List of tallest buildings in Detroit

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Skyline of Detroit. The Renaissance Center is visible to the far right, and the One Detroit Center is visible in the center of the image.

This list of tallest buildings in Detroit ranks skyscrapers and high rises in the U.S. city of Detroit, Michigan by height. The tallest skyscraper in Detroit is the 73-story Detroit Marriott at the Renaissance Center, which rises 727 feet (222 m) along Detroit's International Riverfront.[A][1] It is the tallest building in the state of Michigan, the 97th-tallest building in the United States, and the tallest all-hotel building in the Western Hemisphere.[1] Another famous skyscraper is One Detroit Center, which stands as the 2nd-tallest building in the city and the state.[2]

Detroit's history of skyscrapers began in 1889, with completion of the historic 10-story Hammond Building—considered the city's first steel-framed skyscraper.[3] The Qube in the Detroit Financial District now stands on this site.[4] Detroit witnessed a massive building boom during the Roaring Twenties, resulting in the construction of many of the city's ornate skyscrapers, including the Penobscot, Guardian, Fisher, Buhl, Stott, and Broderick. One Woodward Avenue, which rises 430 feet (131 m), was the tallest building constructed in the city during the 1960s. Detroit is the site of eight skyscrapers at least 492 feet (150 m) in height and twenty-seven at least 327 feet (100 m) in height.[5] Overall, the skyline of Detroit is ranked (based upon existing and under construction buildings over 492 feet (150 m)) third in the Midwestern United States (after Chicago and Minneapolis) and sixteenth in the United States, after New York City, Chicago, Miami, Houston, Los Angeles, Dallas, Atlanta, San Francisco, Boston, Las Vegas, Seattle, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Jersey City, and Minneapolis.[B]

The most recently constructed skyscrapers in the city are One Detroit Center, completed in 1993, and the Greektown Casino Hotel, completed in 2009. The latter rises 348 feet (106 m) and contains 30 floors.[6] The city has received many significant restoration projects, which include the 29 story Westin Book Cadillac Hotel; originally built in 1924 and restored in 2008, it rises 349 feet (106 m).[7]

Tallest buildings[edit]

This list ranks Detroit skyscrapers that stand at least 300 feet (91 m) tall, based on standard height measurement. This includes spires and architectural details but does not include antenna masts. An equal sign (=) following a rank indicates the same height between two or more buildings. The "Year" column indicates the year a building was completed.

