List of threatened sharks

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See also: Threatened rays
Photo of shark in profile surrounded by other, much smaller fish in bright sunlight
The whale shark, the world's largest fish, is classified as Vulnerable.

Binding legislation and harvest management strategies... are urgently needed to address the disproportionate impact of fisheries on cartilaginous fishes.

IUCN global study 2010 [1]

Threatened sharks are those vulnerable to endangerment (extinction) in the near future. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world’s oldest global environmental organization.[2] It evaluates threatened species, and treats threatened species not as a single category, but as a group of three categories, depending on the degree to which they are threatened:[3]

VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable species
EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered species
CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered species

The term threatened strictly refers to these three categories (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable), while vulnerable is used to refer to the least at risk of these categories.[3] The terms can be used somewhat interchangeably, as all vulnerable species are threatened, all endangered species are vulnerable and threatened, and all critically endangered species are endangered, vulnerable and threatened. Threatened species are also referred to as a red-listed species, as they are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[4]

In a milestone decision in 2013, CITES prohibited international trade in the fins of the scalloped hammerhead (pictured) and four other shark species.[5]

Shark species are increasingly becoming threatened because of commercial and recreational fishing pressures, the impact of non-shark fisheries on the seabed and shark prey species, and other habitat alterations such as damage and loss from coastal development and marine pollution.[6] Rising demands for shark products has increased pressure on shark fisheries, but little monitoring or management occurs of most fisheries.[7] Major declines in shark stocks have been recorded over the past few decades; some species have declined over 90% and population declines of 70% are not unusual.[8] In particular, harvesting young sharks before they reproduce severely impacts future populations. Sharks generally reach sexual maturity only after many years and produce few offspring in comparison to other fish species.[9]

Conservationists estimate that up to 100 million sharks are killed by commercial and recreational fishing every year.[10][11] Sharks are often killed for shark fin soup, which some Asian countries regard as a status symbol. Fishermen capture live sharks, fin them, and dump the finless animal back into the water to die from suffocation or predators.[11][12] Sharks are also killed for their flesh in Europe and elsewhere.[13] The 2007 film Sharkwater documents ways in which sharks are being hunted to extinction.[14] In 2009, the IUCN Shark Specialist Group reported on the conservation status of pelagic (open water) sharks and rays. They found that over half the pelagic sharks targeted by high-seas fisheries were threatened with extinction.[15][16][17]

In 2010, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) rejected proposals from the United States and Palau that would have required countries to strictly regulate trade in several species of hammerhead, oceanic whitetip and dogfish sharks. The majority, but not the required two-thirds of voting delegates, approved the proposal. China, by far the world’s largest shark consumer, and Japan, which battles all attempts to extend the Convention's protections to marine species, led the opposition.[18][19]

In 2013, CITES member nations overcame the continued opposition led by China and Japan,[20] and reversed course.[21][22] In what CITES has called a "milestone", the oceanic whitetip, porbeagle, and three species of hammerheads will now join the great white, basking and whale shark on CITES Appendix II, effective September 2014.[23] International trade of these species is thus prohibited without CITES permits, "... and evidence will have to be provided that they are harvested sustainably and legally."[5]

