List of the most common surnames in Europe

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This is a list of the most common surnames in Europe, sorted by country.

Notably absent from the list is Iceland, whose people do not use surnames in the conventional sense. See Icelandic names.

Albania[edit]

See also: Albanian name
2005[citation needed]
Surname Meaning
Hoxha Imam
Bogdani God gave
Dukagjini Noble family
Dushku Type of tree
Dervishi Poor, faqir
Gurakuqi
Gjoni (Gjonaj) Noble family
Frashëri
Leka Short for Alexander
Loshi (Loshaj)
Prifti Priest

Armenia[edit]

Rank Name Romanization Meaning
1 Հովհաննիսյան Hovhannisyan Son of Hovhannes (John)
2 Հարությունյան Harutyunyan Son of Harutyun ("resurrection")
3 Սարգսյան Sargsyan Son of Sargis
4 Խաչատրյան Khachatryan Son of Khachatur ("given by cross")
5 Գրիգորյան Grigoryan Son of Grigor (Gregory)

Austria[edit]

The forty most common surnames in Austria as published in 2006 are shown below beside the approximate percentage of the Austrian population sharing each surname.[1]

Rank Name Meaning Approximate percentage
1 Gruber occupational name: miner 0.3991
2 Huber occupational name: land-owning farmer 0.3873
3 Bauer occupational name: farmer 0.3373
4 Wagner occupational name: wainwright 0.3100
5 Müller occupational name: miller 0.3012
6 Pichler 0.2753
7 Steiner stone 0.2713
8 Moser moss 0.2674
9 Mayer occupational name: approximately farmer 0.2653
10 Hofer 0.2479
11 Leitner 0.2429
12 Berger mountaineer 0.2383
13 Fuchs fox 0.2250
14 Eder 0.2144
15 Fischer occupational name: fisher 0.2141
16 Schmid occupational name: blacksmith 0.2115
17 Winkler occupational name: owner of a small shop 0.2015
18 Weber occupational name: weaver 0.1995
19 Schwarz black 0.1961
20 Maier occupational name: approximately farmer 0.1946
21 Schneider occupational name: tailor 0.1915
22 Reiter occupational name: rider 0.1790
23 Mayr occupational name: approximately farmer 0.1751
24 Schmidt occupational name: blacksmith 0.1740
25 Wimmer 0.1628
26 Egger occupational name: ploughman 0.1610
27 Brunner water well 0.1602
28 Lang long 0.1599
29 Baumgartner tree gardener 0.1586
30 Auer 0.1555
31 Binder occupational name cooper 0.1458
32 Lechner 0.1435
33 Wolf wolf 0.1395
34 Wallner 0.1394
35 Aigner allodial title 0.1386
36 Ebner 0.1342
37 Koller 0.1301
38 Lehner a function in feudalism 0.1268
39 Haas 0.1261
40 Schuster occupational name: shoemaker 0.1168

Azerbaijan[edit]

Rank[2] Name Romanization Meaning
1 Məmmədov Mammadov "Son of Mammad"
2 Əliyev Aliyev "Son of Ali"
3 Həsənov Hasanov "Son of Hasan"
4 Hüseynov Huseynov "Son of Hüseyn"
5 Quliyev Guliyev "Son of Qulu"
6 Hacıyev Hajiyev "Son of Haji"
7 Rəsulov Rasulov "Son of Rasul"
8 Süleymanov Suleymanov "Son of Suleyman"
9 Musayev Musayev "Son of Musa"
10 Abbasov Abbasov "Son of Abbas"
11 Babayev Babayev "Son of Baba"
12 Vəliyev Valiyev "Son of Vali"
13 Orucov Orujov "Son of Oruc" Oruc also means "feasting"
14 İsmayılov Ismayilov "Son of Ismayil"
15 Ibrahimov Ibrahimov "Son of Ibrahim"

Belarus[edit]

Statistics available for Belarusian capital Minsk only:[3]

Rank Surname Population
1 Ivanoŭ 7,000
2 Kazloŭ 4,700
3 Kavalioŭ 4,300
4 Kazloŭski 3,900
5 Novik 3,300

Belgium[edit]

Belgium is a European nation composed of three main regions: Flemish Region (Flanders), Walloon Region (Wallonia), and Brussels-Capital Region. The Flemish region has a Dutch language tradition, while the Walloon region has a French language tradition. These different linguistic backgrounds are reflected in differing frequencies of surnames, as shown in the table below. (Data from 1 January 2008; total population: 10,666,866)[4][5]

National Rank Name Number of people Rank (Flanders) Rank (Wallonia) Rank (Brussels)
1 Peeters 32,657 1 67 2
2 Janssens 30,296 2 56 1
3 Maes 25,524 3 63 8
4 Jacobs 19,999 4 97 4
5 Mertens 18,518 6 72 5
6 Willems 18,498 5 68 17
7 Claes 16,553 7 43
8 Goossens 15,883 9 15
9 Wouters 15,732 8 35
10 De Smet 14,259 10 25
13 Dubois 12,975 1 3
17 Lambert 11,802 2 11
21 Dupont 10,369 4 12
31 Martin 9,008 3 10
37 Simon 7,774 5 13

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Bosniak origin[edit]

Serbian origin[edit]

The following names are the most common names for Serbs from Bosnia.[6]

  • Kovačević
  • Subotić
  • Savić
  • Popović
  • Jovanović
  • Petrović
  • Đurić
  • Babić
  • Lukić
  • Knežević
  • Marković
  • Ilić
  • Đukić
  • Vuković
  • Simić
  • Radić
  • Nikolić
  • Marić
  • Mitrović
  • Tomić
  • Božić
  • Golubović

Bulgaria[edit]

See also: Bulgarian name

Feminized names included (m. Dimitrov - f. Dimitrova).

