List of therapsids

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This list of therapsids is an attempt to create a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the Therapsida excluding mammals and purely vernacular terms. The list includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomina dubia), or were not formally published (nomina nuda), as well as junior synonyms of more established names, and genera that are no longer considered therapsids.

The list currently contains 512 generic names.

Naming conventions and terminology[edit]

Naming conventions and terminology follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Technical terms used include:

  • Junior synonym: A name which describes the same taxon as a previously published name. If two or more genera are formally designated and the type specimens are later assigned to the same genus, the first to be published (in chronological order) is the senior synonym, and all other instances are junior synonyms. Senior synonyms are generally used, except by special decision of the ICZN, but junior synonyms cannot be used again, even if deprecated. Junior synonymy is often subjective, unless the genera described were both based on the same type specimen.
  • Nomen nudum (Latin for "naked name"): A name that has appeared in print but has not yet been formally published by the standards of the ICZN. Nomina nuda (the plural form) are invalid, and are therefore not italicized as a proper generic name would be. If the name is later formally published, that name is no longer a nomen nudum and will be italicized on this list. Often, the formally published name will differ from any nomina nuda that describe the same specimen.
  • Nomen oblitum (Latin for "forgotten name"): A name that has not been used in the scientific community for more than fifty years after its original proposal.
  • Preoccupied name: A name that is formally published, but which has already been used for another taxon. This second use is invalid (as are all subsequent uses) and the name must be replaced. As preoccupied names are not valid generic names, they will also go unitalicized on this list.
  • Nomen dubium (Latin for "dubious name"): A name describing a fossil with no unique diagnostic features. As this can be an extremely subjective and controversial designation, this term is not used on this list.

The list[edit]

Genus Authors Year Status Age Location Notes

Admentophoneus

Efremov

1954

Lapsus calami

N/A

N/A

Lapsus calami of Admetophoneus.

Admetophoneus

Efremov

1954

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Aelurognathus

Haughton

1924

Valid.

Aelurosauroides

Broom

1940

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Aelurosaurus[2]

Aelurosauropsis

Broom

1940

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Aelurosaurus[2]

Aelurosaurus

Owen

1881

Valid.

Agnosaurus

Boonstra

1952

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Moschops[2]

Akidnognathus

Haughton

1918

Valid.

Alopecodon

Broom

1908

Valid.

Middle Permian[3]

South Africa[3]

Alopecognathus

Broom

1915

Valid.

Alopecopsis

Broom

1920

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Theriognathus[4]

Alopecorhinus

Broom

1912

Valid.

Aloposauroides

Brink
Kitching

1953

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Aloposaurus[2]

Aloposaurus

Broom

1910

Valid.

Andescynodon

Bonaparte

1969

Valid.

Aneugomphius

Broom
Robinson

1949

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Theriognathus[4]

Angonisaurus

Cox

1983

Valid.?

Middle Triassic[5]

Tanzania[5]

May be synonym of Shansiodon[5]

Annatherapsidus

Kuhn

1961

Valid.

Upper Permian[6]

Russia[6]

Anningia

Broom

1927

Nomen vanum

Permian[7]

South Africa[7]

Declared to be a nomen vanum after a restudy of the type specimen.[7]

Anomocephalus

Modesto
Rubidge
Welman

1999

Valid.

Upper Permian[8]

South Africa[8]

Anomodon

Keyser

1975

Valid.

Anoplosuchus

Tchudinov

1968

Valid.

Upper Permian[6]

Russia[6]

Antecosuchus

Tatarinov

1973

Valid.

Middle Triassic[1]

Russia[1]

Anteosaurus

Watson

1921

Valid.

Upper Permian

South Africa

Archaeosuchus

Broom

1905

Valid.

Archaeosyodon

Tchudinov

1960

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Arctognathoides

Boonstra

1934

Valid.

Arctognathus

Broom

1911

Valid.

Arctops

Watson

1914

Valid.

Arctosuchus

Broom

1911

Valid.

Arctotraversodon

Sues
Hopson
Shubin

1992

Valid.

Arnognathus

Broom

1907

Valid.

Aulacocephalodon

Seeley

1898

Valid.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Aulacephalodon[2]

Aulacephalodon

Seeley

1898

Valid.

Middle-Upper Permian[3]

South Africa[3]

Australosyodon

Rubidge

1994

Valid.

Middle-Upper Permian[9]

South Africa[9]

Avenantia

Boonstra

1952

Valid.

Barysoma

Cox

1965

Valid.

Bauria

Broom

1909

Valid.

Baurioides

Broom

1925

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Bauria[2]

Bayloria

Oldon

1941

Syn.

Lower Permian[10]

United States of America[10]

Immature specimen of the captorhinid reptile Captorhinus aguti[10]

Beishanodon[11]

Gao
Fox
Zhou
Li

2010

Valid.

Lower Triassic[11]

China[11]

Belesodon

von Huene

1936

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Different growth stage of the genus Chiniquodon[12]

Biarmosaurus

Tchudinov

1960

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Biarmosuchus[2]

Biarmosuchoides

Tverdokhlebova
Ivakhnenko

1994

Valid.

Upper Permian[13]

Russia[13]

Biarmosuchus

Tchudinov

1960

Valid.

