List of turnpikes in Virginia and West Virginia

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For the modern turnpikes, see Richmond-Petersburg Turnpike and West Virginia Turnpike.
Historic Turnpikes in Virginia
Highway names
Interstates: Interstate X (I-X)
US Routes: U.S. Route X (US X)
State: State Route X (SR X) or Virginia Route X (VA X)
System links

This is a list of turnpike roads, built and operated by nonprofit turnpike trusts or private companies in exchange for the privilege of collecting a toll, in the U.S. states of Virginia and West Virginia, mainly in the 19th century. While most of the roads are now maintained as free public roads, some have been abandoned.


List[edit]

Name Chartered Routing Approximate modern designation Notes
Abb's Valley and Tug's Road Turnpike February 19, 1850
Abingdon and Pattonsville Turnpike
Abingdon and Saltville Turnpike December 28, 1803 Abingdon - Saltville
Alleghany Turnpike December 31, 1805 Lafayette - East of Christiansburg U.S. Route 11 Later absorbed into the Southwestern Turnpike
Alleghany and Huntersville Road Tolled state improvement
Alleghany Mountain Turnpike
Ashby's Gap Turnpike Aldie - Ashby's Gap - Berrys U.S. Route 50
Augusta Springs Turnpike
Aurora and Terra Alta Turnpike Aurora - Terra Alta Aurora Pike Was part of the Morgantown, Kingwood and West Union Turnpike
Back Creek Valley Turnpike
Bath to Shepherdstown Turnpike
Beaver Creek to Leatherwood Hills Turnpike
Berkeley and Hampshire Turnpike March 1, 1851 Martinsburg - Frenchburg Tuscarora Pike, Hampshire Grade Road, Blue Rock Road, Old Romney Grade (abandoned), WV Route 127, WV Route 29, Old Martinsburg Road
Berryville Turnpike 1831 Winchester - Berryville - Shenandoah River VA Route 7
Berryville and Charles Town Turnpike March 22, 1847 Berryville - Charles Town U.S. Route 340 Augustine Avenue
Beverly and Fairmont Road 1852 Beverly - Elkins - Belington - Philippi - Fairmont U.S. Route 250, Laurel Mountain Road, U.S. Route 250 Tolled state improvement
Beverly Manor Turnpike
Big Lick and Fincastle Turnpike
Black Lick and Plaster Banks Turnpike
Blue Ridge Canal Turnpike
Blue Ridge Turnpike March 25, 1848 East of New Market - Stanley - Fishers Gap - Madison - Gordonsville U.S. Route 340, U.S. Route 340 Business, Kite Hollow Road, Old Blue Ridge Turnpike, VA Route 231
Boydton and Petersburg Plank Road Petersburg - McKenney - South Hill - Boydton; McKenney - Lawrenceville U.S. Route 1, U.S. Route 58; VA Route 712
Brandonville and Fishing Creek Turnpike Pennsylvania - Brandonville - Bruceton Mills - Morgantown - Fairmont WV Route 26, old WV Route 73, WV Route 857, U.S. Route 19 Became part of the Ohio River and Maryland Turnpike
Brandonville, Kingwood and Evansville Turnpike See Kingwood and Brandonville Turnpike
Brook Turnpike Richmond - Solomons Store Brook Road, U.S. Route 1
Brown's Gap Turnpike
Brunswick and Roanoke Plank Road
Buchanan Turnpike
Buchanan and Bedford Turnpike Buchanan - Bedford VA Route 43
Buckhannon and Little Kanawha Turnpike March 15, 1849 Buckhannon - French Creek - Jacksonville WV Route 4, Beechtown Road, Union Road, Walkersville Arnold Road