  • Dimitrov
  • Dzhurov
  • Petrov
  • Ivanov
  • Stoyanov
  • Stefanov
  • Boyanov
  • Trifonov
  • Sofiyanski
  • Tasev
  • Metodiev
  • Katzarov
  • Iliev
  • Gospodinov
  • Apostolov
  • Hristov
  • Hasanov
  • Nikolov
  • Bojidarov
  • Stoichkov
  • Lechkov
  • Yanev
  • Yankov
  • Stoev
  • Konstantinov
  • Grigorov
  • Gruev
  • Georgiev
  • Kremenliev
  • Mihaylov
  • Blagoev

Croatia[edit]

Croatia
2008[7] / 2011[8][9] Surname Surname derivation[10]
Rank Frequency
1 21,618 Horvat ethnic name for a Croat
2 15,160 Kovačević patronymic, from kovač "blacksmith"
3 12,840 Babić matronymic, or nickname, from baba "(old) woman", "grandmother"
4 11,555 Marić patronymic, from Maro - short form of Mavro "Maurice" or Marko "Marcus"
5 11,163 Jurić patronymic, from Jure or Juro - regional variants of Juraj "George"
6 10,794 Novak 1. a newcomer, from novy "new"; 2. topographic name, for peasant who settled on newly cleared land
7 10,546 Kovačić patronymic, from kovač "blacksmith"
8 10,334 Knežević from knez "prince" or "duke"
9 10,191 Vuković patronymic, from Vuk - ancient Slavic name meaning "wolf"
10 9,854 Marković patronymic, from Marko "Marcus"
11 9,614 Petrović patronymic, from Petar and Peter
12 9,960 Matić patronymic, possibly from Matija or Matej "Matthew"; or possibly from Mate or Mato
13 9,464 Tomić patronymic, from Tomo or Toma (short forms of Tomislav)
14 8,601 Pavlović patronymic, from Pavao, Pavle, and Pavel "Paul"
15 8,542 Kovač occupational name, from kovač "blacksmith"
16 8,258 Božić patronymic, from Božo (from Bože meaning God)
17 8,152 Blažević patronymic, from Blaž lat. Blasius "Blaise"
18 8,010 Grgić patronymic, from Grga or Grgo - regional variants of Grgur "Gregory"
19 7,538 Pavić patronymic, from Pavo - short or regional variant of Pavao "Paul"
20 7,406 Radić patronymic, from Rade (meaning happy)
21 7,351 Perić patronymic, from Pero (Peter)
22 7,321 Filipović patronymic, from Filip
23 7,184 Šarić
24 7,131 Lovrić patronymic, from Lovro (Lawrence)
25 6,986 Vidović patronymic, from Vid (Vitus)
26 6,903 Perković patronymic, from Pero or Perko
27 6,797 Popović patronymic, from Pop (priest)
28 6,760 Bošnjak ethnic name for a Bosniak
29 6,653 Jukić
30 6,417 Barišić patronymic, from Bariša

Czech Republic[edit]

Feminized names are included (m. Novák/f. Nováková). Figures are from 2009 and provided by Czech Ministry of the Interior.

Statistic of the Czech Republic surnames[11][12][13]
Rank Name Meaning Number of males Number of females
1 Novák/Nováková new man/woman 34,168 35,558
2 Svoboda/Svobodová freeholder 25,292 26,569
3 Novotný/Novotná newman 24,320 25,328
4 Dvořák/Dvořáková grange owner 22,299 23,445
5 Černý/Černá black man/woman 17,813 18,504
6 Procházka/Procházková walker 16,074 16,817
7 Kučera/Kučerová curly man/woman 15,187 15,689
8 Veselý/Veselá cheerful, merry man/woman 12,882 13,494
9 Horák/Horáková highlander 12,165 12,796
10 Němec/Němcová German 11,192 11,563

Denmark[edit]

2011 Rank[14] # Surname
1 271,607 Jensen
2 269,921 Nielsen
3 226,040 Hansen
4 170,061 Pedersen
5 163,554 Andersen
6 123,157 Christensen
7 120,451 Larsen
8 115,251 Sørensen
9 97,811 Rasmussen
10 91,521 Jørgensen
2011 Rank # Surname
11 83,266 Petersen
12 66,150 Madsen
13 61,957 Kristensen
14 49,950 Olsen
15 39,662 Thomsen
16 37,974 Christiansen
17 32,797 Poulsen
18 31,897 Johansen
19 30,438 Møller
20 30,203 Knudsen

Estonia[edit]

Data from 2008.[15]

Names of Estonian origin:

Rank # Surname Meaning
1 5,241 Tamm oak
2 4,352 Saar island/ash (tree)
3 3,624 Sepp smith
4 3,613 Mägi hill, mountain
5 2,847 Kask birch
6 2,728 Kukk rooster
7 2,265 Rebane fox
8 2,165 Ilves lynx
9 1,933 Pärn linden tree
10 1,882 Koppel paddock

Names of Russian origin:

Rank # Surname
1 6,789 Ivanov
2 3,402 Smirnov
3 3,153 Vassiljev
4 2,932 Petrov
5 2,339 Kuznetsov
6 1,968 Mihhailov
7 1,927 Pavlov
8 1,909 Semjonov
9 1,862 Andrejev
10 1,845 Aleksejev

Faroe Islands[edit]

The 20 most common surnames in the Faroe Islands as published in 2009 are shown below beside the number of people of the Faroese population sharing each surname.[16]

Rank Name Number of individuals
1 Joensen 2,512
2 Hansen 2,339
3 Jacobsen 2,169
4 Olsen 1,784
5 Poulsen 1,400
6 Petersen 1,312
7 Johannesen 1,091
8 Thomsen 722
9 Nielsen 682
10 Johansen 584
Rank Name Number of individuals
11 Rasmussen 565
12 Simonsen 543
13 Djurhuus 528
14 Jensen 523
15 Danielsen 518
16 Mortensen 488
17 Mikkelsen 457
18 Dam 433
19 Højgaard 429
20 Andreasen 420

Finland[edit]

Rank Surname Population Percentage[17]
1 Korhonen 23,401 0.429
2 Virtanen 23,224 0.426
3 Mäkinen 21,184 0.389
4 Nieminen 21,136 0.388
5 Mäkelä 19,572 0.359
6 Hämäläinen 19,203 0.352
7 Laine 18,791 0.345
8 Heikkinen 17,973 0.330
9 Koskinen 17,850 0.327
10 Järvinen 16,940 0.311
11 Lehtonen 16,705 0.306
12 Lehtinen 15,718 0.288
13 Saarinen 15,364 0.282
14 Salminen 15,198 0.279
15 Heinonen 15,020 0.275
16 Niemi 14,961 0.274
17 Heikkilä 14,593 0.268
18 Salonen 14,340 0.263
19 Kinnunen 14,307 0.262
20 Turunen 13,854 0.254
21 Salo 13,541 0.248
22 Laitinen 13,122 0.241
23 Tuominen 12,912 0.237
24 Rantanen 12,898 0.237
25 Karjalainen 12,858 0.236
26 Jokinen 12,606 0.231
27 Mattila 12,376 0.227
28 Savolainen 11,594 0.213
29 Lahtinen 11,528 0.211
30 Ahonen 11,245 0.206

Most of the names on this list are typical examples of surnames that were adopted when modern surnames were introduced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries In the romantic spirit, they refer to natural features: virta "river", koski "rapids", mäki "hill", järvi "lake", saari "island" — often with the suffix -nen added after the model of older, mainly eastern Finnish surnames such as Korhonen and Heikkinen. "Hämäläinen" literally means an inhabitant of Häme. Heikki is a Finnish form of the man's name Henry.