Upper Permian[6]

Russia[6]

Bienotherium

Young

1940

Valid.

Lower Jurassic[5]

China[5]

Bienotheroides

Young

1982

Valid.

Middle-Late Jurassic[14]

China and Mongolia[14]

Biseridens

Li
Cheng

1997

Valid.

Upper Permian[15]

China[15]

Bolotridon

Coad

1977

Valid.

Boreogomphodon

Sues
Olsen

1990

Valid.

Late Triassic[16]

United States of America[16]

Brachyprosopus

Olson

1937

Valid.

Brachyuraniscus

Broili
Schroeder

1935

Valid.

Middle Permian[17]

South Africa[17]

Brasilitherium

Bonaparte
Martinelli
Schultz
Rubert

2003

Valid.

Late Triassic[18]

Brazil[18]

Brasilodon

Bonaparte
Martinelli
Schultz
Rupert

2003

Valid.

Late Triassic[18]

Brazil[18]

Brithopus

Kutorga

1838

Valid.

Middle Permian[6]

Russia[6]

Broilius

Toerien

1953

Valid.

Broomicephalus

Brink
Kitching

1953

Valid.

Broomisaurus

Joleaud

1920

Valid.

Broomosuchus

Camp
Taylor
Welles

1942

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Anteosaurus[2]

Bullacephalus

Rubidge
Kitching

2003

Valid.

Burnetia

Broom

1923

Valid.

Upper Permian[19]

South Africa[19]

Calleonasus

Kalandadze

1985

Valid.

Middle Triassic[1]

Russia[1]

Cephalicustroidus

Parrington

1974

Valid.

Cerataelurus

Broom

1931

Valid.

Cerdodon

Broom

1915

Valid.

Cerdorhinus

Broom

1936

Valid.

Chalepotherium

Simpson

1928

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Oligokyptus[2]

Chaliminia

Bonaparte

1980

Valid.

Upper Triassic[12]

Brazil[12]

Chanaria

Cox

1968

Valid.

Charassognathus

Botha
Abdala
Smith

2007

Valid.

Charruodon

Abdala
Ribeiro

2000

Valid.

Late Triassic[20]

Brazil[20]

Chelydontops

Cluver

1975

Valid.

Chiniquodon

von Huene

1936

Valid.

Middle-Upper Triassic[12]

Argentina and Brazil[12]

Chiwetasaurus

Haughton

1926

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Gorgonops[2]

Chthomaloporus

Tchudinov

1964

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Chthonosaurus

Vjuschkov

1955

Valid.

Upper Permian[13]

Russia[13]

Cistecephaloides

Cluver

1974

Valid.

Cistecephalus

Owen

1876

Valid.

Middle-Upper Permian[3]

South Africa, Zambia and India[3]

Clelandina

Broom

1948

Valid.

Colobodectes

Modesto
Rubidge
Visser
Welman

2003

Valid.

Compsodon

van Hoepen

1934

Valid.

Crapartinella

Mendrez

1975

Valid.

Cragievanus

Brink

1965

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Diademodon[2]

Criocephalosaurus

Kammerer
Sidor

2002

Valid.

Middle Permian[3]

Zimbabwe[3]

Cristonasus

Surkov

1999

Valid.

Middle Triassic[21]

Russia[21]

Cromptodon

Bonaparte

1972

Valid.

Cryptocynodon

Seeley

1895

Valid.

Cteniosaurus

Broom

1935

Valid.

Cynochampsa

Owen

1859

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Diademodon[2]

Cynognathus

Seeley

1895

Valid.

Lower-Middle Triassic[22]

South Africa and Argentina[22]

Cyonosaurus

Olsen

1937

Valid.

Upper Permian[17]

South Africa[17]

Cynosaurus

Schmidt

1927

Valid.

Dadadon

Flynn
Parrish
Rakotosamimanana
Ranivoharimanana
Wyss

2000

Valid.

Middle-Late Triassic[23]

Madagascar[23]

Daptocephalus

van Hoepen

1934

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Dicynodon[2]

Daqingshanodon

Zhu

1989

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Dicynodon[5]

Deccanodon

Nath
Yadagiri

2007

Valid.

Upper Triassic[24]

India[24]

Delphaciognathus

Broom

1932

Valid.

Delphinognathus

Seeley

1892

Valid.

Deuterosaurus

Eichwald

1860

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Diademodon

Seeley

1895

Valid.

Lower-Middle Triassic[12]

South Africa[12]

Diaelurodon

Broom

1911

Valid.

Dianzhongia

Cui

1981

Valid.

Lower Jurassic[5]

China[5]

Dicynodon

Owen

1845

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Gondwana and Lausaria[1]

Dicynodontoides

Broom

1940

Valid.

Upper Permian[25]

South Africa[25]

Digalodon

Broom
Robinson

1948

Valid.

Upper Permian[25]

South Africa[25]

Probably valid taxon; needs further investigation[25]

Diictodon

Broom

1913

Valid.

Upper Permian[5]

China[5] and South Africa[3]

Dinanomodon

Broom

1938

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Dicynodon[2]

Dinodontosaurus

Romer

1943

Valid.

Middle Triassic[26]

Brazil[26]

Dinogorgon

Broom

1936

Valid.