Rank Name Image Height
feet / m
Floors Year Notes
01.01 Detroit Marriott at the Renaissance Center GM HQ.jpg 727 / 222 73[A] 1977 Tallest building in the city and the state since 1977, 97th-tallest building in the United States. Tallest all-hotel building in the world upon completion; now stands as the tallest hotel in the Western Hemisphere. Major renovation completed in 2004.[1][8] The entire complex is owned by General Motors.
02.02 One Detroit Center ComericaTowerand1stnationaldetroit.jpg 619 / 189 43 1993 Tallest building completed in Detroit in the 1990s.[2][9] Former headquarters of Comerica Bank.
03.03 Penobscot Building PenobscotBldgDetroitsunsetting.jpg 565 / 172 47 1928 When completed in 1928, the Penobscot was the world's eighth tallest building. It was the city's tallest from 1928 to 1977.[10][11] The Penobscot stands at the center of the Detroit Financial District.
04.04= RenCen Tower 100 Ren Cen view from the Riverfront.jpg 522 / 159 39 1977 [12][13]
04.04= RenCen Tower 200 522 / 159 39 1977 [14][15]
04.04= RenCen Tower 300 522 / 159 39 1977 [16][17]
04.04= RenCen Tower 400 522 / 159 39 1977 [18][19]
08.08 Guardian Building Guardianbuilding.jpg 495 / 151 40 1929 [20][21]
09.09 Book Tower Book Tower 2010.jpg 475 / 145 38 1926 In January 2010, developer Key Investment Group reported that it plans a major renovation of the Book Tower.[22][23][24][25]
10.010 150 West Jefferson 150wjeff.jpg 456 / 139 26 1989 Tallest building completed in Detroit in the 1980s. Also known as the Madden Building.[26][27]
11.011 Fisher Building Fisher Building Detroit crop.jpg 444 / 135 30 1928 [28][29]
12.012 Cadillac Tower BarlumTowerDetroit.jpg 438 / 133 40 1927 [30][31]
13.013 David Stott Building DavidStottBuilding.jpg 437 / 133 37 1929 [32][33]
14.014 One Woodward Avenue OneWoodwardAvenue.JPG 430 / 131 28 1963 Tallest building completed in the city in the 1960s.[34][35]
15.015 Patrick V. McNamara Federal Building Patrick V. McNamara Federal Building.jpg 393 / 120 27 1976 [36][37]
16.016 DTE Energy Headquarters DTE-Headquarters-Campus-Improvements-Rear.jpg 375 / 114 25 1971 [38][39]
17.017 David Broderick Tower Biking-on-woodward-avenue.jpg 369 / 113 35 1928 Fully renovated in 2012 as a mixed- use residential building. The project created residential units on floors 5-34, with the lower 4 floors dedicated to retail, entertainment, and office space. Originally known as the Eaton Tower.[40][41]
18.018 211 West Fort Street 211 Fort Street, detroit.jpg 368 / 112 27 1963 [42][43]
19.019 Buhl Building BuhlBuildingDetroitfromWoodward.jpg 366 / 112 29 1925 [44][45]
20.020 Westin Book Cadillac Hotel WestinBookCadillac.jpg 349 / 106 29 1924 Tallest hotel in the world upon completion in 1924 and restored in 2008.[7][46]
2121 Greektown Casino Hotel Greektownnew2.jpg 348 / 106 30 2009 [6][47]
22.022 First National Building 1stNationalBldgingdetroit.jpg 341 / 104 26 1930 Tallest building completed in Detroit in the 1930s.[48][49]
23.023= RenCen Tower 500 Ren Cen Towers 500 and 600.jpg 339 / 103 21 1981 [50][51]
24.023= RenCen Tower 600 339 / 103 21 1981 [52][53]
25.025 1001 Woodward 1001WoodwardfromCampusMartuis.jpg 338 / 103 23 1965 [54][55]
26.026 Millender Center Apartments Courtyard by Marriott - Downtown Detroit.jpg 332 / 101 33 1985 [56][57]
27.027 AT&T Building Addition At and t addition Detroit.jpg 327 / 100 17 1974 [58][59]
28.028 Chrysler House DimeBuildingDetroit.jpg 324 / 99 23 1912 [60][61]
29.029 Jeffersonian Apartments DetroitJeffersonianapts.jpg 322 / 98 30 1965 [62][63]
30.030 AT&T Building AT&TbuildingDetroit.jpg 319 / 97 19 1927 [64][65]
31.031= Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Building BlueCrossBuildingonLafayetteDetroit.jpg 318 / 97 22 1971 [66][67]
32.031= Coleman A. Young Municipal Center CAYMC.jpg 318 / 97 20 1954 Tallest building completed in the city in the 1950s.[68][69]
33.033 Penobscot Building Annex 310 / 95 23 1913 [70][71]
34.034= 1300 Lafayette East Cooperative 1300 Lafayette East Cooperative.jpg 305 / 93 29 1961 [72][73]
35.034= Riverfront Tower 300 RiverfrontApartmentsDetroitIthruIII.jpg 305 / 93 29 1983 [74][75]
36.034= Riverfront Tower 200 305 / 93 29 1983 [76][77]

Tallest buildings by pinnacle height[edit]

This list ranks Detroit skyscrapers based on their pinnacle height, which includes radio masts and antennas. As architectural features and spires can be regarded as subjective, some skyscraper enthusiasts prefer this method of measurement. Standard architectural height measurement, which excludes antennas in building height, is included for comparative purposes.

