List of the creations of the cardinals

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List of the promotions of the cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Dates of the consistories are known or possible to establish only from the pontificate of Pope Gelasius II (1118–1119).[1] Information concerning the number and names of the cardinals created before this pontificate are certainly incomplete.[2] For the later period, the available data are probably complete, but, for some pontificates (particularly in the 12th century), it is impossible to establish the exact number of promotions, because in some cases there are doubts whether the promotion really took place, and in some others it is not possible to ascertain whether the records describe two separate individuals or one individual who held two cardinal titles during his lifetime.

The numbers in the list do not include the cardinals created in pectore and never published, those who declined the cardinalate and those who had died before their promotion took effect.

Until 1118[edit]

Period List Number of the known cardinals
until 7th century Article
8th century Article
9th century Article
904–985 Article 48
985–1049 Article 92
1049–1073 Article 44
1073–1099 Article
Pontificate of Paschal II (1099–1118) Article

From 1118[edit]

Pope Pontificate List Number of consistories Number of cardinals
Gelasius II 1118–1119 Article 1 1
Callixtus II 1119–1124 Article 5 23
Honorius II 1124–1130 Article 7 to 9 14
Innocent II 1130–1143 Article 26 to 30 46 to 53
Antipope Anacletus II 1130–1138 Article ? 14 to 17
Celestine II 1143–1144 Article 1 10
Lucius II 1144–1145 Article 2 11
Eugene III 1145–1153 Article 9 16
Anastasius IV 1153–1154 0 0
Adrian IV 1154–1159 Article 5 to 7 12 or 13
Alexander III 1159–1181 Article 17 to 20 35
Antipope Victor IV 1159–1164 Article ? 10 to 13
Antipope Paschal III 1164–1168 Article ? 9
Antipope Callixtus III 1168–1178 Article ? 7
Lucius III 1181–1185 Article 4 15
Urban III 1185–1187 0 0
Gregory VIII 1187 0 0
Clement III 1187–1191 Article 6 24 to 26
Celestine III 1191–1198 Article 1 5
Innocent III 1198–1216 Article 9 or 10 30 to 32
Honorius III 1216–1227 Article 5 6
Gregory IX 1227–1241 Article 4 10
Celestine IV 1241 0 0
Innocent IV 1243–1254 Article 2 or 3 15 or 16
Alexander IV 1254–1261 Article 0 or 1 0 or 1
Urban IV 1261–1264 Article 2 14
Clement IV 1265–1268 0 0
Gregory X 1271–1276 Article 1 5
Innocent V 1276 0 0
Adrian V 1276 0 0
John XXI 1276–1277 0 0
Nicholas III 1277–1280 Article 1 9
Martin IV 1281–1285 Article 1 7
Honorius IV 1285–1287 Article 1 1
Nicholas IV 1288–1292 Article 1 6
Celestine V 1294 Article 2 13
Boniface VIII 1294–1303 Article 5 15
Benedict XI 1303–1304 Article 2 2
Clement V 1305–1314 Article 3 24
John XXII 1316–1334 Article 6 28
Antipope Nicholas V 1328–1330 Article 4 9
Benedict XII 1334–1342 Article 1 6
Clement VI 1342–1352 Article 4 25
Innocent VI 1352–1362 Article 3 15
Urban V 1362–1370 Article 4 13
Gregory XI 1370–1378 Article 2 21
Urban VI 1378–1389 Article 4 42
Antipope Clement VII 1378–1394 Article 11 33
Boniface IX 1389–1404 Article 2 6
Antipope Benedict XIII 1394–1422 Article 7 19
Innocent VII 1404–1406 Article 1 11
Gregory XII 1406–1415 Article 2 12
Antipope Alexander V 1409–1410 Article 4 15
Antipope John XXIII 1410–1415 Article 4 15
Martin V 1417–1431 Article 4 17
Eugene IV 1431–1447 Article 6 27
Antipope Felix V 1439–1449 Article 4 14
Nicholas V 1447–1455 Article 3 (or 4)[3] 8 (or 11)[3]
Callixtus III 1455–1458 Article 2 9
Pius II 1458–1464 Article 2 12
Paul II 1464–1471 Article 2 10
Sixtus IV 1471–1484 Article 8 34
Innocent VIII 1484–1492 Article 1 8
Alexander VI 1492–1503 Article 9 43
Pius III 1503 0 0
Julius II 1503–1513 Article 6 27
Leo X 1513–1521 Article 8 42
Adrian VI 1523 Article 1 1
Clement VII 1523–1534 Article 14 33
Paul III 1534–1549 Article 12 71
Julius III 1550–1555 Article 4 20
Marcellus II 1555 0 0
Paul IV 1555–1559 Article 3 17
Pius IV 1560–1565 Article 4 46
Pius V 1566–1572 Article 3 21
Gregory XIII 1572–1585 Article 9 34
Sixtus V 1585–1590 Article 8 33
Urban VII 1590 0 0
Gregory XIV 1590–1591 Article 2 5
Innocent IX 1591 Article 1 2
Clement VIII 1592–1605 Article 6 53
Leo XI 1605 0 0
Paul V 1605–1621 Article 10 60
Gregory XV 1621–1623 Article 4 11
Urban VIII 1623–1644 Article 8 74
Innocent X 1644–1655 Article 8 40
Alexander VII 1655–1667 Article 6 38
Clement IX 1667–1669 Article 3 12
Clement X 1670–1676 Article 6 20
Innocent XI 1676–1689 Article 2 43
Alexander VIII 1689–1691 Article 3 14
Innocent XII 1691–1700 Article 4 30
Clement XI 1700–1721 Article 15 69
Innocent XIII 1721–1724 Article 2 3
Benedict XIII 1724–1730 Article 12 29
Clement XII 1730–1740 Article 15 35
Benedict XIV 1740–1758 Article 7 64
Clement XIII 1758–1769 Article 7 52
Clement XIV 1769–1774 Article 12 17
Pius VI 1775–1799 Article 23 73
Pius VII 1800–1823 Article 19 99
Leo XII 1823–1829 Article 8 25
Pius VIII 1829–1830 Article 3 6
Gregory XVI 1831–1846 Article 24 75
Pius IX 1846–1878 Article 23 123
Leo XIII 1878–1903 Article 27 147
Pius X 1903–1914 Article 7 50
Benedict XV 1914–1922 Article 5 32
Pius XI 1922–1939 Article 17 76
Pius XII 1939–1958 Article 2 56
John XXIII 1958–1963 Article 5 52
Paul VI 1963–1978 Article 6 143
John Paul I 1978 0 0
John Paul II 1978–2005 Article 9 231
Benedict XVI 2005–2013 Article 5 90
Francis 2013– Article 1 19

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cfr. Hüls, p. 84-87
  2. ^ Cfr. Klewitz, p. 99.
  3. ^ a b Number depends on whether to consider as proper promotions the recognition of three promotions made by Antipope Felix V.

Bibliography[edit]