Dinophoneus

Broom

1923

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Jonkeria[2]

Dinosaurus

Fischer

1847

Valid.

Dinosuchus

Broom

1936

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Anteosaurus[2]

Dixeya

Haughton

1926

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Aelurognathus [2]

Dolichuranus

Keyser

1973

Valid.?

Middle Triassic[5]

Zambia[5]

May be synonym of Shansiodon[5]

Doliosauriscus

Kuhn

1961

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Replacement name for Doliosaurus Orlov, 1958

Doliosaurus

Orlov

1958

Preocc.

N/A

N/A

Preoccupied by lizard Doliosaurus Girard, 1858 (Sauria: Iguania)

Dongusaurus

Vjuschkov

1964

Valid.

Middle Triassic[1]

Russia[1]

Dragocephalus

Brink
Kitching

1953

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Clelandina[2]

Driveria

Olson

1962

Valid.

Lower Permian[3]

United States of America[3]

Dvinia

Amalitskii

1922

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Ecteninion

Martinez
May
Forster

1996

Valid.

Upper Triassic[12]

Argentina[12]

Edaxosaurus

Kalandadze

1985

Valid.

Middle Triassic[1]

Russia[1]

Elatosaurus

Kalandadze

1985

Valid.

Middle Triassic[1]

Russia[1]

Elephantosaurus

Vjuschkov

1969

Valid.

Middle Triassic[1]

Russia[1]

Elliotherium

Sidor
Hancox

2006

Valid.

Upper Triassic[27]

South Africa[27]

Emydochampsa

Broom

1912

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Endothiodon[28]

Emydops

Broom

1912

Valid.

Middle Permian[3]

South Africa and India[3]

Emydopsoides

van Hoepen

1934

Valid.

Emydorhynchus

Broom

1935

Valid.

Emydorhinus

Broom

1935

Valid.

Emyduranus

Broom

1921

Valid.

Endogomphodon

Broom

1932

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Endothiodon[28]

Endothiodon

Owen

1876

Valid.

Upper Permian[28]

South Africa, Tanzania,[28] Malawi and India[3]

Eoarctops

Haughton

1929

Valid.

Eocyclops

Broom

1913

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Rhachiocephalus[2]

Eodicynodon

Barry

1974

Valid.

Middle-Upper Permian[29]

South Africa[29]

Eosimops

Broom

1922

Valid.

Eosyodon

Olson

1962

Valid.

Upper Permian[17]

United States of America[17]

Eotitanosuchus

Tchudinov

1960

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Ericiolacerta

Watson

1931

Valid.

Early Triassic[30]

South Africa[30]

Eriphostoma

Broom

1911

Valid.

Esoterodon

Seeley

1895

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Endothiodon[28]

Estemmenosuchus

Tchudinov

1960

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Euchambersia

Broom

1931

Valid.

Eumantellia

Broom

1935

Valid.

Eurosaurus

Eichwald

1860

Valid.

Eurychororhinus

Broili
Schroeder

1935

Valid.

Exaeretodon

Cabrera

1943

Valid.

Upper Triassic[31]

Brazil and Argentina[31]

Galechirus

Broom

1907

Valid.

Upper Permian[8]

South Africa[8]

Galeops

Broom

1912

Valid.

Upper Permian[8]

South Africa[8]

Galepus

Broom

1910

Valid.

Upper Permian[8]

South Africa[8]

Galerhynchus

Broom

1936

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Cerdorhinus[2]

Galesaurus

Owen

1859

Valid.

Galesuchus

Haughton

1915

Valid.

Geikia

Newton

1892

Valid.

Glanosuchus

Broom

1904

Valid.

Middle Permian[3]

South Africa[3]

Glochinodontoides

Haughton

1924

Valid.

Gomphodontosuchus

von Huene

1928

Valid.

Middle Triassic[26]

Brazil[26]

Gomphognathus

Seeley

1895

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Diademodon[2]

Gorgodon

Olson

1962

Valid.

Lower Permian[3]

United States of America[3]

Gordonia

Newton

1893

Valid.

Gorgonocephalus

author
author

19xx

Preocc.

Preoccupied by echinoderm Gorgonocephalus Leach, 1815

Gorgonops

Owen

1876

Valid.

Middle Permian[3]

South Africa[3]

Habayia

Godefroit

1999

Valid.

Upper Triassic[32]

Belgium[32]

Haughtoniana

Boonstra

1938

Valid.

Hazhenia

Sun
Hou

1981

Valid.

Lower Triassic[5]

China[5]

Herpetoskylax

Sidor
Rubidge

2006

Valid.

Heuneus

Toerien

1953

Valid.

Hexacynodon

Tatarinov

1976

Valid.

Upper Permian[6]

Russia[6]

Hipposauroides

Boonstra

1952

Valid.

Hipposaurus

Haughton

1929

Valid.

Middle Permian[12]

South Africa[12]

Hofmeyria

Broom

1935

Valid.

Homodontosaurus

Broom

1949

Valid.

Hyenosaurus

Broom

1935

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Theriognathus[4]

Ianthodon

Kissel
Reisz

2004

Valid.

