[3]
Hoolehua Gold ? ? pale red orange
Hoolehua Red ? ? red off-white
Hopi / HM-122 USDA Horticultural Field Station (Meridian, Mississippi)[3] ? ? ?
Iliua ? ? ? ?
Japanese / Oriental ? ? purplish red ivory Comparatively lower moisture[6]
Jersey Orange / Orange Little Stern Kansas State College; Rutgers University[3] ? orange-brown deep orange Size and shape are similar to that of Jersey Yellow[3]
Jersey Red ? ? ? ? An heirloom variety[7]
Jersey Yellow ? ? golden, buff, or tan cream to bright yellow An heirloom variety[7]
Jewel North Carolina State University ? copper[4] deep orange[4] First cultivated in 1970.[4] Commonly called "yams" in the United States to distinguish them from O'Henry sweet potatoes.
Kandee / K1716 Kansas State College[3] La 1946 Cross 17 × 1 (yellow yam × Nancy Hall)[3] reddish bronze bright orange
Kona B ? ? pale red to orange-red light orange
Kotobuki ? ? ? ?
Lakan / L-0-123 Louisiana AES (Baton Rouge, Louisiana)[3] (Unit IPR × Pelican. Processor) × (Mameyita × L-4-6)[3] reddish-bronze to reddish-tan bright orange
Mameyita ? ? ? ?
Maryland Golden ? ? ? ?
Miguela ? ? ? ?
Murasaki ? ? hybiscus pale Low moisture[6]
Murff Bush Porto Rico E. L. Murff (Normangee, Texas)[3] Porto Rico mutation[3] copper[5] orange[5] First cultivated in 1949. Similar to Porto Rico.[3]
Nancy Gold Kansas State College AES[3] Nancy Hall mutation[3] buff-colored deep-orange Skin color differs from Nancy Hall[3]
Nancy Hall ? ? tan yellow
Nemagold / Okla. 46 Oklahoma State University–Stillwater[3] Yellow Jersey (Orlis strain) × Okla. 29[3] ? ?
Northern Star ? ? ? ? Cultivated in Australia
Nugget / NC-171 North Carolina AES (Raleigh, North Carolina)[3] NC-124 × (NC-41 × B5965)[3] ? ?
O'Henry Henry Wayne Bailey (Chadbourn, North Carolina)[10] Beauregard mutation[10] coppery tan lemon cream Variant of Beauregard[6]
Okla. 46 Oklahoma State University–Stillwater[3] Okla. 29 × Orlis [Okla. 29-Parent 10 (see Allgold) × L37 (see Red Gold)][3] golden russet orange Roots and vines are like yellow Jersey or Orlis; shouldered leaves
Oklamar / Okla. 52 Oklahoma State University–Stillwater AES[3] Oklahoma 5 × Australian Canner[3] purple salmon
Oklamex Red Oklahoma and New Mexico AES B 1564 × PI 153655 dark red salmon Extremely sweet, moist root; yam-type
Onokeo ? ? violet ivory
Onolena / HES number 14 Vegetable Crops Department, University of Hawaii (Honolulu)[3] Porto Rico × Nancy Hall[3] tan dark orange Similar to Porto Rico[3]
Orlis Kansas State College[3] mutation from Common Little Stem Jersey[3] bronze ? Similar to Little Stem Jersey
Owairaka Red ? ? dark red ? First cultivated in New Zealand during the 1850s[10] As of 2000, the preeminent sweet potato cultivar of New Zealand (followed by Toka Toka Gold and Beauregard).[11]
Papota USDA ARS; Tropical Agricultural Research Station[3] International Institute of Tropical Agr. seedling[3] white beige Turnip-shaped root[3]
Pelican Processor / L-5 / L-4-5 Louisiana AES (Baton Rouge, Louisiana)[3] selfed seedling of Americana[3] cream light cream
Pope North Carolina State University[3] NC 288 × 304[3] light salmon medium orange
Porto Rico 198 / Porto Rican / Puerto Rican North Carolina[4] ? rose-pink[4] orange mottled[4] First cultivated in 1966[4]
Purple Heart / Okinawa Okinawa Island ? tan grape Also cultivated in Hawaii
Queen Mary / L-126 Louisiana AES (Baton Rouge, Louisiana)[3] Porto Rico × Nancy Hall[3] ? ? Similar to Porto Rico[3]
Ranger Louisiana State University[3] Porto Rico × Nancy Hall[3] flesh-colored orange Similar to Nancy Hall
Rapoza ? ? ivory purple
Red Diane ? ? ? ?
