List of largest domes

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The dome of the Pantheon in Rome with oculus was the largest dome in the world for more than 1,300 years.

A dome is a self-supporting structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. This list excludes dome-shaped structures that are not self-supporting such as The O2 (formerly the Millennium Dome) in London which is 365 m (1,198 ft) in diameter and supported by masts.

This article tries to list every dome in the world which was the largest dome of its time. The defining criterion is in each case the inner diameter of the largest circular cross-section of the dome.

Worldwide[edit]

Below is a list of buildings that have held the title of the largest dome in the world.

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
1250 BC–
1st century BC
14.5 m[1] Treasury of Atreus Mycenae, Greece City state of Mycenae Corbel dome
1st century BC–
19 BC
21.5 m[2] Temple of Mercury Baiae, Italy Roman Empire First monumental dome[3]
19 BC–
beginning of 2nd century
25.0 m[4] Baths of Agrippa,
'Arco della Ciambella'
Rome, Italy Roman Empire First Thermae in Rome with a domed central building[4]
Beginning of 2nd century–
128
30.0 m[5] Baths of Trajan Rome, Italy Roman Empire Half dome
128–1436 43.4 m[2] Pantheon Rome, Italy Roman Empire Largest unreinforced solid concrete dome in the world till present.[6] Archetype of Western dome construction to this day[2][7]
1436–1881 42.05 m (45.52 m diagonal) Santa Maria del Fiore Florence, Italy Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence Largest brick and mortar dome in the world till present. Octagonal dome. Architect Filippo Brunelleschi
1881–1902 46.9 m[8] Devonshire Royal Hospital Buxton, England, United Kingdom Cotton Famine Relief Fund Converted from a horse stables to a hospital. Slate-covered iron frame. Architect Robert Rippon Duke
1902–1913 59.45 m[9] West Baden Springs Hotel West Baden, Indiana, United States Lee Wiley Sinclair Steel and glass dome. Architect Harrison Albright
1913–1930 65.0 m[10] Centennial Hall Wrocław, Poland Deutsches Reich Reinforced concrete dome. Architect Max Berg
1930–1955 65.8 m[11] Leipzig Market Hall Leipzig, Saxony, Germany Reinforced concrete dome. Architect Franz Dischinger
1955–1957 101.5 m[12] Bojangles' Coliseum Charlotte, North Carolina, United States Thompson and Street Structural Steel dome. Architect Odell and Associates
1957–1965 109 m[13] Belgrade Fair - Hall 1 Belgrade, Serbia Belgrade Fair World's largest prestressed concrete dome
1965–1975 195.5 m
(642 ft)[14][15]
Astrodome Houston, Texas, United States H.A. Lott, Inc. First domed sports stadium in the world with more than 20,000 seats[15]
1975–1992 207.0 m
(678 ft)[15]
Louisiana Superdome New Orleans, United States Blount International[16] Structural steel frame.[17] Architect Nathaniel Curtis
1992–2001 256.0 m[18] Georgia Dome Atlanta, Georgia, United States Brasfield & Gorrie Tensegrity structure
2001–2009 274.0 m[19] Ōita Stadium Ōita, Japan Kisho Kurokawa Retractable roof
2009–2014 275.0 m Cowboys Stadium Arlington, Texas, United States HKS, Inc. Retractable roof
2014–present 312.0 m New Singapore National Stadium Kallang, Singapore Arup Retractable roof

By continent[edit]

Below is a list of buildings that have held the title of the largest dome on their continent.