Ictidognathus

Broom

1911

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Ictidostoma[2]

Ictidopsis

Broom

1912

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Thrinaxodon[33]

Ictidorhinus

Broom

1913

Valid.

Upper Permian[12]

South Africa[12]

Ictidostoma

Broom

1931

Valid.

Ictidosuchoides

Broom

1931

Valid.

Upper Permian - Lower Triassic[34]

South Africa[34]

Ictidosuchops

Broom

1938

Valid.

Ictidosuchus

Broom

1910

Valid.

Idelesaurus

Kurkin

2006

Valid.

Upper Permian[35]

Russia[35]

Inostrancevia

Amalitskii

1922

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Irajatherium

Martinelli
Bonaparte
Schultz
Rubert

2005

Valid.

Upper Triassic[26]

Brazil[26]

Ischignathus

Bonaparte

1963

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Junior synonym of Exaeretodon[36]

Ischigualastia

Cox

1962

Valid.

Upper Triassic[12]

Argentina[12]

Ivantosaurus

Tchudinov

1983

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Jachaleria

Bonaparte

1971

Valid.

Upper Triassic[26]

Argentina and Brazil[26]

Jacheleria

Bonaparte

1971

Sic

N/A

N/A

Incorrect spelling of Jachaleria

Jimusaria

Sun

1963

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Dicynodon[5]

Jonkeria

van Hoepen

1916

Valid.

Kannemeyeria

Seeley

1908

Valid.

Lower Triassic[5]

China, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, Argentina[5]

If Rechnisaurus and Uralokannemeyeria are considered synonyms, the range also include Russia and India

Kawingasaurus

Cox

1972

Valid.

Middle Permian[3]

Tanzania[3]

Kayentatherium

Kermack

1982

Valid.

Lower Jurassic[12]

United States of America[12]

Keratocephalus

von Huene

1931

Valid.

Kingoria

Cox

1959

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Junior synonym of Dicynodontoides Broom, 1940[25]

Kitchingia

Broom
George

1950

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Rhachiocephalus[2]

Knoxosaurus

Olson

1962

Valid.

Lower Permian[3]

United States of America[3]

Kombusia

Hotton

1974

Valid.

Upper Permian - Lower Triassic[12]

South Africa[12]

Koupia

Boonstra

1948

Valid.

Kunminia

Young

1947

Nomen dubium

Lower Jurassic[5]

China[5]

Possible synonym of Morganucodon[5]

Kunpania

Sun

1973

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Dicynodon[5]

Kwazulusaurus

Maisch

2002

Valid.

Upper Permian[34]

South Africa[34]

Lamiasaurus

Watson

1914

Valid.

Lanthanocephalus

Modesto
Rubidge
Welman

2002

Preocc.

N/A

N/A

Preoccupied by cnidarian Lanthanocephalus Williams & Starmer, 2000

Lanthanostegus

Modesto
Rubidge
Welman

2003

Valid.

Upper Permian[37]

South Africa[37]

Replacement name by Lanthanocephalus Modesto, Rubidge & Welman, 2002

Lemurosaurus

Broom

1949

Valid.

Upper Permian[38]

South Africa[38]

Leontocephalus

Broom

1940

Valid.

Leptotrachelus

Watson

1921

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Gorgonops[2]

Likhoelia

Ginsburg

1961

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Tritylodon[2]

Limnostygis

Carroll

1967

Valid.

Lobalopex

Sidor
Hopson
Keyser

2004

Valid.

Middle-Upper Permian[39]

South Africa[39]

Lophorhinus

Sidor
Smith

2007

Valid.

Middle Permian[40]

South Africa[40]

Luangwa

Brink

1963

Valid.

Middle Triassic[12]

Zambia[12] and Brazil[26]

Lufengia

Chow
Hu

1959

Valid.

Lower Jurassic[5]

China[5]

Lumkuia

Hopson
Kitching

2001

Valid.

Lower Triassic[12]

South Africa[12]

Lycaenodon

Broom

1925

Valid.

Upper Permian[41]

South Africa[41]

Lycaenodontoides

Haughton

1929

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Arctognathus[2]

Lycaenoides

Broom

1925

Valid.

Lycaenops

Broom

1925

Valid.

Middle-Upper Permian[3]

South Africa[3]

Lycideops

Broom

1931

Valid.

Lycosuchus

Broom

1903

Valid.

Lystrosaurus

Cope

1870

Valid.

Upper Permian - Early Triassic[34]

South Africa, Zambia, India, China, Mongolia, Russia, Antarctica, Australia and Laos[34]

Madysaurus

Tatarinov

2005

Valid.

Massetognathus

Romer

1967

Valid.

Middle Triassic[42]

Brazil and Argentina[42]

Mastersonia

Olson

1962

Valid.

Lower Permian[3]

United States of America[3]

Maubeugia

Godefroit
Battail

1997

Valid.

Megacyclops

Broom

1931

Preocc.

N/A

N/A

Preoccupied by crustacean Megacyclops Kiefer, 1927. Synonym of Rhachiocephalus[2]

Megagomphodon

Romer

1972

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Massetognathus[2]

Megawhaitsia

Ivakhnenko

2008

Valid.

Upper Permian[4]

Russia[4]

Melinodon

Broom

1905

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Bauria[2]

Menadon

Flynn
Parrish
Rakotosamimanana
Ranivoharimanana
Wyss

2000

Valid.