Red Garnet ? ? deep red to purple[10] orange[10]
Red Jewel ? ? red deep orange
Red Nancy Kansas State College[3] mutation of Nancy Gold[3] red orange Similar to Nancy Gold[3]
Redglow University of Georgia AES; California AES[3] open pollinated seedling of GA-109[3] light, purple-red deep orange
Redgold / Okla. 26 Oklahoma State University–Stillwater[3] Okla. 2 × L37 (seedlings involving Creole, Nancy Hall and Porto Rico)[3] red orange
Redmar / Md 2416 Maryland AES (College Park, Maryland) [(K18400 × B6313) × Shoreland) × (Virginian × K1846)] red ? First cultivated in 1971. Similar to Nemagold[3]
Regal USDA ARS; South Carolina AES (Clemson University); Texas Agricultural Station (Texas A&M University)[3] seedling of W-99 polycrossed with 29 other parental selections[3] dark purplish-red orange to deep orange
Resisto USDA; South Carolina AES; Texas AES[3] seedling of W-56[3] reddish-copper dark orange
Rojo Blanco Tuskegee Institute[3] Rose Centennial × White Triumph[3] deep red milk white
Rose Centennial ? ? ? ?
Ruddy US Vegetable Laboratory (USDA ARS); South Carolina AES[3] open pollinated seedling of W-119[3] red skin orange
Scarlet North Carolina Agricultural Research Service (NCARS)[3] selected from meristem-tip culture derived clones of Jewel[3] ? orange
Shore Gold Virginia Tech Experiment Station[3] open pollinated seedling of L7-177 from the Louisiana breeding program[3] light copper bright orange
Southern Delite USDA ARS; Clemson University[3][10] an open pollinated seedling of W-99[3] rose to dark copper orange Made publicly available in 1986.[10] Skin color varies with soil type[3]
Sumor USDA ARS; United States Vegetable Laboratory; South Carolina AES (Clemson University); Edisto Research and Education Center[3] open pollinated seedling of W-154[3] light tan white to yellow Comparatively high vitamin C[10]
Sunnyside USDA (Beltsville, Maryland and Louisiana)[3] (Yellow Yam × Nancy Hall) × (Pelican Processor × Triumph)[3] ? ?
Sweet Red North Carolina State University[3] open pollinated seedling of NC 258[3] deep copper-red deep orange
Tango USDA; Missouri AES (Columbia, Missouri); Sweet Potato Cooperative Group (Beltsville, Maryland)[3] Nancy Hall × Porto Rico 1-10[3] ? ?
Tanhoma Oklahoma State University–Stillwater AES[3] selection Australian Canner[3] ? ?
Toka Toka Gold ? ? ? ? Cultivated in New Zealand
Topaz Texas AES[3] open pollinated seedling of W-26[3] bronze medium orange
Travis Louisiana AES[3] polycross with L3-217 as seed parent[3] rose deep orange First cultivated in 1980
UPLSP-1 ? ? ? ? Cultivated in the Philippines[12]
UPLSP-2 ? ? ? ? Cultivated in the Philippines[12]
U.P.R. number 3 Puerto Rico AES (Río Piedras, Puerto Rico)[3] selected from Mameya; open-pollinated[3] ? ?
U.P.R. number 7 Puerto Rico AES (Río Piedras, Puerto Rico)[3] L-240[3] ? deep orange
Vardaman ? ? golden[5] light orange
Virginian / V-53 Truck Experiment Station (near Norfolk, Virginia)[3] Maryland Golden × B-219[3] purplish-red to copper-red bright orange
VSP-5 ? ? ? ? Cultivated in the Philippines[12]
VSP-6 ? ? ? ? Cultivated in the Philippines[12]
Waimanalo Red ? ? red pearl
White Delite North Carolina State University[3] cross between a University of Georgia breeding clone (GA41) and an unknown pollen parent[3] purplish pink[4] white[4] First cultivated in 1979[4]
White Triumph ? ? ? ?