Europe[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
1250 BC–
1st century BC
14.5 m[1] Treasury of Atreus Mycenae, Greece City state of Mycenae Corbel dome
1st century BC–
19 BC
21.5 m[2] Temple of Mercury Baiae, Italy Roman Empire First monumental dome[3]
19 BC–
beginning of 2nd century
25.0 m[4] Baths of Agrippa,
'Arco della Ciambella'
Rome, Italy Roman Empire First Thermae in Rome with a domed central building[4]
Beginning of 2nd century–
128
30.0 m[5] Baths of Trajan Rome, Italy Roman Empire Half dome
16th century 41.47 metres (136.1 ft) St Peter's Basilica Vatican City, Italy Roman Catholic Church / Michelangelo It is the tallest dome in the world at 136.57 metres (448.1 ft).
128–1436 43.4 m[2] Pantheon Rome, Italy Roman Empire Largest unreinforced solid concrete dome in the world till present.[6] Archetype of Western dome construction to this day[2][7]
1436–1881 45.52 Santa Maria del Fiore Florence, Italy Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Florence Largest brick and mortar dome in the world till present. Octagonal dome.
1881–1913 46.9 m[8] The Devonshire Buxton, England, United Kingdom Cotton Famine Relief Fund Converted from a horse stables to a hospital. Slate-covered iron frame. Architect Robert Rippon Duke
1913–1930 65.0 m[10] Centennial Hall Wrocław, Poland Deutsches Reich Reinforced concrete dome. Architect Max Berg
1930–1957 65.8 m[11] Leipzig Market Hall Leipzig, Saxony, Germany Deutsches Reich Reinforced concrete dome. Architect Franz Dischinger
1957–present 109.0 m[13] Belgrade Fair - Hall 1 Belgrade, Serbia Belgrade Fair World's largest prestressed concrete dome

In the first half of the 1980ies a dome with a diametre of 234 metres was built near Istra, Russia. It collapsed on January 25th, 1986 [1].

North America[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
1864–1867 29.0 m[20] Capitol Washington D.C., United States United States Architect Thomas U. Walter
1867–1902 46 m[21] Salt Lake Tabernacle Salt Lake City, Utah, United States United States Architect Henry Grow, Largely built without nails.
1902–1955 61.0 m[9] West Baden Springs Hotel West Baden, Indiana, United States Lee Wiley Sinclair Architect Harrison Albright
1955–1963 101.5 m[22] Bojangles' Coliseum Charlotte, North Carolina, United States Thompson and Street Structural Steel dome. Architect Odell and Associates
1963–1965 121.9 m[23] Assembly Hall Champaign, Illinois, United States University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Reinforced concrete dome. Architect Max Abramovitz
1965–1975 195,5 m
(642 ft)[14][15]
Reliant Astrodome Houston, Texas, United States H.A. Lott, Inc. First domed sports stadium in the world with more than 20,000 seats[15]
1975–1992 207 m
(678 ft)[15]
Louisiana Superdome New Orleans, United States Blount International[16] Structural steel frame.[17] Architect Nathaniel Curtis
1992–2009 256.0 m[18] Georgia Dome Atlanta, Georgia, United States Georgia World Congress Center Authority Tensegrity structure
2009–"present" 275.0 m Cowboys Stadium Arlington, Texas, United States HKS, Inc. Retractable roof

South America[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment

Asia[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
2nd century–150 11.5 m[24] Red Hall Pergamon, Turkey Roman Empire Brick
150–1312 23.85 m[25] Zeus Asklepios Temple Pergamon, Turkey Roman Empire Earliest monumental brick dome[26]
1312–1659 25.60 m Soltaniyeh Soltaniyeh, Zanjan, Iran Ilkhanate
1659–1934 44.0 m[27] Gol Gumbaz Bijapur, India Sultanate of Bijapur Mausoleum of Muhammad Adil Shah II (1627–57) of the Sultanate of Bijapur
1934–1960 60.0 m Novosibirsk Opera and Ballet Theatre Novosibirsk, Soviet Union Reinforced Concrete
1937–1960 45.0 m[28] Phsar Thom Thmei Phnom Penh, Cambodia Jean Desbois and Wladimir Kandaouroff Reinforced Concrete