Middle-Late Triassic[23]

Madagascar[23]

Micranteosaurus

Boonstra

1954

Valid.

Micrictodon

Broom

1937

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Thrinaxodon[33]

Microgomphodon

Seeley

1895

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Bauria[2]

Microscalenodon

Hahn
Lepage
Wouters

1988

Valid.

Microsyodon

Ivakhnenko

1995

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Microurania

Ivakhnenko

1996

Valid.

Upper Permian[13]

Russia[13]

Mnemeiosaurus

Nopsca

1928

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonymy of Deuterosaurus[1]

Molybdopygus

Tchudinov

1964

Valid.

Mormosaurus

Watson

1914

Valid.

Moschognathus

Broom

1914

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Moschops[2]

Moschoides

Byrne

1937

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Moschops[2]

Moschops

Broom

1911

Valid.

Upper Permian[30]

South Africa[30]

Moschorhinus

Broom

1920

Valid.

Upper Permian - Lower Triassic[34]

South Africa[34]

Moschosaurus

Haughton

1915

Valid.

Moschowhaitsia

Tatarinov

1963

Valid.

Upper Permian[6]

Russia[6]

Mucrotherium

von Huene

1933

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Oligokyptus[2]

Myctosuchus

Efremov

1937

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Venjukovia[2]

Myosauroides

Broom

1949

Valid.

Myosaurus

Haughton

1917

Valid.

Lower Triassic[43]

South Africa and Antarctica[43]

Nanictocephalus

Broom

1940

Valid.

Nanictops

Carroll

1988

Valid.

Nanictosaurus

Broom

1936

Valid.

Nanocynodon

Tatarinov

1968

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Nanogomphodon

Hopson
Sues

2006

Valid.

Middle Triassic[44]

Germany[44]

Nasoplanites

Surkov

1999

Valid.

Middle Triassic[21]

Russia[21]

Nearctylodon

Lewis

1986

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Kayentatherium[2]

Neomegacyclops

Broom

1931

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Rhachiocephalus[2]

Newtonella

Broom

1937

Valid.

Niaftasuchus

Ivakhnenko

1990

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Nikkasaurus

Ivakhnenko

2000

Valid.

Nitosaurus

Romer

1937

Valid.

Lower Permian[45]

United States of America[45]

Niuksenitia

Tatarinov

1977

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Notaelurops

Broom

1936

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Theriognathus[4]

Notosollasia

Broom

1925

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Theriognathus[4]

Notosyodon

Tchudinov

1968

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Kazakhstan[1]

Nothogomphodon

Tatarinov

1976

Valid.

Middle Triassic[21]

Russia[21]

Odontocyclops

Keyser
Cruickshank

1979

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Rhachiocephalus[2]

Oligokyphus

Henning

1922

Valid.

Lower Jurassic[5]

China, England, Germany and United States of America[5]

Ordosia

Hou

1979

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Ordosiodon[5]

Ordosiodon

Young

1961

Valid.

Lower Triassic[5]

China[5]

Orthopus

Kutorga

1838

Valid.

Otsheria

Tchudinov

1960

Valid.

Upper Permian[6]

Russia[6]

Oudenodon

Owen

1860

Valid.

Middle-Upper Permian[46]

South Africa, Zambia, Madagascar,[46] Malawi and India[3]

Pachydectes

Rubidge
Sidor
Modesto

2006

Valid.

Middle Permian[47]

South Africa[47]

Pachyrhinos

Broili
Schroeder

1934

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Gorgonops[2]

Pachytegos

Haughton

1932

Valid.

Upper Permian[28]

Tanzania[28]

Palemydops

Broom

1921

Valid.

Parabradysaurus

Efremov

1954

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Paraburnetia

Smith
Rubidge
Sidor

2006

Valid.

Upper Permian[48]

South Africa[48]

Paragalerhinus

Sigogneau-Russell

1970

Valid.

Parakennemeyeria

Sun

1960

Valid.

Lower-Middle Triassic[5]

China[5]

Paranteosaurus

Boonstra

1954

Valid.

Parascapanodon

Boonstra

1955

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Parascapanodon[2]

Parathrinaxodon

Parrington

1936

Valid.

Pardocephalus

Broom

1948

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Arctops[2]

Parringtoniella

Toerien

1953

Valid.

Parvobestiola

Surkov

1999

Valid.

Middle Triassic[21]

Russia[21]

Pascualgnathus

Bonaparte

1966

Valid.

Lower Triassic[12]

Argentina[12]

Patranomodon

Rubidge
Hopson

1990

Valid.

Middle-Upper Permian[8]

South Africa[8]

Pedaeosaurus

Colbert
Kitching

1979

Valid.

Upper Permian - Lower Triassic[43]

South Africa and Antarctica[43]

Pelanomodon

Broom

1938

Valid.

Upper Permian[3]

South Africa[3]

Pelorocyclops

van Hoepen

1934

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Rhachiocephalus[2]

Permocynodon

Sushkin

1927

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Dvinia[1]

Phocosaurus

Seeley

1888

Valid.

Phoneosuchus

Efremov

1954

Valid.

Phreatosaurus

Efremov

1954

Valid.