Whitestar USDA (Beltsville, Maryland)[3] cultivar Laupahoehoe (Hawaii)[3] white pale
Yellow Yam ? ? ? ?

Cultivars bred for ornamental vines[edit]

Name Cultivator(s) Leaf color Leaf shape Notes
Black Heart / Ace of Spades / Purple Heart ? dark purplish with purple veins heart
Blackie ? purple and green blend ? Darker than Black Heart
Bronze Beauty ? copper ? Same leaf shape as Blackie
Copper ? chartreuse to purple ?
Freckles ? green and yellow mottled ?
Gold Finger ? lime green lobed
Ivory Jewel ? green and ivory streaked heart
Lady Fingers ? green with purple veins lobed
Marguerite / Chartreuse / Sulfur ? chartreuse ?
Mini Blackie ? dark green with purple veins ? Leaf color is lighter than that of lacinato kale
NCORNSP011MNLC / Illusion® Midnight Lace ? dark green with purple veins ?
NCORNSP012EMLC / Illusion® Emerald Lace ? chartreuse lobed
Purple Tuber ? ? ?
Seki Blakhrt / Chillin™ / Blackberry Heart ? ? ?
Sidekick Black ? deep purple lobed
Sidekick Lime ? green lobed
Sweet Caroline Bewitched Purple / PP18574 Craig Yencho; Ken Pecota (2006)[13][14] dark green to vivid burgundy ?
Sweet Caroline Bronze / PP15437 Craig Yencho; Ken Pecota; Cindy Pierce (2002)[13][14] ? ?
Sweet Caroline Green ? ? ?
Sweet Caroline Green Yellow ? ? ?
Sweet Caroline Light Green ? ? ?
Sweet Caroline Purple ? ? ?
Sweet Caroline Red ? ? ?
Sweet Caroline Sweetheart Light Green ? ? ?
Sweet Caroline Sweetheart Red ? ? ?
Sweet Georgia Heart Purple ? ? ?
Terrace Lime ? ? ?
Tricolor ? green, white, pink ? Medium-size leaves
Vardaman ? ? ?

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Sweetpotato". International Potato Center. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Núñez, Carlos (7 May 2013). "Sweet potatoes a growing niche in Europe". FreshPlaza. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd LaBonte, Don R. (ed.). "Sweetpotato, Lists 1-26 Combined". Vegetable Cultivar Descriptions for North America. Department of Horticulture, Louisiana State University. Retrieved 3 May 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "Industry". North Carolina Sweet Potato Commission. 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Watch Your Garden Grow – Sweet Potato". University of Illinois Extension. University of Illinois. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c d e "Sweet Potato Varieties". About Sweet Potatoes. North Carolina Sweet Potato Commission. Archived from the original on 4 September 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d Higgins, Adrian (14 November 2012). "Rare sweet potatoes make a comeback". The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.: Katharine Weymouth). Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  8. ^ Kasper, Rob (26 November 2008). "Aging's a fine thing for sweet potatoes". The Baltimore Sun (Baltimore: Tribune Company). Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  9. ^ Eaton, Lorraine (19 November 2010). "Haymans, an Eastern Shore sweet potato prized for generations". The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.: Katharine Weymouth). Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h "Sweet Potato Varieties". sweetpotatoes.com. Wayne Bailey Produce Company. 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  11. ^ Shaw, S.; van de Westelaken, T.; Sorrenson, I.; Searle, B.; Hederley, D. (2008). "Effects of plant population and planting date on growth and development of kumara cultivar Owairaka Red" (PDF). Agronomy New Zealand (38): 61–68. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  12. ^ a b c d Cabanilla, Liborio S. (1996). Sweetpotato in the Philippines: Production, processing, and future prospects (PDF). Lima: International Potato Center. pp. 37–38. ISBN 9290601787. OCLC 36071607. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  13. ^ a b "Sweetpotato Breeding and Genetics Program". North Carolina State University. Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
  14. ^ a b Reeber, Meri. "Ornamental Sweetpotatoes for the Home Landscape" (PDF). North Carolina State University. Retrieved 27 November 2013.