Known as the "Central Market" in English

1960–2001 108.0 m Smart Araneta Coliseum Quezon City, Philippines J. Amado Araneta Also known as the Big Dome, it opened as the world's biggest indoor venue in 1960.
2001–2014 274.0 m Ōita Stadium Ōita, Japan Kisho Kurokawa Known as the Big Eye
2014–present 312.0 m New Singapore National Stadium Kallang, Singapore Arup Retractable roof. Main venue for the 2015 SEA Games

Africa[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
2nd century–1988 22.00[29] Baths of Antoninus Carthage, Tunisia Roman Empire Seven domes with diameters between 17 and 22 m[29]
1988–1997  ? Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro Yamoussoukro, Ivory Coast Ivory Coast Modeled after the St. Peter's Basilica in Rome
1997–present 140.0 m[30] Coca-Cola Dome Johannesburg, South Africa Sports arena

Australia[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
1988–2000 133.0 m Burswood Superdome Perth, Western Australia

By structure[edit]

Below is a list of buildings that have held the title of the largest dome in terms of their structure.

Stone[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
1250 BC–150/175 AD 14.5 m[1] Treasury of Atreus Mycenae, Greece City state of Mycenae Corbel dome
150/175 AD–2006 AD 15.0 m[31] Western Thermae Gerasa, Jordan Roman Empire One of the earliest voussoir domes with square ground plan[31]
2006 AD-present 85.15 m[32] Global Vipassana Pagoda Mumbai, India. Global Vipassana Foundation The stone dome was completed in October 2006. The monument was officially inaugurated on February 8, 2009. Architect/Structural Engineer/ Sompura/ Proof Consultant: Parvez Dumasia/ Nandadeep Building Center/ Late. Chandubhai Trivedi/ Prof. Jangid (IIT Bombay)

Concrete[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
1st century BC–
1st century BC
6.52 m[3] Stabiae Thermae,
Laconicum
Pompeii, Italy Roman Empire Cone vault (early form of a dome). Oldest known concrete dome[3]
1st century BC–
19 BC
21.5 m[2] Temple of Mercury Baiae, Italy Roman Empire First monumental dome[3]
128–present 43.4 m[2] Pantheon Rome, Italy Roman Empire Largest unreinforced solid concrete dome in the world till present.[6] Archetype of Western dome construction to this day[2][7]

Masonry[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
2nd century–150 11.5 m[24] Red Hall Pergamon, Turkey Roman Empire Brick
150–beginning of 4th century 23.85 m[25] Zeus Asklepios Temple Pergamon, Turkey Roman Empire Earliest monumental brick dome[26]
Beginning of 4th century–563 24.15 m[26] Rotunda of St. George Thessaloniki, Greece Roman Empire Radially laid bricks[26]
1302–present 25.0 m Oljeitu Mausoleum Soltaniyeh, Iran Ilkhanate dynasty of Persia Tallest brick dome in the world at 48m high
563–present 31.5 m Hagia Sophia Istanbul, Turkey Byzantine Empire First pendentive dome in history. First completed in 537, rebuilt in 563 after earthquake. Architects Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus
1436–present 45.0 m[33] The Duomo Florence, Italy City state of Florence First double-dome structure of the Renaissance

Clay hollowware[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
Beginning of 3rd century–216 12.0 m[29] Thermae of Aquae Flavianae El Hammam, Algeria Roman Empire Earthenware pipes put together
216–present 35.08 m[34] Baths of Caracalla,
Caldarium
Rome, Italy Roman Empire Amphora put together

Wood[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
691–1781 20.40 m[20] Dome of the Rock Jerusalem, Palestine Umayyad Empire
1781–1957 36.0 m[35][36] St. Blaise's Abbey St. Blaise, Baden-Württemberg, Germany Pierre Michel d'Ixnard Third widest dome in Europe at the time of its construction[35]
1957–1977 91.4 m[37] Brick Breeden Fieldhouse Bozeman, Montana, United States Montana State University - Bozeman Second largest dome in United States at the time of its construction[37]
1977–1983 153.0 m Walkup Skydome Flagstaff, Arizona, United States Northern Arizona University Geodesic dome
1983–1991 161.5 m Tacoma Dome Tacoma, Washington, United States City of Tacoma, WA Geodesic dome
1991–present 163.4 m Superior Dome Marquette, Michigan, United States State of Michigan/Northern Michigan University Geodesic dome