The Renaissance Center in Downtown Detroit
Rank Name Pinnacle height
feet / m
Standard height
feet / m
Reference
1 Detroit Marriott at the Renaissance Center 755 / 230 727 / 222 [8]
2 Penobscot Building 664 / 202 565 / 172 [11]
3 Guardian Building 632 / 193 495 / 151 [21]
4 One Detroit Center 619 / 189 619 / 189 [9]
5 Cadillac Tower 578 / 176 438 / 133 [31]
6= Renaissance Center Tower 100 522 / 159 522 / 159 [13]
6= Renaissance Center Tower 200 522 / 159 522 / 159 [15]
6= Renaissance Center Tower 300 522 / 159 522 / 159 [17]
6= Renaissance Center Tower 400 522 / 159 522 / 159 [19]
10 Fisher Building 489 / 135 444 / 135 [29]

Timeline of tallest buildings[edit]

This lists buildings that once held the title of tallest building in Detroit. For most of Detroit's earlier years, the tallest buildings in the city were churches and government buildings with their steeples. The first skyscraper in the city is usually considered the Hammond Building, completed in 1889.[3] However, since the 10-story building did not surpass the steeple of the Fort Street Presbyterian Church, it never became a city record holder. The first skyscraper to have the distinction of being Detroit's tallest building was the Ford Building, completed in 1909.[78]

The Penobscot Building, the city's third tallest, rises above the Detroit Financial District.
Name Street address Years as tallest Height
feet / m
Floors Reference
First Michigan State Capitol[C] Capitol Park 1828–1866 140 / 43 2 [79]
Most Holy Trinity Church 1050 Porter Street 1866–1871 170 / 52 1 [80]
Former Detroit City Hall[D][E] Campus Martius Park 1871–1877 200 / 61 4 [81]
St. Joseph Church[E] 1828 Jay Street 1873–1877 200 / 61 1 [82]
Fort Street Presbyterian Church 631 West Fort Street 1877–1909 265 / 81 1 [83]
Ford Building 615 Griswold Street 1909–1913 275 / 84 19 [78]
Penobscot Building Annex 144 West Congress Street 1913 310 / 95 23 [71]
Chrysler House 719 Griswold Street 1913–1924 324 / 99 23 [61]
Book Cadillac Hotel[F] 220 Michigan Avenue 1924–1925 349 / 106 29 [7]
Buhl Building 535 Griswold Street 1925–1926 366 / 112 29 [45]
Book Tower 1265 Washington Boulevard 1926–1928 475 / 145 38 [25]
Penobscot Building 633 Griswold Street 1928–1977 565 / 172 47 [11]
Detroit Marriott at the Renaissance Center 1 Renaissance Center Drive 1977–present 727 / 222 73[A] [8]

Tallest buildings in Detroit's suburban cities[edit]

This list ranks buildings in Detroit's suburban municipalities that stand at least 200 feet (61 m) tall, based on standard height measurement. Existing structures are included for ranking purposes based on present height.