Most common Swedish surnames in Finland[edit]

Rank Surname Population Percentage[17]
1 Johansson 8,687 0.159
2 Nyman 7,568 0.139
3 Lindholm 7,407 0.136
4 Karlsson 7,084 0.130
5 Andersson 6,393 0.117

France[edit]

France[18]
Unknown year Surname
Rank #
1 235,846 Martin
2 105,132 Bernard
3 95,998 Dubois
4 95,387 Thomas
5 91,393 Robert
6 90,689 Richard
7 88,318 Petit
8 84,252 Durand
9 78,868 Leroy
10 78,177 Moreau
11 76,655 Simon
12 75,307 Laurent
13 74,564 Lefebvre
14 74,318 Michel
15 68,720 Garcia
16 61,762 David
17 59,817 Bertrand
18 59,440 Roux
19 57,351 Vincent
20 57,047 Fournier
21 56,760 Morel
22 55,642 Girard
23 55,228 André
24 53,670 Lefèvre
25 53,622 Mercier
26 53,405 Dupont
27 51,543 Lambert
28 50,999 Bonnet
29 50,612 François
30 49,762 Martinez

Almost half of those names are also male given names; this might originate from the use to give found children a first name as last name.

Georgia[edit]

Rank Name Romanization Total Number[19]
(2013)
1 ბერიძე Beridze 28,289
2 მამედოვი Mamedovi 27,662
3 კაპანაძე Kapanadze 18,966
4 ალიევი Alievi 18,687
5 გელაშვილი Gelashvili 18,128
6 მაისურაძე Maisuradze 16,175
7 გიორგაძე Giorgadze 13,994
8 ლომიძე Lomidze 12,995
9 წიკლაური Tsiklauri 12,869
10 ბოლქვაძე Bolkvadze 12,306

Germany[edit]

Rank Surname Meaning Percentage[20]
1 Müller occupational name: miller 0.95[21]
2 Schmidt occupational name: blacksmith 0.69[22]
3 Schneider occupational name: tailor 0.40
4 Fischer occupational name: fisher 0.35
5 Meyer occupational name: approximately farmer, originally estate administrator 0.33[23]
6 Weber occupational name: weaver 0.30
7 Schulz occupational name: approximately constable or mayor 0.27
8 Wagner occupational name: wainwright 0.27
9 Becker occupational name: baker 0.27
10 Hoffmann occupational name: approximately man of the court 0.26

Greece[edit]

See also: Greek name
Rank Surname
1 Papadopoulos
2 Vlahos
3 Angelopoulos
4 Nikolaidis
5 Georgiou
6 Petridis
7 Athanasiadis
8 Dimitriadis
9 Papadakis
10 Panagiotopoulos
11 Papantoniou
12 Antoniou

Hungary[edit]

Hungary[24][25]
2011 Surname Meaning Origin
Rank #
1 235,400 (2.4%) Nagy Great Hungarian
2 217,359 (2.2%) Kovács Smith (occupational name) West Slavic
3 212,987 (2.1%) Tóth Slovak/Slavic Germanic or Hungarian
4 209,549 (2.1%) Szabó Tailor (occupational name) Hungarian
5 199,573 (2%) Horváth Croat South Slavic
6 137,847 (1.4%) Varga Leatherworker (occupational name) Hungarian
7 131,435 (1.3%) Kiss Little Hungarian
8 106,942 (1.1%) Molnár Miller (occupational name) Slavic
9 91,878 (0.9%) Németh German/Germanic Slavic
10 83,188 (0.8%) Farkas Wolf Hungarian
11 80,575 (0.8%) Balogh Left-handed Hungarian
12 52,766 (0.5%) Papp Priest (occupational name) Latin
13 52,131 (0.5%) Takács Weaver (occupational name) Slavic
14 51,224 (0.5%) Juhász Shepherd (occupational name) Hungarian
15 47,151 (0.5%) Lakatos Locksmith (occupational name) Italian[26]
16 40,079 (0.4%) Mészáros Butcher (occupational name) Slavic
17 38,330 (0.4%) Oláh Vlach/Romanic Germanic
18 37,960 (0.4%) Simon Simon Hebrew
19 35,008 (0.4%) Rácz Serb/South Slavic South Slavic
20 34,496 (0.3%) Fekete Black(-haired) Hungarian

2,095,788 individuals (21% of the population) bear the most common 20 names, and 3,347,493 individuals (33.5%) bearing the top 100 names.

Ireland[edit]

See also: Irish name

The prevalence of some of these names is the result of more than one distinct Irish language names being represented by the same anglicised version.

# Surname Modern Irish Original Irish Meaning
1 Murphy Ó Murchú Ó Murchadha
Mac Murchaidh
(Descendant) Of Murchadh (a personal name meaning "Sea hound/warrior")
2 (O')Kelly Ó Ceallaigh (Descendant) Of Ceallach ("strife")
3 (O')Sullivan Ó Súilleabháin (Descendant) Of Súilleabhán ("dark-eyed one", "one-eyed" or "hawk-eyed")
4 Walsh Breathnach Breatnach "Breton", "Welshman"
5 Smith Mac Gabhann Son of a smith
6 O'Brien Ó Briain (Descendant) Of Brian
7 (O')Byrne Ó Broin (Descendant) Of Bran
8 (O')Ryan Ó Riain Ó Riain
Ó Maoilriain
Ó Ruaidhín
(Descendant) Of Rian (possibly meaning "king")
Descendant of Maoilriaghan ("bald king")
Descendant of Ruaidhín ("little red-haired one")
9 O'Connor Ó Conchobhair (Descendant) Of Conchobhar ("hound/chief assistance")
10 O'Neill Ó Néill (Descendant) Of Niall (possibly meaning "cloud", "passionate" or "champion")
11 (O')Reilly Ó Raghallaigh (Descendant) Of Raghallach
12 Doyle Ó Dubhghaill (Descendant) Of Dubhghall ("dark-haired foreigner")
13 McCarthy Mac Cárthaigh Son of Cárthach ("loving")
14 (O')Gallagher Ó Gallchóir Ó Gallchobhair (Descendant) Of Gallchobhar ("foreign assistance")
15 (O')Doherty Ó Dochartaigh (Descendant) Of Dochartach ("hurtful")
16 Kennedy Ó Cinnéide Ó Ceannéidigh (Descendant) Of Cinnéide ("ugly head")
17 Lynch Ó Loingsigh Descendant of Loingseach ("longboat")
18 Murray Ó Muireadhaigh Mac Muireadhaigh
Mac Giolla Mhuire
Descendant of Muireadhach ("chieftain")
Descendant of a servant of Mary
19 (O')Quinn Ó Cuinn/Coinne (Descendant) Of Conn ("hound/chief")
20 (O')Moore Ó Mórdha (Descendant) Of Mórdha ("majestic")

