The following is a list of non-state terrorist incidents that have not been carried out by a government or its forces (see state terrorism and state-sponsored terrorism). Assassinations are listed at List of assassinated people.
Definitions of non-state terrorism vary, so incidents listed here are restricted to those that:
- Are not approved by the legitimate authority of a recognized state
- Are perpetrated against non-combatant targets
- Are done to further their political, religious, or ideological objectives
- United States In 1865–1877: 3,000 Freedmen and their Republican Party allies were killed by the Ku Klux Klan and well-organized campaigns of violence by other local whites in a campaign of terrorist violence that weakened the reconstructionist governments in the American South and helped re-establish legitimized segregation.
- United States 4 May 1886: Haymarket Affair. A peaceful rally in Haymarket, Chicago, Illinois, was disrupted when a bomb was detonated as police were dispersing the public demonstration.
- United States 1892, 23 July: Alexander Berkman, a Russian expatriate, attempted to assassinate Henry Clay Frick, an American industrialist, financier, and art patron, in Pittsburgh. Berkman was arrested and Frick survived. Berkman claimed inspiration from the Haymarket Affair.
- Italy 1900, 29 July: King Umberto I of Italy was killed by the American immigrant and anarchist Gaetano Bresci.
- United States 1901, 6 September: William McKinley, the 25th President of the United States, was shot and fatally wounded at the Pan-American Exposition by Leon Czolgosz, who was inspired by the anarchist Bresci (see above) the year before.
- Morocco 1904, 18 May: Ion Perdicaris and Cromwell Varley were kidnapped and held for ransom by bandit Mulai Ahmed er Raisuli in Morocco.
- United States 1920, 16 September: Wall Street bombing killed 38 people and wounded 300 others.
- Italy 1920, 14 October: In Trieste, nationalists had thrown 6 bombs at the editorial office of a Socialist newspaper, resulting in one death and 10 injuries.
- Italy 1920, 15 October: In Milan, anarchists are responsible for throwing 2 bombs at a hotel holding a British delegation attending the Milan International Conference; there were 2 injuries.
- United States 1921, 31 May: The Tulsa race riot killed 39 people and injured over 800.
- Romania 1921, 13 December: 100 soldiers and police officers were killed by a bomb thrown by Bessarabian separatists at the Bolgrad palace.
- United States 1940–1956: George Metesky, the "Mad Bomber", placed over 30 bombs in New York City in public places such as Grand Central Station and The Paramount Theater, injuring ten during this period in protest against the local electric utility. He also sent many threatening letters.
- Mandatory Palestine 1946, July 22: The King David Hotel bombing by Zionist paramilitary group Irgun killed 91 and injured 46 non-fatally.
- Romania 1947, 25 July: Three Romanian terrorists kill an aircrew member aboard a Romanian airline. This is attributed as the first hijacking that resulted in a fatality.
- Philippines 1949, 7 May: 13 people are killed as a Philippine airliner explodes in flight travelling from Daet to Manila. A time bomb had detonated 30 minutes after departure near Alabat Island.
- Israel 1954, 17 March: an Israeli civilian passenger bus was attacked by unknown assailants at the Scorpions Pass in the Negev, resulting in the deaths of eleven passengers.
- Cyprus 1956, 16 June: The United States vice consul was killed and six other consulate staff were injured when a terrorist threw 2 bombs in a restaurant in Nicosia.
- Lebanon 1958, 15 August: Three people were killed in a bomb blast in Beirut. The bombing also injured ten more at a grocery store near the Lebanese Parliament.
- Cuba 1960, 5 March: The French freighter La Coubre explodes, killing between 75 and 100 people with 200 injured. The government suspects sabotage.
- Israel 1968, 4 September: Three bombs were detonated in Tel Aviv, killing 1 person and injuring 51 people.
- ^ Jonathan M. Bryant: Ku Klux Klan in the Reconstruction Era, The New Georgia Encyclopedia, 3 October 2002
- ^ Fettman, Eric (20 January 2008). "The Bloody Shirt Terror After Appomattox by Stephen Budiansky Viking Press". New York Post. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- ^ "1904: Teddy's Big Stick". Capitalcentury.com. 18 May 1904. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- ^ "History News Service". H-net.org. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- ^ a b "BOMB WARFARE RAGING IN ITALY". The New York Times. 15 October 1920. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- ^ Austin Sarat (1 January 2009). When Law Fails: Making Sense of Miscarriages of Justice. NYU Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8147-6225-7. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- ^ "PALACE BOMBED, 100 KILLED; Bessarabian Conspirators Accused of Outrage at Bolgard.". The New York Times. 14 December 1921. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- ^ "Mad Bomber,' Now 70, Goes Free Today; Mad Bomber,' Now 70, Goes Free Today 37 Blasts Set Initials 'F.P.' Explained Institute Assailed". The New York Times. 13 December 1973. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- ^ Clarke, Thurston. By Blood and Fire, G. P. Puttnam's Sons, New York, 1981
- ^ John S. Pistole (3 March 2011). "Administrator Pistole’s remarks before the American Bar Association’s 6th Annual Homeland Security Law Institute". TSA. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- ^ "Pair Admits Planting Bomb That Killed 13". The Telegraph-Herald. 3 June 1949. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
- ^ Israel's Border Wars, 1949–1956, p. 309, Benny Morris, Oxford University Press, 1997
- ^ Bigart, Homer (17 June 1956). "U.S. Vice Consul Is Killed By Cyprus Terrorist Bomb". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- ^ Brewers, Sam Pope (16 August 1958). "TERRORIST'S BOMB KILLS 3 IN BEIRUT". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- ^ Phillips, R. Hart (5 March 1960). "75 DIE IN HAVANA AS MUNITIONS SHIP EXPLODES AT DOCK". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- ^ Feron, James (5 September 1968). "Fatal Bombing in Tel Aviv Stirs Mob Attack on Arabs". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 December 2014.