Cast iron[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
1864–1881 29.0 m[20] United States Capitol dome Washington D.C., United States United States Architect Thomas U. Walter
1881–present 46.9 m[8] Devonshire Royal Hospital Buxton, England, United Kingdom Cotton Famine Relief Fund Converted from a horse stables to a hospital. Slate-covered iron frame. Architect Robert Rippon Duke

Steel[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
1902–1965 59.45 m[9] West Baden Springs Hotel West Baden, Indiana, United States Lee Wiley Sinclair Steel and glass dome. Architect Harrison Albright
1965–1975 195,5 m
(642 ft)[14][15]
Reliant Astrodome Houston, Texas, United States H.A. Lott, Inc. First domed sports stadium in the world with more than 20,000 seats[15]
1975–2014 207.0 m
(678 ft)[15]
Louisiana Superdome New Orleans, United States Blount International[16] Structural steel frame.[17] Architect Nathaniel Curtis
2014–present 226.5 m
(743.11 ft)
Philippine Arena Bocaue, Philippines Populous Largest mixed-use indoor domed theater in the world according to Guinness World Records[38]

Reinforced concrete[edit]

Held record Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
1913–1930 65.0 m[10] Centennial Hall Wroclaw, Poland Deutsches Reich Reinforced concrete dome. Architect Max Berg
1930–1957 65.8 m[11] Leipzig Market Hall Leipzig, Saxony, Germany Deutsches Reich Reinforced concrete dome. Architect Franz Dischinger
1957–1963 100.6 m[23] Palazzetto dello sport Rome, Italy 1960 Summer Olympics Reinforced concrete dome. Consulting Engr. Pier Luigi Nervi
1963–1971 121.9 m[23] Assembly Hall Champaign, Illinois, United States University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Reinforced concrete dome. Architect Max Abramovitz
1971–1976 134.1 m[23] Norfolk Scope Norfolk, Virginia, United States City of Norfolk Reinforced concrete dome. Consulting Engr. Pier Luigi Nervi
1976–present 201.0 m[23][39] Kingdome Seattle, Washington, United States King County, Washington Reinforced concrete dome. Architect Naramore, Skilling and Praeger. Demolished in 2000

Famous large domes[edit]

Below is a list of large domes which are considered particularly important for various reasons but have held never the title of the largest dome in the world.