Names starting with O' and Mac/Mc were originally patronymic. Of the names above, with the exception of Smith and Walsh, all originally began with O' or Mac/Mc but many have lost this prefix over time. Mac/Mc, meaning Son, and Ó, meaning From, are used by sons born into the family. In the case of a daughter being born into the family she would use Ní/Nic, for example Ó Muireadhaigh becomes Ní Mhuireadhaigh. A woman who marries into the family and takes her husband's name uses Uí/Mic- e.g. Uí Mhuireadhaigh. Source: The Top 500 Irish & British Surnames, The Observer, 15 April 2007.[27]

Italy[edit]

See also: Italian name

"L'Italia dei Cognomi" (in Italian). www.gens.labo.net. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 

Rank Name Meaning
1 Rossi Red-haired (Central and Northern Italy)
2 Russo Red-haired (Southern Italy)
3 Ferrari Smith
4 Esposito Exposed (abandoned by parents)
5 Bianchi White, fair-skinned or white-haired (plural)
6 Romano Roman, from Rome
7 Colombo Dove, used in reference to orphans
8 Ricci Curly (Northern Italy)
9 Marino Sailor, Seaman
10 Greco Greek
11 Bruno Brown haired
12 Gallo Literally "rooster", probably from the medieval name Gallo
13 Conti Count, nobleman (plural)
14 De Luca (Son of) Luke
15 Costa Literally "coast", inhabitant of the coast
16 Giordano Jordan, from the Latin cognomen Iordanus
17 Mancini Left-handed (plural)
18 Rizzo Curly (Southern Italy)
19 Lombardi Lombards, from Lombardy
20 Moretti Black-haired (plural)
21 Sante Variant of Santi (sacred), from Piedmont
22 Ravelli Diminutive of Ravelino (tailor), from Piedmont

Kosovo[edit]

See also: Albanian name
E,Lo[citation needed]
Surname
Hoxha
Gashi
Krasniqi
Morina
Kelmendi
Beqiri
Jakupi
Kastrati
Avdiu
Shala
Ademi
Sejdiu

Latvia[edit]

Latvia[28][29]
2005 Surname Meaning
Rank
1 Bērziņš birch
2 Kalniņš hill
3 Ozoliņš oak
4 Jansons son of Jānis
5 Ozols oak
6 Liepiņš linden
7 Krūmiņš bush
8 Balodis pigeon/dove
9 Eglītis fir
10 Zariņš branch
11 Pētersons son of Pēteris
12 Vītols willow
13 Kļaviņš maple
14 Kārkliņš willows, from kārklis, syn. for "willow" (see Vītols)
15 Vanags hawk

Lithuania[edit]

Lithuania[30]
2009
Rank Men Women[note 1]
1 Kazlauskas Kazlauskienė
2 Petrauskas Petrauskienė
3 Jankauskas Jankauskienė
4 Stankevičius Stankevičienė
5 Vasiliauskas Vasiliauskienė
6 Žukauskas Žukauskienė
7 Butkus Butkienė
8 Paulauskas Paulauskienė
9 Urbonas Urbonienė
10 Kavaliauskas Kavaliauskienė

Luxembourg[edit]

Out of 236000 entries in the EDITUS phone book:

Luxembourg[31]
2009 Surname
Rank #
1 1929 Schmit
2 1473 Muller
3 1380 Weber
4 1335 Hoffmann
5 1300 Wagner
6 1027 Thill
7 939 Schmitz
8 793 Schroeder
9 712 Reuter
10 706 Klein
11 674 Becker
12 660 Kieffer
13 650 Kremer
14 610 Faber
15 556 Meyer
16 550 Schneider
17 543 Weiss
18 538 Schiltz
19 537 Simon
20 533 Welter
21 504 Hansen
22 496 Majerus
23 467 Ries
24 459 Meyers
25 451 Kayser
26 441 Steffen
27 438 Krier
28 421 Braun
29 411 Wagener
30 405 Diederich

Malta[edit]

Malta[32]
2005 Surname
Rank % #
1 3.3 13,169 Borg
2 3.1 12,643 Camilleri
3 2.9 11,785 Vella
4 2.9 11,549 Farrugia
5 2.3 9,424 Zammit
6 2.1 8,519 Galea
7 2.1 8,356 Micallef
8 1.9 7,828 Grech
9 1.8 7,340 Attard
10 1.8 7,233 Spiteri

Macedonia[edit]

  • Andov Son of Ande
  • Angelov Son of Angel
  • Bogdanov Son of Bogdan
  • Bozinov Son of Bozhin
  • Brankov Son of Branko
  • Damcevski
  • Davidov Son of David
  • Dimitrov Son of Dimitar
  • Donev Son of Doncho
  • Filipov Son of Filip
  • Georgiev Son of Georgi
  • Ivanov Son of Ivan
  • Ivanovski Son of Ivan
  • Janev Son of Jane
  • Kitanovski
  • Kostovski Son of Kosta
  • Kostov
  • Manasievski Son of Manas
  • Markov Son of Marko
  • Matovski Son of Mato
  • Mladenovski Son of Mladen
  • Nikolovski Son of Nikola
  • Penov Son of Peni
  • Petkov Son of Petko
  • Petrevski Son of Petar
  • Petrovski
  • Popov Priest
  • Popovski
  • Ristevski Son of Risto
  • Stojanov Son of Stojan
  • Trajanovski Son of Trajan
  • Trajcevski
  • Trajkovski

Netherlands[edit]

See also: Dutch name and List of Dutch family names

The most recent complete count of surnames in the Netherlands is based on the September 2007 county registrations.

