List of tallest mountains in the Solar System

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Following are the tallest known mountains on various worlds of the Solar System; in some cases, the tallest peaks of different classes on a world are also listed. At 21.9 km, the enormous shield volcano Olympus Mons on Mars is the tallest mountain on any planet. For 40 years following its discovery in 1971, it was the tallest mountain known in the Solar System. However, in 2011 the central peak of the crater Rheasilvia on the asteroid and protoplanet Vesta was found to be of comparable height.[a]

Olympus Mons on Mars, the tallest planetary mountain in the Solar System, compared to Mount Everest and Mauna Kea on Earth.

List[edit]

The heights are given as base-to-peak, because there is no non-arbitrary equivalent to height above sea level on other worlds.

World Tallest peak(s) Height Origin Notes
Mercury Caloris Montes 030≤ 3 km[1][2] impact[3] Formed by the Caloris impact
Venus Maxwell Montes 0646.4 km (4.0 mi) (approx.) [4] tectonic[5] Has radar-bright slopes due to metallic Venus snow, possibly lead sulfide[6]
Maat Mons 0494.9 km (3.0 mi) (approx.)[7] volcanic[8] Highest volcano on Venus
Earth Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa 10210.2 km (6.3 mi)[9] volcanic Just 4.2 km (2.6 mi) of this is above sea level
Pico del Teide 0757.5 km (4.7 mi)[10] volcanic Rises 3.7 km above sea level[10]
Mount McKinley 0565.3 to 5.9 km (3.3 to 3.7 mi)[11] tectonic Tallest mountain base-to-peak on land[12][b]
Mount Everest 0413.6 to 4.6 km (2.2 to 2.9 mi)[13] tectonic 4.6 km on north face, 3.6 km on south face.[c]
Moon Mons Huygens 0555.5 km (3.4 mi)[14][15] impact Formed by the Imbrium impact
Mons Hadley 0454.5 km (2.8 mi)[14][15] impact Formed by the Imbrium impact
Mons Rümker 0111.1 km (0.68 mi)[16] volcanic Largest volcanic construct on the moon[16]
Mars Olympus Mons 219 21.9 km (14 mi)[17][18] volcanic Rises 26 km above northern plains,[19] 1000 km away.
Ascraeus Mons 14914.9 km (9.3 mi)[17] volcanic Tallest of the three Tharsis Montes
Elysium Mons 12612.6 km (7.8 mi)[17] volcanic Highest volcano in Elysium
Arsia Mons 117 11.7 km (7.3 mi)[17] volcanic Summit caldera is 108 to 138 km (67 to 86 mi) across[17]
Pavonis Mons 084 8.4 km (5.2 mi)[17] volcanic Summit caldera is 4.8 km (3.0 mi) deep[17]
Anseris Mons 062 6.2 km (3.9 mi)[20] impact Among the highest nonvolcanic peaks on Mars, formed by the Hellas impact
Aeolis Mons ("Mount Sharp") 050 4.5 to 5.5 km (2.8 to 3.4 mi)[21][d] depositional[e] Formed from deposits in Gale crater; to be ascended by the MSL rover[25]
Vesta Rheasilvia central peak 23022 km (14 mi)[26][27] impact See also List of largest craters in the Solar System
Io Boösaule Montes "South"[28] 17817.5 to 18.2 km (10.9 to 11.3 mi)[29] tectonic Has a 15 km (9 mi) high scarp on its SE margin[30]
Ionian Mons east ridge 12712.7 km (7.9 mi) (approx.)[30][31] tectonic Has the form of a curved double ridge
Euboea Montes 11810.3 to 13.4 km (6.4 to 8.3 mi)[32] tectonic A NW flank landslide left a 25,000 km3 debris apron[33][f]
unnamed (245° W, 30° S) 0202.5 km (1.6 mi) (approx.)[34][35] volcanic One of the tallest of Io's many volcanoes, with an atypical conical form[35][g]
Mimas Herschel central peak 0707 km (4 mi) (approx.)[37] impact See also List of largest craters in the Solar System
Dione Janiculum Dorsa 0202 km (1 mi) tectonic surrounding crust depressed ca. 0.5 km.
Titan Mithrim Montes 0202.0 km (1.2 mi)[38] tectonic (?) May have formed due to global contraction[38]
Doom Mons 01451.45 km (0.90 mi)[39] cryovolcanic (?) Adjacent to Sotra Patera, a 1.7 km (1.1 mi) deep collapse feature[39]
Iapetus equatorial ridge 20020 km (12 mi) (approx.)[40] uncertain[h] Individual peaks have not been measured
Oberon unnamed ("limb mountain") 11011 km (7 mi) (approx.)[37] impact (?) A value of 6 km was given shortly after the Voyager 2 encounter[44]

Gallery[edit]

The following images are shown in order of decreasing base-to-peak height.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Olympus Mons, however, is a much broader peak; its diameter exceeds that of Vesta itself.
  2. ^ On p. 20 of Helman (2005): "the base to peak rise of Mount McKinley is the largest of any mountain that lies entirely above sea level, some 18000 feet"
  3. ^ Peak is 8.8 km (5.5 mi) above sea level, and over 13 km (8.1 mi) above the oceanic abyssal plain.
  4. ^ About 5.25 km high from the perspective of the landing site of Curiosity.[22]
  5. ^ A crater central peak may sit below the mound of sediment. If that sediment was deposited while the crater was flooded, the crater may have once been entirely filled before erosional processes gained the upper hand.[21] However, if the deposition was due to katabatic winds, as suggested by reported 3 degree radial slopes of the mound's layers, the role of erosion would have been to place an upper limit on the mound's growth.[23][24]
  6. ^ Among the Solar System's largest[33]
  7. ^ Some of Io's paterae are surrounded by radial patterns of lava flows, indicating they are on a topographic high point, making them shield volcanoes. Most of these volcanoes exhibit relief of less than 1 km. A few have more relief; Ruwa Patera rises 2.5 to 3 km over its 300 km width. However, its slopes are only on the order of a degree.[36] A handful of Io's smaller shield volcanoes have steeper, conical profiles; the example listed is 60 km across and has slopes averaging 4° and reaching 6-7° approaching the small summit depression.[36]
  8. ^ Hypotheses of origin include crustal readjustment associated with a decrease in oblateness due to tidal locking,[41][42] and deposition of deorbiting material from a former ring around the moon.[43]
  9. ^ A linearized wide-angle hazcam image that makes the mountain look steeper than it actually is. The highest peak is not visible in this view.

References[edit]

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External links[edit]