Buford's Gap and Buchanan Turnpike
Cacapon and North Branch Turnpike
Capon and North Branch Turnpike Maryland - Springfield - Capon Bridge WV Route 28, Springfield Grade Road
Cedar Creek and Opequon Turnpike March 24, 1851 Winchester - Marlboro Cedar Creek Grade
Charleston and Point Pleasant Turnpike Charleston - Point Pleasant WV Route 25, WV Route 62
Charleston and Ravenswood Turnpike Charleston - Ripley - Ravenswood Old U.S. Route 21, Ravenswood-Ripley Road
Charles Town and Berryville Turnpike March 22, 1847 Berryville, VA to Charles Town, WV Route 340 Augustine Ave. (Old Route 340)
Cheat Mountain Turnpike
Christiansville and Keysville Plank Road
Clarksburg and Buckhannon Turnpike Clarksburg - Buckhannon WV Route 20
Clarksburg and Philippi Turnpike Clarksburg - Philippi Old Philippi Pike, Cherry Hill Road
Clarksburg and Weston Turnpike
Clarksburg and Wheeling Turnpike
Columbia Turnpike
Consolidated Turnpike of Norfolk
Covington to Huntersville Turnpike
Cranberry Summit and Brandonville Turnpike
Cross Roads and Summit Point Turnpike 29 March 1851 Summit Point WV - Route 340 Leetown Road S. of Summit Point
Cumberland Road Tolled state improvement
Cumberland Gap Turnpike
Danville and Wytheville Turnpike
Dunkard Creek Turnpike Morgantown - Blacksville - Burton WV Route 100, WV Route 7
East River and Princeton Turnpike
El Dorado Turnpike
Elk River Turnpike
Estillville Turnpike
Estillville and Nickelville Turnpike
Fairfax Turnpike
Fairfax and Georgetown Turnpike
Fairmont and Wheeling Turnpike Grafton - Fairmont - Mannington - Hundred - Cameron - Wheeling WV Route 310, U.S. Route 250, WV Route 88 Tolled state improvement
Falls Bridge Turnpike District of Columbia (Georgetown and Leesburg Turnpike) - Langley - Great Falls - Dranesville
Fancy Gap Road January 17, 1848 North Carolina - Fancy Gap - Hillsville - Max Meadows U.S. Route 52, VA Route 121 Tolled state improvement
Farmville and Buckingham Plank Road Farmville - Buckingham Plank Road, VA Route 633
Fauquier and Alexandria Turnpike Warrenton - Centreville - Fairfax U.S. Route 29
Fetterman and Cove Turnpike
Fincastle and Blue Ridge Turnpike Fincastle - Montvale Blue Ridge Turnpike, Bethel Road, abandoned portion over Black Horse Gap
Fincastle and Covington Turnpike Fincastle - Covington U.S. Route 220, Craig Creek Road, Roaring Run Road, Watahala Lane, Rich Patch Road
Floyd Courthouse and Hillsville Road February 1850 Endicott[citation needed] - Floyd - Hillsville Shooting Creek Road[citation needed], U.S. Route 221 Tolled state improvement
Franklin and Botetourt Turnpike
Franklin and Circleville Turnpike
Fredericksburg and Valley Plank Road Fredericksburg - Orange VA Route 3, VA Route 20
Free Turnpike
Front Royal Turnpike March 27, 1848 Winchester - Front Royal U.S. Route 522
Front Royal and Gaines' Crossroads Turnpike Front Royal - east of Washington U.S. Route 522, Ben Venue Road
Giles, Fayette and Kanawha Turnpike Pearisburg - Rich Creek - Red Sulphur Springs - Packs Ferry - Beckley - Oak Hill - Fayetteville - Kanawha Falls - South Charleston U.S. Route 460, U.S. Route 219, WV Route 12, Seminole Road, abandoned portion along the New River, Leatherwood Road, WV Route 3, U.S. Route 19, WV Route 16, Jenkins Branch Road, WV Route 61