Rank Name Number in 2007 Percent Number in 1947 English equivalent or (when lacking) meaning
1 De Jong 86,534 0.53% 55,256 Young
2 Jansen 75,699 0.46% 49,213 Johnson
3 De Vries 73,157 0.45% 49,298 the Frisian
4 Van den Berg * 60,130 0.37% 37,678 of/from the mountain (or, more realistically, the hill)
5 Van Dijk, Van Dyk 57,944 0.35% 36,578 of/from the dike
6 Bakker 56,864 0.35% 37,483 Baker
7 Janssen 55,394 0.34% 32,824 Johnson
8 Visser 50,929 0.31% 34,721 Fisher
9 Smit 43,493 0.27% 29,783 Smith
10 Meijer, Meyer 41,497 0.25% 28,256 Bailiff or steward
11 De Boer 39,576 0.24% 25,662 Farmer
12 Mulder 37,250 0.23% 24,665 Miller
13 De Groot 37,221 0.23% 24,724 The big/great/large
14 Bos 36,478 0.22% 23,790 Bush or Woods
15 Vos 31,154 0.19% 19,461 Fox
16 Peters 30,864 0.19% 18,583 Peters
17 Hendriks 30,199 0.18% 18,538 Henderson
18 Van Leeuwen 28,774 0.18% 17,754 From Leeuwen/Leuven; Levi (leeuwen is the plural of lion)
19 Dekker 28,682 0.17% 18,782 Thatcher
20 Brouwer 26,224 0.16% 17,468 Brewer
21 De Wit 24,904 0.15% 15,156 White
22 Dijkstra 24,175 0.15% 15,647 (Frisian) of/from the dike
23 Smits 23,816 0.15% 15,151 Smith
24 De Graaf 21,699 0.13% 13,718 The count/earl/administrator
25 Van der Meer 21,354 0.13% 13,011 of/from the lake

If closely related names are combined, the top 15 become:

Name Number of people
1 Jansen, Janssen, Janse 135,003
2 de Jong, de Jonge, de Jongh, Jong 108,240
3 Smit, Smits, Smid, de Smit, Smet, Smith 76,604
4 de Vries, Vries, de Vriese 74,058
5 vd Berg, vd Bergh, vd Berge, vd Bergen* 69,080
6 Visser, Visscher, Vissers, de Visser 68,952
7 van Dijk, van Dyk, Dijk, van Dijck 64,070
8 Bakker, Bekker, de Bakker, Backer 62,183
9 de Boer, Boer, den Boer, van de Boer 57,072
10 Mulder, Muller, Müller, Mulders, de Mulder 52,394
11 Peters, Peeters, Pieters, Peterse, Peter 52,389
12 vd Veen, vd Ven, van Veen, van 't Veen * 49,935
13 Bos, Bosch, de Bos 47,995
14 Meijer, Meyer, Meijers 47,761
15 de Groot, Groot, de Groote 47,511
* "vd" stands for "van de", "van den", or "van der"

Source: Nederlands Repertorium van Familienamen, Meertens-Instituut, 1963-2009. Data can be viewed in the Corpus of Family Names in the Netherlands See specifically De top 100 van de familienamen in Nederland (Dutch)

Names ending in -stra or -ma are usually of Frisian origin. For example Terpstra, Bijlsma, Halsema.

Names ending in -ink or -ing are usually of Low Saxon origin. For example Hiddink, Roeterdink, Mentink.

Norway[edit]

Norway[33]
2010 Surname
Rank #
1 55,260 Hansen
2 51,763 Johansen
3 51,495 Olsen
4 38,864 Larsen
5 38,027 Andersen
6 36,046 Pedersen
7 35,864 Nilsen
8 24,116 Kristiansen
9 23,604 Jensen
10 21,933 Karlsen
11 21,063 Johnsen
12 20,659 Pettersen
13 19,487 Eriksen
14 18,306 Berg
15 14,557 Haugen
16 14,265 Hagen
17 13,673 Johannessen
18 12,313 Andreassen
19 12,085 Jacobsen
20 11,762 Halvorsen

Poland[edit]

Rank Surname Meaning Population[34]
1 Nowak "newman" 207,348
2 Kowalski from kowal "smith" 140,471
3 Wiśniewski from wiśnia "cherry" 111,174
4 Wójcik from wójt, a noun describing chief officer of a municipality (gmina), from a popular name Wojciech; from the word "wojak" (warrior) 100,064
5 Kowalczyk from kowal "smith", literally "smith's son" 98,739
6 Kamiński from kamień "stone" 95,816
7 Lewandowski from lawenda "lavender" 93,404
8 Zieliński from zielony "green"; from zioło, ziele "herb" 91,522
9 Szymański from Szymon, equivalent to Simon 89,698
10 Woźniak from woźny, "usher" 89,015
11 Dąbrowski from dąbrowa "oak grove" 87,304
12 Kozłowski from kozioł "buck" 76,657
13 Jankowski from Janek, a diminutive of John 69,280
14 Mazur Formerly, 'a Mazovian person' 68,090
15 Kwiatkowski from kwiatek "flower (dim.)" 66,917
16 Wojciechowski from the name Wojciech; from the word "wojak" (warrior) 66,879
17 Krawczyk from krawiec "tailor", "tailor's son" 64,543
18 Kaczmarek from karczmarz "innkeeper" 62,399
19 Piotrowski from Piotr (Peter) 61,844
20 Grabowski from grab "hornbeam" or grabarz 'gravedigger" 59,052

Polish names which end with -ski or -cki have both male and female forms - Kamiński / Kamińska, Wielicki / Wielicka, etc. This needs to be considered when taking a count by, for instance, scanning a telephone book.

See also: Polish name

Portugal[edit]

The 50 most frequent surnames in Portugal are:[35][36]

Order Surname Frequency
%
Frequency
(in thousands)
1 Silva 9.44% 995
2 Santos 5.96% 628
3 Ferreira 5.25% 553
4 Pereira 4.88% 514
5 Oliveira 3.71% 391
6 Costa 3.68% 387
7 Rodrigues 3.57% 376
8 Martins 3.23% 340
9 Jesus 2.99% 315
10 Sousa 2.95% 311
11 Fernandes 2.82% 297
12 Gonçalves 2.76% 291
13 Gomes 2.57% 271
14 Lopes 2.52% 265
15 Marques 2.51% 265
16 Alves 2.37% 250
17 Almeida 2.27% 239
18 Ribeiro 2.27% 239
19 Pinto 2.09% 220
20 Carvalho 1.97% 208
21 Teixeira 1.69% 178
22 Moreira 1.54% 162
23 Correia 1.53% 161
24 Mendes 1.39% 146
25 Nunes 1.32% 139
26 Soares 1.28% 135
27 Vieira 1.2% 127
28 Monteiro 1.11% 117
29 Cardoso 1.07% 113
30 Rocha 1.04% 110
31 Neves 0.98% 103
32 Coelho 0.97% 102
33 Cruz 0.94% 99
34 Cunha 0.93% 98
35 Pires 0.92% 97
36 Ramos 0.86% 91
37 Reis 0.85% 90
38 Simões 0.85% 90
39 Antunes 0.82% 86
40 Matos 0.82% 86
41 Fonseca 0.81% 86
42 Machado 0.76% 80
43 Araújo 0.69% 73
44 Barbosa 0.69% 72
45 Tavares 0.67% 71
46 Lourenço 0.65% 68
47 Castro 0.62% 66
48 Figueiredo 0.62% 65
49 Azevedo 0.60% 64
50 Freitas 0.60% 63