Order Image Scientific name Common name Population trend IUCN status Fish
Base
FAO CITES
Appendix[23]
Mackerel
shark
Alopias pelagicus.jpg Alopias pelagicus Pelagic thresher decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[24] [25] [26]
Mackerel
shark
Alopias superciliosus.jpg Alopias superciliosus Bigeye thresher shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[27] [28] [29]
Mackerel
shark
Thresher shark.jpg Alopias vulpinus Common thresher decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[30] [31] [32]
Groundshark Atelomycterus baliensis Bali catshark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[33] [34]
Groundshark Aulohalaelurus kanakorum New Caledonia catshark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[35] [36]
Carpet shark Heteroscyllium colcloughi csiro-nfc.jpg Brachaelurus colcloughi Bluegrey carpetshark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[37] [38]
Groundshark Carcharhinus borneensis Borneo shark unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[39] [40]
Groundshark Carcharhinus hemiodon nmfs 2.png Carcharhinus hemiodon Pondicherry shark unknown CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[41] [42]
Groundshark Carcharhinus leiodon nmfs 2.png Carcharhinus leiodon Smoothtooth blacktip shark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[43] [44]
Groundshark Carcharhinus longimanus 1.jpg Carcharhinus longimanus Oceanic whitetip shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[45] [46] II (eff. Sep-2014)
Groundshark Carcharhinus obscurus at Seaworld.jpg Carcharhinus obscurus Dusky shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[47] [48] [49]
Groundshark Carcharhinus plumb.JPG Carcharhinus plumbeus Sandbar shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[50] [51] [52]
Groundshark Carcharhinus signatus nmfs.jpg Carcharhinus signatus Night shark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[53] [54] [55]
Mackerel
shark
UShaka Sea World 1079-a.jpg Carcharias taurus Sand tiger unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[56] [57] [58]
Mackerel
shark
White shark.jpg Carcharodon carcharias Great white shark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[59] [60] [61] II
Dogfish Centrophorus granulosus.jpg Centrophorus granulosus Gulper shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[62] [63] [64]
Dogfish Centrophorus harrissoni.jpg Centrophorus harrissoni Dumb gulper shark decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[65] [66] [67]
Dogfish Centrophorus lusitanicus Lowfin gulper shark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[68] [69] [70]
Dogfish Centrophorus squamosus1.jpg Centrophorus squamosus Deepwater spiny dogfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[71] [72] [73]
Mackerel
shark
Cetorhinus maximus by greg skomal.JPG Cetorhinus maximus Basking shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[74] [75] [76] II
Groundshark Chaenogaleus macrostoma Day - cropped.png Chaenogaleus macrostoma Hooktooth shark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[77] [78]
Groundshark Galeorhinus galeus1.jpg Galeorhinus galeus School shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[79] [80] [81]
Groundshark Galeus mincaronei Southern sawtail catshark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[82] [83]
Groundshark Carcharias gangeticus by muller and henle.png Glyphis gangeticus Ganges shark decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered [84] [85]
Groundshark Glyphis garricki csiro-nfc.jpg Glyphis garricki New Guinea river shark decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered [86] [87]
Groundshark Speartooth shark melbourne.jpg Glyphis glyphis Speartooth shark decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[88] [89]
Groundshark Glyphis siamensis Irrawaddy river shark unknown CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered [90] [91]
Groundshark
Brown shyshark DEK5155.jpg
Haploblepharus fuscus Brown shyshark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[92] [93]
Groundshark Haploblepharus kistnasamyi Natal shyshark unknown CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[94] [95]
Groundshark Hemigaleus microstoma ranong 3.jpg Hemigaleus microstoma Sickle fin weasel shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[96] [97]
Groundshark Hemipristis elongata csiro-nfc.jpg Hemipristis elongata Snaggletooth shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[98] [99]
Carpet shark Hemiscyllium hallstromi Papuan epaulette shark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[100] [101] [102]
Carpet shark Hemiscyllium strahani Hooded carpet shark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[103] [104] [105]
Groundshark Hemitriakis leucoperiptera Whitefin topeshark unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[106] [107]
Groundshark Holohalaelurus favus Honeycomb Izak decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[108] [109]
Groundshark Holohalaelurus punctatus Whitespotted Izak decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[110] [111]
Groundshark Carcharias oxyrhynchus by muller and henle.png Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus Daggernose shark decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[112] [113]
Mackerel
shark
Isurus oxyrinchus by mark conlin2.JPG Isurus oxyrinchus Shortfin mako decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[114] [115] [116]
Mackerel
shark
Long fin mako shark.svg Isurus paucus Longfin mako decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[117] [118] [119]
Groundshark Carcharias temminckii by muller and henle.png Lamiopsis temminckii Broadfin shark decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[120] [121]
Mackerel
shark
Lamna nasus.jpg Lamna nasus Porbeagle decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[122] [123] III
(II eff. Sept. 2014)
Groundshark Mustelus fasciatus Striped smooth-hound decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[124] [125]
Groundshark Mustelus mustelus1.jpg Mustelus mustelus Common smoothhound decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[126] [127]
Groundshark Mustelus schmitti Narrownose smoothhound decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[128] [129] [130]
Groundshark Mustelus whitneyi Humpback smoothhound decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[131] [132]
Carpet shark Nebrius ferrugineus Day.jpg Nebrius ferrugineus Tawny nurse shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[133] [134] [135]
Groundshark Negaprion acutidens sydney2.jpg Negaprion acutidens Sharptooth lemon shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[136] [137]
Mackerel
shark
Odontaspis ferox (Smalltooth sand tiger).gif Odontaspis ferox Small-tooth sand tiger shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[138] [139] [140]
Dogfish Oxynotus centrina Gervais.jpg Oxynotus centrina Angular rough shark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[141] [142] [143]
Carpet shark Pseudoginglymostoma brevicaudatum.jpg Pseudoginglymostoma
brevicaudatum
Shorttail nurse shark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[144] [145]
Carpet shark Rhtyp u0 white bg.gif Rhincodon typus Whale shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[146] [147] [148] II
Groundshark Schroederichthys
saurisqualus
Lizard catshark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[149] [150]
Groundshark Scylliogaleus quecketti Flapnose houndshark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[151] [152]
Groundshark Sphyrna lewini Gervais.jpg Sphyrna lewini Scalloped hammerhead unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[153] [154] [155] II (eff. Sept. 2014)
Groundshark Sphyrna mokarran at georgia.jpg Sphyrna mokarran Great hammerhead decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[156] [157] II (eff. Sept. 2014)
Groundshark Sphyrna tudes2.jpg Sphyrna tudes Smalleye hammerhead decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[158] [159]
Groundshark Sphyrna zygaena noaa.jpg Sphyrna zygaena Smooth hammerhead decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[160] [161] II (eff. Sept. 2014)
Dogfish Squalus acanthias stellwagen.jpg Squalus acanthias Piked dogfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[162] [163] [164]
Dogfish Squalus-montalbani-sideview.png Squalus montalbani Philippines spurdog decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[165] [166]
Angel shark Squatina aculeata Sawback angelshark decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[167] [168] [169]
Angel shark Squatina albipunctata Eastern angel shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[170] [171]
Angel shark Squatina argentina Argentine angel shark decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[172] [173] [174]
Angel shark Squatina formosa Taiwan angelshark unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[175] [176] [177]
Angel shark Squatina guggenheim Hidden angelshark decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[178] [179]
Angel shark Squatina japonica2.jpg Squatina japonica Japanese angelshark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[180] [181] [182]
Angel shark Squatina nebulosa Clouded angelshark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[183] [184] [185]
Angel shark Hal - Squatina oculata.jpg Squatina oculata Smoothback angel shark decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[186] [187] [188]
Angel shark Squatina punctata Angular angelshark decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[189] [190]
Angel shark Squatina squatina tenerife.jpg Squatina squatina Angel shark decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[191] [192] [193]
Angel shark Squatina tergocellatoides Ocellated angelshark unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[194] [195] [196]
Carpet shark Stegostoma fasciatum mozambique.jpg Stegostoma fasciatum Zebra shark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[197] [198] [199]
Groundshark Triakis acutipinna Sharpfin houndshark decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[200] [201]
Groundshark Triakis maculata Spotted houndshark decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[202] [203]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]