Middle Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Phreatosuchus

Efremov

1954

Valid.

Middle Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Phthinosaurus

Efremov

1954

Valid.

Upper Permian[6]

Russia[6]

Phthinosuchus

Efremov

1954

Valid.

Placerias

Lucas

1904

Valid.

Platycraniellus

van Hoepen

1916

Valid.

Lower Triassic[12]

South Africa[12]

Platycyclops

Broom

1932

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Rhachiocephalus[2]

Plintogomphodon

Sues
Olsen
Carter

1999

Valid.

Late Triassic[49]

United States of America[49]

Pnigalion

Watson

1914

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Moschops[2]

Poecilospondylus

Case

1910

Syn.

Polistodon

He
Cai

1984

Valid.

Middle Jurassic[5]

China[5]

Porosteognathus

Vjuschkov

1955

Valid.

Upper Permian[13]

Russia[13]

Pravoslavleria

Vjuschkov

1953

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Pristerodon

Huxley

1868

Valid.

Middle Permian[3]

South Africa and India[3]

Pristerognathus

Seeley

1895

Valid.

Middle Permian[3]

South Africa[3]

Probelesodon

Romer

1969

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Different growth stage of the genus Chiniquodon[12]

Proburnetia

Tatarinov

1968

Valid.

Upper Permian[19]

Russia[19]

Procynosuchus

Broom

1937

Valid.

Upper Permian[30]

South Africa[30]

Prodicynodon

Broom

1904

Valid.

Proexaerotodon

Bonaparte

1963

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Exaerotodon[2]

Progalesaurus

Sidor
Smith

2004

Valid.

Lower Triassic[50]

South Africa[50]

Prolystrosaurus

Haughton

1917

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Lystrosaurus[2]

Promoschorhynchus

Brink

1954

Valid.

Propelanomodon

Toerien

1955

Valid.

Prorubidgea

Broom

1940

Valid.

Protacmon

Watson

1920

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Diademodon[2]

Protheriodon

Bonaparte
Soares
Schultz

2006

Valid.

Middle Triassic[51]

Brazil[51]

Protuberum

Reichel
Schultz
Soares

2009

Valid.

Middle Triassic[52]

Brazil[52]

Prozostrodon

Bonaparte
Barberena

2001

Valid.

Middle Triassic[26]

Brazil

Pseudanteosaurus

Boonstra

1954

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Anteosaurus[2]

Pseudhipposaurus

Boonstra

1952

Valid.

Rabidosaurus

Kalandadze

1970

Valid.

Middle Triassic[1]

Russia[1]

Raranimus

Liu
Rubidge
Li

2009

Valid.

Middle Permian[53]

China[53]

Rechnisaurus

Roychodhury

1970

Valid.?

Middle Triassic[54]

India[54]

Considered synonym of Kannemeyeria[5]

Regisaurus

Mendrez

1972

Valid.

Lower Triassic[5]

South Africa[5]

Reiszia

Ivakhnenko

2000

Valid.

Rewaconodon

Datta
Das
Luo

2004

Valid.

Late Triassic[24]

India[24]

Rhachiocephalus

Seeley

1898

Valid.

Middle Permian[3]

South Africa[3]

Rhadiodromus

Efremov

1951

Valid.

Middle Triassic[1]

Russia[1]

Rhigosaurus

Colbert
Kitching

1979

Valid.

Upper Permian - Lower Triassic[43]

South Africa and Antarctica[43]

Rhinocerocephalus

Vjuschkov

1969

Valid.

Rhinodicynodon

Kalandadze

1970

Valid.?

Middle Triassic[1]

Russia[1]

May be synonym of Shansiodon[5]

Rhopalodon

Fischer

1841

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Rhopalorhinus

Keyser

1973

Valid.?

Middle Triassic[5]

Namibia[5]

May be synonym of Shansiodon[5]

Riebeeckosaurus

Boonstra

1952

Valid.

Riograndia

Bonaparte
Ferigolo
Ribeiro

2001

Valid.

Late Triassic[26]

Brazil[26]

Robertia

Boonstra

1948

Valid.

Middle-Upper Permian[3]

South Africa[3]

Rosieria

Godefroit
Battail

1997

Valid.

Rubidgea

Broom

1938

Valid.

Rubidgina

Broom

1942

Valid.

Rusconodon

Bonaparte

1970

Valid.

Lower Triassic[12]

Argentina[12]

Sangusaurus

Cox

1969

Valid.

Santacruzodon

Abdala
Ribeiro

2003

Valid.

Middle Triassic[26]

Brazil[26]

Sauroctonus

Bystrov

1955

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Scalenodon

Crompton

1955

valid.

Middle Triassic[1]

Tanzania and Russia[1]

Scalenodontoides

Crompton
Ellenberger

1957

Valid.

Scalopognathus

Tatarinov

1974

Valid.

Early Triassic[1]

Russia[1]

Scalopolacerta

Mendrez
Carroll

1979

Valid.

Scaloposaurus

Owen

1876

Valid.

Scapanodon

Broom

1904

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Titanosuchus[2]

Scylacops

Broom

1913

Valid.

Scoliomus

Williston
Case

1915

Syn.