Romania[edit]

Romania[37]
Rank Surname Meaning
1 Popa Priest
2 Popescu From Popa (Priest)
3 Pop (disambiguation) Short form of Popa
4 Radu The happy one
5 Dumitru
6 Stan Shortened form of Stanislav
7 Stoica
8 Gheorghe Form of George
9 Matei Romanian form of Matthew
10 Ciobanu Shepherd

Russia[edit]

See also: Russian name
See also: Список общерусских фамилий (in Russian Wikipedia)

The 20 most common widespread Russian surnames from the European part of Russia, as calculated by Balanovskaya et al. (2005):[38]

Rank Surname Transliteration Meaning Percentage[38]
1 Смирно́в Smirnov obedient one's 1.61
2 Ивано́в Ivanov Ivan's 1.30
3 Кузнецо́в Kuznetsov smith's 0.90
4 Попо́в Popov priest's 0.79
5 Соколов Sokolov falcon's 0.73
6 Лебедев Lebedev swan's 0.65
7 Козло́в Kozlov he-goat's 0.58
8 Но́виков Novikov newman's (see novik for historical details) 0.54
9 Моро́зов Morozov frost's 0.53
10 Петров Petrov Pyotr's 0.44
11 Волков Volkov wolf's 0.44
12 Соловьёв Solovyov nightingale's 0.44
13 Васильев Vasilyev Vasily's 0.42
14 Зайцев Zaytsev hare's 0.41
15 Па́влов Pavlov Pavel's 0.39
16 Семёнов Semyonov Semyon's 0.35
17 Голубев Golubev pigeon's 0.32
18 Виногра́дов Vinogradov grape's 0.32
19 Богданов Bogdanov Bogdan's 0.31
20 Воробьёв Vorobyov sparrow's 0.30

All the Russian surnames, ended with -ov/-ev and -in/-yn, are originally patronymic or metronymic genitive adjectivals with the meaning "son of" or "daughter/wife of" (the feminine is formed with the -a ending - Smirnova, Ivanova, etc.). In the older documents this type of surnames was written with the word syn "son", for example, Ivanov syn "John's son" or Il'yin syn "Elijah's son", the last word was then dropped. English rough equivalents for this may be the surnames, ended with -s or -son (Richards or Richardson).

The Russian equivalent of "Smith, Jones, and Brown" (that is, the generic most popular surnames) is Ivanov, Petrov, Sidorov, or "Jones, Peters, and Isidores". However, the last of them, Sidorov, is ranked only the 66th now.[38]

Serbia[edit]

Serbia[39]
Rank Surname Cyrillic script Meaning
1 Jovanović Јовановић Son of Jovan
2 Petrović Петровић Son of Petar
3 Nikolić Николић Son of Nikola
4 Marković Марковић Son of Marko
5 Đorđević Ђорђевић Son of Đorđe
6 Stojanović Стојановић Son of Stojan
7 Ilić Илић Son of Ilija
8 Stanković Станковић Son of Stanko
9 Pavlović Павловић Son of Pavle
10 Milošević Милошевић Son of Miloš

Slovakia[edit]

Slovakia[40][41]
2003 Surname Meaning
Rank #
1 30,813 Horváth "Croat" (from Croatian Hrvat)
2 29,079 Kováč "Blacksmith" (from Slavic, from Indo-European)
3 21,650 Varga "Leatherworker, cobbler" (from Hungarian, from Ugric)[25]
4 21,604 Tóth "Slovak (Slav)" (from Germanic or from old Hungarian)[25][41]
5 19,341 Nagy "Large/Tall" (from Hungarian, from Ugric)[25]
6 14,114 Baláž "Blessed" (from Hungarian via Latin Blasius and Old Church Slavonic "blessed", from Indo-European)
7 13,998 Szabó "Tailor" (from Hungarian, from Ugric)[25]
8 12,632 Molnár "Miller" (from Germanic, from Slavic, from Latin, from Indo-European or from Hungarian)[25]
9 10,872 Balog "Left-handed" (from Ugric (Hungarian),[25] or from Slavic "marsh", or both)
10 9,718 Lukáč "Luke" (from Latin Lucas, from Greek)

Note: The most common surnames in Slovakia are a mixture of Indo-European and Ugric roots reflecting the 900-year-long coexistence of the Indo-European Slovaks and speakers of other Indo-European languages with Ugric Hungarians in the Kingdom of Hungary, under Hungarian assimilation pressure throughout the 19th century (see Magyarization, see History of Slovakia). In 1910 Hungarians made up one-third of the population of present-territory of Slovakia.[42] Hungarians are currently an 8% minority[41] in Slovakia due to population exchanges and Slovakization.[43] (see Demographics of Slovakia). While ethnic Hungarians are relatively few in Slovakia, their large presence on the list of most common names reflects the intra-lingual frequency of the frequent names in Hungary.

Slovenia[edit]

Slovenia[44]
2008 Surname
Rank #
1 11,314 Novak new man
2 9,833 Horvat Croat
3 5,681 Krajnc from Carniola
4 5,666 Kovačič son of blacksmith
5 5,044 Zupančič son of mayor
6 4,822 Kovač blacksmith
7 4,759 Potočnik near stream
8 4,002 Mlakar near puddle
9 3,938 Vidmar
10 3,917 Kos blackbird
11 3,881 Golob pigeon
12 3,536 Turk Turk
13 3,484 Božič Christmas
14 3,423 Kralj King
15 3,330 Zupan mayor
16 3,310 Korošec from Carinthia
17 3,255 Bizjak
18 3,144 Hribar from hill
19 3,076 Kotnik from corner
20 3,003 Rozman
21 2,969 Kavčič
22 2.899 Petek Friday
23 2.875 Kastelic
24 2,848 Kolar
25 2,833 Žagar sawer
26 2,820 Hočevar
27 2,812 Oblak cloud
28 2,724 Košir
29 2,664 Koren
30 2,417 Klemenčič

Spain[edit]

The top ten surnames cover about 20% of the population, with important geographical differences. The regional distribution of surnames within Spain was homogenized mostly through internal migrations, especially since 1950. Names typical of the old crown of Castile have become the most common all over the country. Most of the common Spanish surnames originating from Germanic first names were introduced in Spain during the fifth to seventh centuries by the Visigoths, so almost all are from the Visigoth tradition.