Gilmer and Braxton Turnpike
Gilmer, Ripley and Ohio Turnpike
Glade Creek and Cloverdale Turnpike
Glenville, Ripley and Ohio Turnpike Linn - Glenville - Arnoldsburg - Spencer - Ripley - Ripley Landing U.S. Route 33, WV Route 62
Gnatty Creek and West Union Turnpike
Gooney Manor Turnpike
Goose Creek and Little River Turnpike
Grave Creek and Pennsylvania State Line Turnpike
Gravelly Springs Turnpike
Guyandotte and Charleston Turnpike Charleston - Saint Albans - Guyandotte Kanawha Turnpike, U.S. Route 60
Hampshire and Morgan Turnpike February 24, 1851
Hardy and Randolph Turnpike
Hardy and Winchester Turnpike March 8, 1846 Moorefield - Wardensville - west of Winchester; branch to Capon Springs WV Route 55, VA Route 55, Wardensville Grade
Harrisville Turnpike
Hazel River Turnpike
Hedgesville and Potomac Turnpike 1851
Hillsborough and Harper's Ferry Turnpike 1851
Holliday's Cove Turnpike
Holliday's Cove and New Cumberland Turnpike
Hot Springs and Clifton Forge Turnpike
Howardsville and Rockfish Turnpike Howardsville - Stuarts Draft - Middlebrook Howardsville Turnpike, VA Route 6, Chapel Hollow Road, Old Howardsville Turnpike, Howardsville Turnpike, U.S. Route 340, Howardsville Road
Huntersville and Lewisburg Turnpike
Huntersville and Monterey Turnpike
Huntersville and Parkersburg Turnpike
Huntersville and Warm Springs Turnpike Huntersville - Warm Springs WV Route 39, VA Route 39
Huttonsville and Huntersville Road Huttonsville - Huntersville U.S. Route 219, WV Route 39 Tolled state improvement
Indian Creek Turnpike February 24, 1854
Indian River Turnpike and Toll Bridge
Jackson's River Turnpike
Jacksonville and Bent Mountain Turnpike March 31, 1848 Floyd - Cave Spring U.S. Route 221
Jacksonville and Christiansburg Turnpike March 1851 Floyd - Christiansburg Christians Burg Pike, Pilot Road
Jacksonville and Cove Springs Turnpike
James River and Kanawha Turnpike Buchanan - Clifton Forge - Covington - White Sulphur Springs - Lewisburg - Rainelle - Gauley Bridge - Charleston VA Route 43, U.S. Route 220, U.S. Route 60
Jane Lew and Upshur Turnpike
Jefferson and Frederick Turnpike 1851
Jeffersonville, Marion and Rye Valley Turnpike March 26, 1860 Tazewell - Marion - Sugar Grove VA Route 16
Jonesville and Little Stone Gap Turnpike Jonesville - Wise
Jordan's Furnace and Rockbridge Turnpike
Junction Valley Turnpike March 17, 1849 Buchanan - Lexington - Staunton U.S. Route 11, Plank Road, U.S. Route 11
Kanawha Turnpike
Kentucky and Tazewell Courthouse Turnpike Tazewell - Grundy
Kingwood and Brandonville Turnpike Fellowsville - Kingwood - Bruceton Mills WV Route 26 Originally named the Brandonville, Kingwood and Evansville Turnpike
Kingwood and Terra Alta Turnpike Kingwood - Terra Alta WV Route 7 Was part of the Morgantown, Kingwood and West Union Turnpike
Kingwood and West Union Turnpike See Morgantown, Kingwood and West Union Turnpike
Lafayette and English's Ferry Turnpike
Leading Creek and Buffalo Turnpike Gilman, WV Co.Rt.1 Leading Crk. Rd.