Lower Permian[55]

United States of America[55]

Junior synonym of Sphenacodon[55]

Scullya

Broom

1929

Valid.

Scylacorhinus

Broom

1915

Valid.

Scylacosaurus

Broom

1903

Valid.

Scylacosuchus

Tatarinov

1968

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Scymnognathus

Broom

1915

Valid.

Scymnorhinus

Bonaparte

1846

Valid.

Scymnosaurus

Broom

1903

Valid.

Sesamodon

Broom

1905

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Bauria[2]

Sesamondon

author
author

19xx

Valid.

Shaanbeikannemeyeria

Cheng

1980

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Kannemeyeria [5]

Shansiodon

Yeh

1959

Valid.

Middle Triassic[5]

China[5]

Silphedosuchus

Tatarinov

1977

Valid.

Silphoictidoides

von Huene

1950

Valid.

Simorhinella

Broom

1915

Valid.

Sinognathus

Young

1959

Valid.

Middle Triassic[5]

China[5]

Sinokannemeyeria

Young

1937

Valid.

Middle Triassic[5]

China[5]

Sinophonus

Cheng
Li

1996

Valid.

Upper Permian[15]

China[15]

Smilesaurus

Broom

1948

Valid.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Arctops[2]

Stahleckeria

von Huene

1935

Valid.

Lower-Upper Triassic[12]

Brazil[12]

Stenocybus

Cheng
Li

1997

Valid.

Upper Permian[15]

China[15]

Steppesaurus

Olson
Beerbower

1953

Valid.

Lower Permian[3]

United States of America[3]

Striodon

Sun

1973

Nomen dubium

N/A

N/A

Striodon magnus is regarded as a nomen dubium, and its type specimen is identified as Dicynodon sp.[5]

Struthiocephaloides

Boonstra

1952

Valid.

Struthiocephalus

Haughton

1915

Valid.

Middle Permian[17]

South Africa[17]

Struthionops

Boonstra

1952

Valid.

Storthyggnathus

Janesch

1952

Valid.

Styracocephalus

Haughton

1929

Valid.

Suminia

Ivakhnenko

1994

Valid.

Upper Permian[6]

Russia[6]

Sycosaurus

von Huene

1950

Valid.

Synostocephalus

Broili
Schroeder

1935

Valid.

Syodon

Kutorga

1838

Valid.

Sysphinctostoma

Broili
Schroeser

1936

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Diademodon[2]

Tangagorgon

Boonstra

1953

Valid.

Taognathus

Broom

1911

Valid.

Tapinocaninus

Rubidge

1991

Valid.

Middle Permian[3]

South Africa[3]

Tapinocephalus

Owen

1876

Valid.

Middle Permian[3]

South Africa[3]

Taurocephalus

Broom

1928

Valid.

Taurops

Broom

1912

Valid.

Tetraceratops

Matthew

1908

Valid.

Lower Permian[56]

United States of America[56]

Placement within Therapsida questioned[57]

Tetracynodon

Broom
Robinson

1948

Valid.

Upper Permian - Lower Triassic[34]

South Africa[34]

Tetragonias

Cruickshank

1967

Valid.?

Middle Triassic[5]

South Africa[5]

May be synonym of Shansiodon[5]

Theriognathus

Owen

1876

Valid.

Upper Permian[4]

South Africa[4]

Theropsis

Cabrera

1943

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Exaerotodon[2]

Theropsodon

von Huene

1950

Valid.

Thrinaxodon

Seeley

1894

Valid.

Lower Triassic[33]

South Africa and Antarctica[33]

Tigrisaurus

Broom
George

1950

Valid.

Titanognathus

Broili
Schroeder

1935

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Anteosaurus[2]

Titanophoneus

Efremov

1938

Valid.

Upper Permian[13]

Russia[13]

Titanosuchus

Owen

1876

Valid.

Upper Permian[30]

South Africa[30]

Traversodon

von Huene

1936

Valid.

Middle Triassic[26]

Brazil[26]

Traversodontoides

Young

1974

Valid.

Middle Triassic[5]

China[5]

Triachodontoides

Broom

1932

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Trirachodon[2]

Triglyphus

Fraas

1866

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Tritylodon[2]

Trirachodon

Seeley

1895

Valid.

Tritheledon

Broom

1912

Valid.

Tritylodon

Owen

1884

Valid.

Tritylodontoides

Fourie

1962

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Tritylodon[2]

Trochosuchus

Broom

1908

Valid.

Trochosaurus

Haughton

1915

Valid.

Tropidostoma

Broom

1915

Valid.

Middle Permian[3]

South Africa[3]

Trucidocynodon

Oliveira
Soares
Schultz

2010

Valid.

Upper Triassic[58]

Brazil[58]

Turfanodon

Sun

1973

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Dicynodon[5]

Ulemica

Ivakhnenko

1996

Valid.

Upper Permian[6]

Russia[6]

Ulemosaurus

Ryabinin

1938

Valid.?

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Considered synonym of Moschops[2]

Uniserium

von Huene

1933

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Oligokyptus[2]

Uralocynodon

Tatarinov

1987

Valid.

Upper Permian[1]

Russia[1]

Uralokannemeyeria

Danilov

1971

Valid.?