Completed Diameter Name Location Builder Comment
c. 64 13.48 m[3] Domus Aurea Rome, Italy Roman Empire First dome with a polygonal ground plan (octagon). First in palace architecture[3]
563 31.87 m[40] Hagia Sophia Istanbul, Turkey Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire First pendentive dome in history. First completed in 537, rebuilt in 563 after earthquake. Architects Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus
1227 21.0 m long
16.9 m wide[41]
St. Gereon's Basilica Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Bishop or city? Oval shape. Largest occidental dome built between Hagia Sophia and the Duomo
1405 18.2 m Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasavi Türkistan, Kazakhstan Tamerlane Double dome
1436 42–45 m[42] The Duomo Florence, Italy City state of Florence Architect Filippo Brunelleschi; first double-dome structure of the Renaissance, set the standards for all renaissance and baroque domes; to this day the largest brick and mortar dome ever built.
1557 27.2 m Süleymaniye Mosque Istanbul, Turkey Ottoman Empire Architect Mimar Sinan
1575 31.25 m[43] Selimiye Mosque Edirne, Turkey Ottoman Empire Architect Mimar Sinan
1626 42.3m[3] St Peter's Basilica Rome, Italy Holy See Architect Michelangelo Buonarroti; Worlds Tallest and Two Layer Dome
1641 17.7 m[44] Taj Mahal Agra, India Mughal Empire
1710 30.8 m[45] St. Paul's Cathedral London, England, United Kingdom Christopher Wren Double dome. The two domes are separated by a cone over the top of the inner which helps support the outer
1781 36.0 m[35][36] St. Blaise's Abbey St. Blaise, Baden-Württemberg, Germany Pierre Michel d'Ixnard Third widest dome in Europe at the time of its construction[35]
1871 36.6 metres (120 ft)[46] Mosta Dome Mosta, Malta George Grognet de Vassé Third largest unsupported dome in the world
1894 31.0 m[47] Marble Church Copenhagen, Denmark Frederick V Built from 1749 to 1894 by three different architects, with no construction done from 1770 to 1877
1904 15.24 m Rhode Island State House Providence, Rhode Island, United States Fourth-largest unsupported marble dome in the world.[48][49]
1944 61.0 m[50][51] V-2 Bunker La Coupole Wizernes, France Nazi Germany Reinforced concrete dome, 5m thick
1960 108.0 m Araneta Coliseum Quezon City, Philippines J. Amado Araneta Also known as the Big Dome, it opened as the world's biggest indoor venue in 1960.
1965 216.4 m Reliant Astrodome Houston, Texas, United States Hermon Lloyd & W.B. Morgan, and Wislon, Morris, Crain and Anderson Also known as the Astrodome, seated 62,439 football fans. Billed as "the Eighth Wonder of the World".
1988 51.8 m Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia Biggest mosque in Malaysia, second biggest in South East Asia. Also known as Blue Mosque. Can accommodate up to 16,000 worshippers
2005 21.3 m Long Island Green Dome Baiting Hollow, New York Kevin Michael Shea Largest residential wood geodesic dome in North America. It is a home and attraction site advocating sustainable living.
2009  ? Medgidia clinker storage facility Medgidia, Romania World's largest clinker storage facility