Rank Name Image Location Height
feet / m
Floors Year Notes
1 3000 Town Center Southfield Town Center 3000.jpg Southfield 402 / 122 32 1975 The 15th tallest skyscraper in Metro Detroit.[84]
2 1000 Town Center Southfield Town Center 1000.jpg Southfield 395 / 120 28 1989 [84]
3 2000 Town Center Southfield Town Center 2000.jpg Southfield 370 / 113 28 1986 [84]
4 Top of Troy Building Topoftroy2007.JPG Troy 346 / 106 25 1974
5 American Center AmericanCenter2.jpg Southfield 331 / 101 26 1975 [84]
6 5000 Town Center Southfield Town Center 5000.jpg Southfield 328 / 100 33 1983 A residential skyscraper[84]
7 4000 Town Center Southfield Town Center 4000.jpg Southfield 270 / 82 20 1979 [84]
8 Tower Plaza TowerPlaza45.JPG Ann Arbor 267 / 82 26 1969 A residential high-rise, Tower Plaza is Ann Arbor's tallest building.[85]
9 Shore Club Skytower St. Clair Shores 260 / 79 26 2006 [86]
10 Travelers Tower I Southfield 256 / 78 18 1971 [84]
11 One Towne Square One Towne Square Southfield.jpg Southfield 253 / 77 21 1992 [84]
12 Chrysler Headquarters Chrysler Headquarters Auburn Hills 20060624.jpg Auburn Hills 249 / 76 15 1996
13 St. Florian Catholic Church St Florian Catholic Church - Hamtramck Michigan.jpg Hamtramck 247 / 75 1 1928
14 Mott Foundation Building Flint 226 / 69 19 1930 [87]Tallest building in Flint.
15 Macomb County Building Mount Clemens 219 / 67 13 1944 Tallest building in Macomb County.
16= Park Lane Towers West Parklane Towers Dearborn Michigan.JPG Dearborn 213 / 65 15 1973 [88]
16= Park Lane Towers East Dearborn 213 / 65 15 1971 [88]
16= Adoba Hotel HyattRegencyDearborn1.jpg Dearborn 213 / 65 14 1976 [88]
19 Burton Memorial Tower Ann Arbor 212 / 65 10 1936 [85]
20= SBC Publishing Building Troy 207 / 63 16 1983 [89]
20= 100 North Center Troy 207 / 63 15 1983 [89]
22 University Towers University Towers facing S. Forest.JPG Ann Arbor 205 / 62 19 1960 [85]
23 Southgate Tower SouthgateTower.JPG Southgate 202 / 61 15 1973 Tallest building both in Downriver and along the Detroit-Toledo corridor not located in either city.
24 Southfield Centre Southfield 201 / 61 14 1976 [84]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

A. ^ a b c General Motors, the owner of the Detroit Marriott at the Renaissance Center, maintains that the building has 73 floors.[90] Hines Interests, the property management firm for the building, gives a floor count of 74,[91] while architect Skidmore, Owings and Merrill gives a floor count of 75.[92] Emporis and other building database sites usually give the floor count as 70,[1][93] while other sources state 73 stories.[94] This table uses the floor count of 73 as stated officially by the building's owner.
B. ^ New York has 216 existing and under construction buildings over 492 feet (150 m), Chicago has 114, Miami has 32, Houston has 31, Los Angeles has 26, Dallas has 20, San Francisco has 21, Atlanta has 19, Boston has 19, Las Vegas has 16, Seattle has 15, Philadelphia has 15, Minneapolis has 11, Pittsburgh has 10, Jersey City has 9, Detroit has 8, Denver has 7. Source of Skyline ranking information: SkyscraperPage.com diagrams: New York City, Chicago, Miami, Houston, Los Angeles, Dallas, Atlanta, San Francisco, Boston, Las Vegas, Seattle, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Jersey City, Minneapolis, Detroit, Denver.
C. ^ The capitol of Michigan was relocated to Lansing in 1847, and the original capitol building was destroyed in a fire in 1893.
D. ^ This building was destroyed in 1961.
E. ^ a b St. Joseph Church, completed in 1873, tied the height of the Detroit City Hall. The city therefore had two tallest buildings for a period of 4 years, until the Fort Street Presbyterian Church was completed in 1877.
F. ^ This building was constructed as the Book-Cadillac Hotel, but is now officially known as the Westin Book-Cadillac Hotel.

References[edit]