  1. García - 1,378,000 people (3.48%) Pre-Roman, Basque.
  2. Fernández - 851,000 (2.15%) Son of Fernando, Fredenand, or Fridnand; Germanic
  3. González - 839,000 (2.12%) Son of Gonzalo, from the Latinised form Gundisalvus; Germanic
  4. Rodríguez - 804,000 (2.03%) Son of Rodrigo, Roderic; Germanic
  5. López - 796,000 (2.01%) Son of Lope, Latin Lupus, meaning wolf
  6. Martínez - 788,000 (1.97%) Son of Martin, Latin Martis, genitive form of Mars
  7. Sánchez - 725,000 (1.83%) Son of Sancho, Latin Sanctius
  8. Pérez - 709,000 (1.79%) Son of Pedro, Latin Petrus
  9. Martín - 459,000 (1.16%)
  10. Gómez - 440,000 (1.11%) Son of Gomes, Gomo, or Gomaro; Germanic
  11. Ruiz - 321,000 (0.81%) Son of Rui, variation or short for Rodrigo
  12. Hernández - 305,000 (0.77%) Son of Hernando, variation of Fernando
  13. Jiménez - 293,000 (0.74%) son of Jimeno, Xemeno. or Ximeno
  14. Díaz - 293,000 (0.74%) Son of Diego
  15. Álvarez - 273,000 (0.69%) Son of Alvaro, from Alvar; Germanic
  16. Moreno - 261,000 (0.66%) Brown-haired, tanned, brunet
  17. Muñoz - 241,000 (0.61%) Son of Munio; Pre-Roman
  18. Alonso - 206,000 (0.52%) Variation of Alfonso; Germanic
  19. Gutiérrez - 170,000 (0.43%) Son of Gutier, Gutierre, or Gualtierre; Germanic
  20. Romero - 170,000 (0.43%) (pilgrim)
  21. Navarro - 158,400 (0.40%) Navarrese, "from Navarre"; toponym
  22. Torres - 134,600 (0.34%) Towers; toponym
  23. Domínguez - 134,600 (0.34%) Son of Domingo, from Latin Domenicus, Dominus, "master"
  24. Gil - 134,600 (0.34%) From older form Egidio; patronymic
  25. Vázquez - 130,000 (0.33%) Son of Vasco or Velasco
  26. Serrano - 122,700 (0.31%) "Highlander"
  27. Ramos - 118,000 (0.30%) Branches; meaning born during Christian festivity Palm Sunday
  28. Blanco - 118,000 (0.30%) "White"
  29. Sanz - 106,900 (0.27%)
  30. Castro - 102,900 (0.26%) "village" castro
  31. Suárez - 102,900 (0.26%) Son of Suero or Suaro; unknown origin
  32. Ortega - 99,000 (0.25%) From Ortiga, nettle plant
  33. Rubio - 99,000 (0.25%) Blond, fair-haired; Latin Rubeus, meaning ruddy, reddish
  34. Molina - 99,000 (0.25%) (Mill, place with mills
  35. Delgado - 95,000 (0.24%) "Thin man"
  36. Ramírez - 95,000 (0.24%) Son of Ramiro, Radamir, or Radmir; Germanic
  37. Morales - 95,000 (0.24%) Blackberry groves
  38. Ortiz - 87,120 (0.22%) Son of Ortún; Latin Fortunius, meaning fortunate one
  39. Marín - 83,160 (0.21%) Latin Marinus, meaning sailor
  40. Iglesias - 83,160 (0.21%) "Churches"

Source:[45] - Data from December 1999. (2004 data confirmation of top 25)

Canary Islands[edit]

Rank Name Approximate percentage
1 González 4.79
2 Rodríguez 4.64
3 Hernández 4.01
4 Pérez 3.35
5 García 3.25
6 Martín 2.21
7 Santana 2.18
8 Díaz 1.86
9 Suárez 1.38
10 Sánchez 1.29
11 López 1.21
12 Cabrera 1.18
13 Ramos 0.88
14 Medina 0.87
15 Fernández 0.75
16 Morales 0.73
17 Delgado 0.70
18 Marrero 0.70
19 León 0.69
20 Alonso 0.61
21 Herrera 0.59
22 Cruz 0.58
23 Domínguez 0.55
24 Gutiérrez 0.52
25 Reyes 0.50
26 Torres 0.48
27 Alvarez 0.66
28 Rivero 0.44
29 Armas 0.42
30 Trujillo 0.40

Sweden[edit]

Source: World Family Names

Sweden[46]
2012 Surname
Rank #
1 251,621 Andersson
2 251,495 Johansson
3 223,151 Karlsson
4 171,360 Nilsson
5 147,514 Eriksson
6 124,686 Larsson
7 114,280 Olsson
8 107,911 Persson
9 101,834 Svensson
10 97,536 Gustafsson
11 96,011 Pettersson
12 73,869 Jonsson
13 50,170 Jansson
14 43,926 Hansson
15 34,302 Bengtsson
16 32,249 Jönsson
17 27,533 Lindberg
18 26,793 Jakobsson
19 26,562 Magnusson
20 26,424 Olofsson

Switzerland[edit]

Surnames of the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino

Rank Name
1 Bianchi
2 Bernasconi
3 Fontana
4 Crivelli
5 Galli
6 Cereghetti
7 Colombo
8 Rossi
9 Ferrari
10 Cavadini

German-speaking cantons (1998): Source: [4]

Rank # Surname
1 31,000 Müller
2 19,150 Meier
3 16,900 Schmid
4 13,000 Keller
5 11,850 Weber
6 10,550 Huber
7 10,350 Meyer
8 10,300 Schneider
9 8,950 Steiner
10 8,200 Fischer
11 8,100 Brunner
12 8,000 Baumann
13 7,950 Gerber
14 7,750 Frei
15 7,500 Moser

Turkey[edit]

Main article: Turkish name
Rank Name Meaning
1 Yılmaz unbeatable/dauntless
2 Kaya rock
3 Demir iron
4 Şahin falcon
5 Çelik steel
6 Yıldız star
7 Yıldırım thunderbolt
8 Öztürk pure Turk
9 Aydın enlightened
10 Özdemir pure iron

Source: Turkish General Directorate of Population and Citizenships[47]

Ukraine[edit]

Many of the surnames use the same root but different suffixes, or even different roots of the same meaning, depending on the part of Ukraine the person hails from.[48]

Rank Surname Meaning
1 Melnyk miller
2 Shevchenko shoemaker's
3 Boyko tenacious/feisty
4 Kovalenko smith's
5 Bondarenko cooper's
6 Tkachenko weaver's
7 Kovalchuk smith's
8 Kravchenko tailor's
9 Oliynyk oil maker
10 Shevchuk shoemaker's apprentice
11 Koval smith
12 Polishchuk from Polesia
13 Bondar cooper
14 Tkachuk weaver's
15 Moroz frost
16 Marchenko Mark's
17 Lysenko fox's
18 Rudenko red's
19 Savchenko Savva's
20 Petrenko Peter's

United Kingdom[edit]

England[edit]

Rank Surname Percentage[49]
1 Smith 1.26
2 Jones 0.75
3 Taylor 0.59
4 Brown 0.56
5 Williams 0.39
6 Wilson 0.39
7 Johnson 0.37
8 Davies 0.34
9 Robinson 0.32
10 Wright 0.32
11 Thompson 0.31
12 Evans 0.30
13 Walker 0.30
14 White 0.30
15 Roberts 0.28
16 Green 0.28
17 Hall 0.28
18 Wood 0.27
19 Jackson 0.27
20 Clarke 0.26
Greater London

The following list is for Greater London.[50]

Northern Ireland[edit]

Data from University College London, Paediatric-Epidemiology Significance Surnames Paper. Numbers in brackets indicate percentages.