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Treasury of Atreus at Structurae
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Robert Mark, Paul Hutchinson: "On the Structure of the Roman Pantheon", Art Bulletin, Vol. 68, No. 1 (1986), p.24
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Rasch 1985, p. 118
  4. ^ a b c d Werner Heinz: "Römische Thermen. Badewesen und Badeluxus im römischen Reich", München 1983, ISBN 3-7774-3540-6, p.60-64
  5. ^ a b Rasch 1985, p. 119
  6. ^ a b c Romanconcrete.com
  7. ^ a b c Werner Müller: "dtv - Atlas Baukunst I. Allgemeiner Teil: Baugeschichte von Mesopotamien bis Byzanz", 14. Aufl., 2005, ISBN 3-423-03020-8, p.253
  8. ^ a b c E. P. Copp: "The Devonshire Royal Hospital Buxton", Rheumatology, Vol. 43 (2004), p.385
  9. ^ a b c Wayne Curtis: "Back home in Indiana", Preservation, Vol. 59, No. 3 (2007), pp.40-47
  10. ^ a b c UNESCO World Heritage: Centennial Hall in Breslau
  11. ^ a b c Leipzig Market Hall at Structurae
  12. ^ "Survey and Research Report on the Charlotte Coliseum". cmhpf.org. 
  13. ^ a b Belgrade Fair (Beogradski Sajam), Hall 1
  14. ^ a b c Encarta: Kuppel. Archived 2009-10-31.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Encyclopædia Britannica: Astrodome
  16. ^ a b c Air University: Eagle Biography: Winton M. "Red" Blount
  17. ^ a b c Archrecord.construction.com: Now infamous, Superdome once stood as a great New Orleans landmark
  18. ^ a b Building Big Databank: Georgia Dome, PBS Online/WGBH
  19. ^ "Big Bigger Biggest - Series 2: Episode 9 - Dome", Windfall Films Ltd.
  20. ^ a b c H. Hagedann & Ch. Plato. "Kuppeln historisch". [dead link]
  21. ^ "The Great Mormon Tabernacle at Salt Lake". Scientific American. 8 June 1867
  22. ^ "Survey and Research Report on the Charlotte Coliseum". cmhpf.org. 
  23. ^ a b c d e Monolithic.com: Reinforced Concrete Thin Shell Sports Facilities
  24. ^ a b Rasch 1985, p. 137
  25. ^ a b Rasch 1985, p. 129
  26. ^ a b c d Rasch 1985, p. 125
  27. ^ Manfred Görgens: "Kleine Geschichte der indischen Kunst", DuMont, Köln 1986, ISBN 3-7701-1543-0, p.226
  28. ^ Phnom Penh Central Market at Structurae
  29. ^ a b c Rasch 1985, p. 124
  30. ^ Coca-Cola Dome: Dimensions of Coca-Cola Dome
  31. ^ a b Rasch 1985, p. 126
  32. ^ "Salient Features - Global Pagoda website". Retrieved 2009-02-12. 
  33. ^ Figures vary. archINFORM gives a 45 m wide tambour, while Santa Maria del Fiore at Structurae gives a 43 m diameter of the cupola, others as little as 42 m.
  34. ^ Erwin Heinle, Jörg Schlaich: "Kuppeln aller Zeiten, aller Kulturen", Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-421-03062-6, p.27
  35. ^ a b c d "Website of the Dom St. Blasien". 
  36. ^ a b Schnell Kunstführer: "St. Blasien/Schwarzwald", No. 555, Regensburg 2001, ISBN 3-7954-4017-3, p.7
  37. ^ a b Setterberg, Diana (Spring 2007). "Brick Breeden Fieldhouse: 50 years and going strong". montana.edu. Retrieved 2 December 2010. 
  38. ^ http://www.rappler.com/nation/64468-iglesia-ni-cristo-guinness-records
  39. ^ "Internet Tribute to the Former Kingdome". kingdome.org. 
  40. ^ "Hagia Sofia Museum". istanbul.gov.tr. Retrieved February 25, 2013. 
  41. ^ Werner Schäfke: "Kölns romanische Kirchen. Architektur, Ausstattung, Geschichte", Köln, 1985, 5. ed., ISBN 3-7701-1360-8, p.100&118
  42. ^ Figures vary. Both archINFORM and Giuseppe Rocchi Coopmans de Yoldi, Santa Maria del Fiore - la Cupola. Firenze, Università degli Studi, 1999, the more accurate survey published so far, give a 45 m wide tambour, while Santa Maria del Fiore at Structurae gives a 43 m diameter of the cupola, others as little as 42 m.
  43. ^ Selimiye Mosque at Structurae
  44. ^ Taj Mahal at Structurae
  45. ^ Robert Mark, Paul Hutchinson: "On the Structure of the Roman Pantheon", Art Bulletin, Vol. 68, No. 1 (1986) p.34
  46. ^ Cauchi, Raymond (1988). The Mosta Rotunda: short history & guide. Cauchi's Emporium. p. 79. 
  47. ^ Marmorkirken.dk: Marble Church
  48. ^ "Facts and Figures". rilin.state.ri.us. Retrieved 2 December 2010. 
  49. ^ "The Providence Heritage Trail". visitrhodeisland.com. Retrieved 2 December 2010. 
  50. ^ Inventaire général des monuments et des richesses artistiques de la France: Schotterwerk Nord West (SNW) : Base V2 (the number of 71.0 m given here refers to the outer diameter)
  51. ^ Dimensioned cross section of the central part of the bunker complex in Wizernes, France

Sources[edit]

  • Rasch, Jürgen (1985). "Die Kuppel in der römischen Architektur. Entwicklung, Formgebung, Konstruktion". Architectura 15. pp. 117–139. 

Other dome lists[edit]

External links[edit]