General
  • "Detroit". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2011-01-27. 
Specific
  1. ^ a b c d "Detroit Marriott at the Renaissance Center". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  2. ^ a b "One Detroit Center". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  3. ^ a b "Hammond Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  4. ^ The Qube. Emporis. Retrieved December 4, 2010.
  5. ^ Data Standards: skyscraper (ESN 24419), Emporis Standards, Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  6. ^ a b "Greektown Casino Hotel". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  7. ^ a b c "Westin Book-Cadillac Detroit". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  8. ^ a b c "Detroit Marriott at the Renaissance Center". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  9. ^ a b "One Detroit Center". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  10. ^ "Penobscot Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  11. ^ a b c "Penobscot Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  12. ^ "Renaissance Center 100 Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  13. ^ a b "Renaissance Center Tower 100". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  14. ^ "Renaissance Center 200 Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  15. ^ a b "Renaissance Center Tower 200". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  16. ^ "Renaissance Center 300 Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  17. ^ a b "Renaissance Center Tower 300". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  18. ^ "Renaissance Center 400 Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  19. ^ a b "Renaissance Center Tower 400". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  20. ^ "Guardian Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  21. ^ a b "Guardian Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  22. ^ Kelli B. Kavanaugh (3 November 2009). "Book Building and Tower to be brought back to life". Model D. Retrieved 2010-11-20. 
  23. ^ "New Hope for the Book Tower". Critical Detroit. 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-21. 
  24. ^ "Book Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  25. ^ a b "Book Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  26. ^ "150 West Jefferson". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  27. ^ "150 West Jefferson". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  28. ^ "Fisher Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  29. ^ a b "Fisher Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  30. ^ "Cadillac Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  31. ^ a b "Cadillac Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  32. ^ "David Stott Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  33. ^ "David Stott Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  34. ^ "One Woodward Avenue". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  35. ^ "One Woodward Avenue". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  36. ^ "McNamara Federal Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  37. ^ "McNamara Federal Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  38. ^ "DTE Energy Plaza". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  39. ^ "DTE Energy Plaza Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  40. ^ "Broderick Tower Lofts". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  41. ^ "David Broderick Tower". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  42. ^ "211 West Fort Street". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  43. ^ "211 West Fort Street". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  44. ^ "Buhl Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  45. ^ a b "Buhl Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  46. ^ "Westin Book-Cadillac Detroit". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  47. ^ "Greektown Casino Hotel". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  48. ^ "First National Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  49. ^ "First National Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  50. ^ "Renaissance Center 500 Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  51. ^ "Renaissance Center Tower 500". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  52. ^ "Renaissance Center 600 Tower". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  53. ^ "Renaissance Center Tower 600". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  54. ^ "1001 Woodward". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  55. ^ "1001 Woodward". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  56. ^ "Millender Center Apartments". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  57. ^ "Millender Center Apartments". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  58. ^ "SBC Building Addition". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  59. ^ "SBC Addition". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  60. ^ "Dime Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  61. ^ a b "Dime Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  62. ^ "Jeffersonian Apartments". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  63. ^ "Jeffersonian Apartments". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  64. ^ "SBC Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  65. ^ "SBC Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  66. ^ "Blue Cross Blue Shield Service Center". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  67. ^ "Blue Cross/Blue Shield Service Center". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  68. ^ "Coleman A. Young Municipal Building". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  69. ^ "Coleman A. Young Municipal Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  70. ^ "Penobscot Building Annex". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  71. ^ a b "Penobscot Building Annex". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  72. ^ "1300 Lafayette Cooperative". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  73. ^ "1300 Lafayette Cooperative". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  74. ^ "Riverfront Towers - Tower 300". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  75. ^ "Riverfront Towers - Tower 300". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  76. ^ "Riverfront Towers- Tower 200". Emporis.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  77. ^ "Riverfront Towers - Tower 200". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  78. ^ a b "Ford Building". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  79. ^ "Michigan State Capitol". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  80. ^ "Most Holy Trinity Catholic Church". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  81. ^ "Detroit City Hall". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  82. ^ "St. Joseph Church". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  83. ^ "Fort Street Presbyterian Church". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  84. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Southfield". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-02-09. 
  85. ^ a b c "Ann Arbor". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-02-09. 
  86. ^ "St. Clair Shores". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-02-09. 
  87. ^ "Flint". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-02-09. 
  88. ^ a b c "Dearborn". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2010-08-05. 
  89. ^ a b "Troy". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2008-02-09. 
  90. ^ "About GM Renaissance Center". General Motors. Retrieved 2009-08-21. 
  91. ^ "GM Renaissance Center". Hines Interests Limited Partnership. Retrieved 2009-08-21. 
  92. ^ "General Motors Renaissance Center - Interiors". Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. Retrieved 2009-08-21. 
  93. ^ "Detroit Marriott at the Renaissance Center". Structurae. Nicolas Janberg ICS. Retrieved 2009-08-21. 
  94. ^ Meyer, Katherine Mattingly and Martin C.P. McElroy with Introduction by W. Hawkins Ferry, Hon A.I.A. (1980). Detroit Architecture A.I.A. Guide Revised Edition. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1651-4. 

External links[edit]