Middle Triassic[1]

Russia[1]

Considered synonym of Kannemeyeria [5]

Uraniscosaurus

Nopsca

1928

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Deuterosaurus[1]

Urumchia

Young

1952

Valid.

Lower Triassic[5]

China[5]

Venjukovia

Amaltskii

1922

Valid.

Upper Permian[6]

Russia[6]

Viatkosuchus

Tatarinov

1995

Valid.

Vinceria

Bonaparte

1969

Valid.

Lower Triassic[12]

Argentina[12]

Wadiasaurus

Roychodhury

1970

Valid.

Middle Triassic[54]

India[54]

Wangwosaurus

Young

1979

Valid.

Watsoniella

Broili
Schroder

1935

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Bauria[2]

Whaitsia

Haughton

1918

Syn.

N/A

N/A

Synonym of Theriognathus[4]

Xiyukannemeyeria

Liu
Li

2003

Valid.

Xyrospondylus

Reisz
Heaton
Pynn

1982

Valid.

Yikezhaogia

Li

1984

Valid.

Lower Triassic[5]

China[5]

Yunnania

Cui

1976

Preocc.

N/A

N/A

Preoccupied by gastropod Yunnania Mansuy, 1912

Yunnanodon

Cui

1986

Valid.

Lower Jurassic[5]

China[5]

Replacement name by Yunnania Cui, 1976[5]

Zambiasaurus

Cox

1969

Valid.

Lower Triassic[12]

Zambia[12]

Zopherosuchus

Tchudinov

1983

Valid.

Upper Permian[6]

Russia[6]

Zorillodontops

Cluver

1969

Valid.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by Battail, B. & Surkov, M. V. Mammal-like reptiles from Russia. In Benton, M. J.; Shishkin, M. A.; Unwin, D. M.; Kurochkin, E. N. The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia. Cambridge University Press, 2001. 672 p.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg Carroll, R. L. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. W. H Freeman Company, 1988.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au Lucas, S. G. Global Permian tetrapod biostratigraphy and biochronology. In Lucas, S. G.; Cassinis, G. & Schneider, J. W. (eds.). Non-marine permian biostratigraphy and biochronology. Geological Society, 2006. 344 p.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ivakhnenko, M. F. 2008. The first whaitsiid (Therocephalia, Theromorpha) from the terminal Permian of Eastern Europe. Paleontological Journal 42 (4): 409-413.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj Lucas, S. G. Chinese Fossil Vertebrates. Columbia University Press, New York, 2001.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Modesto, S. P. & Rybcynski, N. The amniote faunas of the Russian Permian: implications for Late Permian terrestrial vertebrate biogeography. In Benton, M. J.; Shishkin, M. A.; Unwin, D. M.; Kurochkin, E. N. The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia. Cambridge University Press, 2001. 672 p.
  7. ^ a b c Reisz, R. R. & Dilkes, D. W. 1992. The taxonomic position of Anningia megalops, a small amniote from the Permian of South Africa. Canadian Journal of Earth Science 29 (7): 1605–1608. Abstract
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Angielczyk, K. D. 2004. Phylogenetic evidence for and implications of a dual origin of propaliny in anomodont therapsids (Synapsida). Paleobiology 30 (2): 268–296.
  9. ^ a b Rubidge, B. S. 1994. Australosyodon, the first primitive anteosaurid dinocephalian from the Upper Permian of Gondwana. Paleontology 37 (3): 579-594.
  10. ^ a b c Reisz, R. R. & Heaton, M. J. 1982. Bayloria morei Olson 1941 identified as an immature specimen of the Permian reptile Captorhinus aguti (Cope, 1882)'. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 19 (6): 1232–1234. Abstract
  11. ^ a b c Gao, K.; Fox, R.C.; Zhou, C.-F.; Li, D.-Q. (2010). "A new nonmammalian eucynodont (Synapsida, Therapsida) from the Triassic of northern Gansu Province, China, and its biostratigraphic and biogeographic implications". American Museum novitates 3685: 24p. doi:10.1206/649.1. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Kemp, T. S. The Origin & Evolution of Mammals. Oxford University Press, 2005.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tverdokhlebov, V. P.; Tverdokhlebova, G. I.; Surkov, M. v.; Minikh, A. V. & Benton, M. J. 2005. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia. Earth-Science Reviews 69: 27-77.
  14. ^ a b Watabe, M.; Tsubamoto, T. & Tsogtbaatar, K. 2007. A new tritylodontid synapsid from Mongolia. Acta Paleontologica Polonica 52 (2): 263–274.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Li, J. 2000. The most primitive lower tetrapod fauna in China. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences 44 (1): 47-51.
  16. ^ a b Sues, H. -D. & Olsen, P. E. 1990. Triassic vertebrates of Gondwanan aspect from the Richmond basin of Virginia. Science 249: 1020-1022.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Bruner, J. C. 1991. A catalogue of Type Specimens of Fossil Vertebrates in the Field Museum of Natural History. Classes Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and ichnites. Geology 22: 1-68.
  18. ^ a b c d Bonaparte, J. F.; Martinelli, A. G. & Schultz, C. L. 2005. New information on Brasilodon and Brasilitherium (Cynodontia, Probainognathia) from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia 8 (1) 25-46.
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