List of terms used in bird topography

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The following is a list of terms used in bird topography:

Plumage features[edit]

External anatomy (topography) of a typical bird: 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Feet, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast, 21 Throat, 22 Wattle, 23 Eyestripe
Topography of a typical passerine.

Bare-parts features[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Garrigues, Richard and Dean, Robert (2007). Birds of Costa Rica. Zona Tropical Publication. ISBN 978-0-8014-4587-3. 
  2. ^ Zimmerman, Dale A., Turner, Donald A., and Pearson, David J.; Illustrated by Zimmerman, Dale A., Willis, Ian and Pratt, H. Douglas (1999). Birds of Kenya and Northern Tanzania. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01022-6. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Dunn, Jon L. and Alderfer, Jonathan (2006). National Geographic Guide to the Birds of North America. National Geographic Society. ISBN 1-4262-0072-2.