  1. Wilson (0.75)
  2. Campbell (0.75)
  3. Kelly (0.74)
  4. Johnston (0.69)
  5. Moore (0.62)
  6. Thompson (0.61)
  7. Smyth (0.60)
  8. Brown (0.59)
  9. O’Neill (0.57)
  10. Doherty (0.54)
  11. Stewart (0.54)
  12. Quinn (0.51)
  13. Robinson (0.50)
  14. Murphy (0.49)
  15. Graham (0.48)
  16. Martin (0.45)
  17. McLaughlin (0.45)
  18. Hamilton (0.44)
  19. Murray (0.43)
  20. Hughes (0.41)

Scotland[edit]

Data from University College London, Paediatric-Epidemiology Significance Surnames Paper. Numbers in brackets indicate percentages.

  1. Smith (1.28)
  2. Brown (0.94)
  3. Wilson (0.89)
  4. Robertson (0.78)
  5. Thomson (0.78)
  6. Campbell (0.77)
  7. Stewart (0.73)
  8. Anderson (0.70)
  9. Scott (0.55)
  10. Murray (0.53)
  11. MacDonald (0.52)
  12. Reid (0.52)
  13. Taylor (0.49)
  14. Clark (0.47)
  15. Ross (0.43)
  16. Young (0.42)
  17. Mitchell (0.41)
  18. Watson (0.41)
  19. Paterson (0.40)
  20. Morrison (0.40)
  21. Sanders (0.40)

Wales[edit]

Data from University College London, Paediatric-Epidemiology Significance Surnames Paper. Numbers in brackets indicate percentages.

  1. Jones (5.75)
  2. Williams (3.72)
  3. Davies (3.72)
  4. Evans (2.47)
  5. Thomas (2.43)
  6. Roberts (1.53)
  7. Lewis (1.53)
  8. Hughes (1.23)
  9. Morgan (1.16)
  10. Griffiths (0.96)
  11. Edwards (0.93)
  12. Smith (0.85)
  13. James (0.82)
  14. Rees (0.81)
  15. Jenkins (0.69)
  16. Owen (0.67)
  17. Price (0.67)
  18. Phillips (0.65)
  19. Moss (0.63)
  20. Driscoll (0.53)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Lithuanian language has different endings for surnames for men and women. The ending of a woman's surname indicates whether she is married or not. Last names of married women end in -ienė while those of unmarried girls end in -ytė, -iūtė, -utė, -aitė.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ WienerSprachblätter, 2006, issue 4, p. 4. "Alles Gruber in Östereich und nicht Müller wie in Deutschland" (in German). Retrieved 2007-10-20. 
  2. ^ "Какие самые распространенные фамилии в Азербайджане?". 1news.az (in Russian). Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  3. ^ Ale.by - Самая распространенная фамилия в Минске - Иванов
  4. ^ Statistics Belgium, Demographic Statistics, most common surnames
  5. ^ Statistics Belgium, Demographic Statistics, total population
  6. ^ Јањатовић, Ђорђе (1993). ПРЕЗИМЕНА СРБА У БОСНИ. ПРОСВЕТА-ТРГОВИНА" д. д. СОМБОР. 
  7. ^ "Most frequent Croatian surnames". www.croatian-genealogy.com. Retrieved 30 December 2009. 
  8. ^ "Most frequent surnames, Census 2011". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  9. ^ "Names and surnames in Republic of Croatia". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  10. ^ "What's in a name?". Ancestry.com. Retrieved 2 January 2009. 
  11. ^ Heather Bowne (2005-01-16). "What's in a name?". ABC of Czech (Český rozhlas 7 - Radio Praha). Retrieved 2008-01-28. "The most common surname in the Czech Republic is Novák, which is closest to the English "Newman"." 
  12. ^ Mužská příjmení - občané ČR a cizí státní příslušníci - 20 nejčetnějších
  13. ^ Ženská přijmení - občanky ČR a cizí státní příslušnice - 20 nejčetnějších
  14. ^ "Navne TOP-20 for hele Danmarks befolkning pr. 1. januar 2011" (in Danish). www.dst.dk. Retrieved 1 October 2011. 
  15. ^ "Top 500: Eesti kõige levinumad perekonnanimed" (in Estonian). ekspress.ee. 25 April 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 
  16. ^ Hagstova Føroya. "Eftirnøvn (2001-2009)" (in Faroese). Retrieved 2010-09-10. 
  17. ^ a b Population Register Centre, 2 December 2013. Percentages are based on the population of Finland on 2 December 2013.
  18. ^ "Les noms de famille les plus portés France" (in French). linternaute.com. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 
  19. ^ Georgian Civil Registry Agency. "Popular Names". Accessed 26 Sept 2013. (Russian)
  20. ^ Rank and percentage of population from: Kunze, Konrad (2004). Namenkunde, Vor- und Familiennamen im deutschen Sprachgebiet, 4th edn (series: dtv-Atlas). München, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 255 pp.
  21. ^ In northern Germany, the alternative form 'Möller' is more common;
  22. ^ Heterograph: Schmitt. In southernmost Germany, the alternative form 'Schmid' is the most common. All forms taken collectively would be #1 surname
  23. ^ Heterographs: Meier, which is common to the north, like Meyer, and Mayer, which is commoner to the south. All forms taken collectively would be #2 surname
  24. ^ "Családnév statisztika 2011. január 1." (xls) (in Hungarian). Népességnyilvántartó Hivatal (Bureau of Population Registration). Retrieved 9 October 2011. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Farkas, Tamás. "Régi magyar családnevek névvégmutató szótára (Reverse dictionary of historical Hungarian family names)". ELTE Magyar Nyelvtudományi és Finnugor Intézet, Magyar Nyelvtudományi Társaság (Budapest University, Faculty of Hungarian Philology and Finno-Ugric Institute, Hungarian Philology Association), Budapest, 2009. 
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