Leeds Manor Turnpike
Leesburg Turnpike Leesburg - Dranesville - District of Columbia (Alexandria and Leesburg Turnpike) VA Route 7
Leesburg and Aldie Turnpike
Leesburg and Georgetown Turnpike
Leesburg and Snicker's Gap Turnpike
Letart Falls and West Columbia Turnpike
Lewisburg and Blue Sulphur Springs Turnpike
Lewiston Plank Road March 21, 1853 Burkeville - Lunenburg Lewiston Plank Road, VA Route 49
Lexington and Covington Turnpike
Lexington and Richmond Turnpike
Little River Turnpike January 28, 1802 Alexandria - Fairfax - Aldie
Logan, Raleigh and Monroe Turnpike
Loudoun and Berlin Turnpike
Lunenburg Plank Road May 25, 1852 Blackstone - Kenbridge - Wattsboro VA Route 40, Plank Road
Luray and Front Royal Turnpike 1851
Luray to Staunton Turnpike
Lynchburg and Buffalo Springs Turnpike
Lynchburg to Lexington Turnpike Lynchburg - Glasgow - Lexington U.S. Route 501, River Road, Millers Landing Lane, Forge Road, Wesley Chapel Road, U.S. Route 60
Lynchburg and Salem Turnpike Lynchburg - Bedford - Roanoke - Salem U.S. Route 460, Salem Turnpike
Manassa's Gap Turnpike
Manchester Turnpike Manchester - Midlothian U.S. Route 60
Manchester and Petersburg Turnpike Manchester - Petersburg U.S. Route 1
Marlin's Bottom and Lewisburg Turnpike
Marshall and Ohio Turnpike
Martinsburg and Potomac Turnpike 1849 Martinsburg - Maryland U.S. Route 11
Martinsburg and Winchester Turnpike March 24, 1848 Martinsburg - Winchester U.S. Route 11
Maryland and Ohio Turnpike
Marysville Plank Road Charlotte Court House - Drakes Branch VA Route 47
Mechanicsburg and Wythe Turnpike
Mechanicsville Turnpike Richmond - Mechanicsville U.S. Route 360
Middle Turnpike
Middlebrook and Brownsburg Turnpike Staunton - Middlebrook - Brownsburg - Lexington VA Route 252, VA Route 39
Middleburg to Strasburg Turnpike
Middlefork Turnpike
Middleway and Gerardstown Turnpike 18 February 1854 Partially Abandoned Route 51
Millboro and Carr's Creek Turnpike
Millwood and Berryville Turnpike
Moorefield and Alleghany Turnpike
Moorefield and North Branch Turnpike April 7, 1838 Green Spring - Springfield - Romney - Moorefield Green Spring Road (County Route 1), Harriott-Wappocomo Road (County Route 28/15), WV Route 28 Succeeded by the North and South Branches Turnpike in 1868.
Morgan and Frederick Turnpike 1851
Morgan and Hampshire Turnpike
Morgantown and Beverly Road Pennsylvania - Collins Ferry - Morgantown - Evansville - Belington Fort Martin Road, Collins Ferry Road, U.S. Route 119, Brewer Road, Independence-Gladesville Road, Old Evansville Pike, WV Route 92 Tolled state improvement
Morgantown and Bridgeport Turnpike Pennsylvania - Morgantown - Fairmont - Bridgeport - Clarksburg WV Route 857, old WV Route 73, U.S. Route 50
Morgantown and Kingwood Turnpike Morgantown - Reedsville - Kingwood Old Kingwood Pike, WV Route 7 Was part of the Morgantown, Kingwood and West Union Turnpike
Morgantown, Kingwood and West Union Turnpike Morgantown - Reedsville - Kingwood - Terra Alta - Aurora Old Kingwood Pike, WV Route 7, Aurora Pike Originally the Kingwood and West Union Turnpike; later split into the Aurora and Terra Alta Turnpike, Kingwood and Terra Alta Turnpike, and Morgantown and Kingwood Turnpike
Morgantown to Smythfield Turnpike
Mount Jackson and Howards Lick Turnpike
Mountain Lake and Salt Sulphur Springs Turnpike
National Turnpike Ohio - Wheeling - Pennsylvania U.S. Route 40
Natural Bridge Turnpike
New Creek and Hardy Turnpike
New London and Rocky Mount Turnpike
New Manchester Turnpike
New Market to Richmond Turnpike
New Market and Sperryville Turnpike 1851 New Market - Sperryville U.S. Route 211
Newark Turnpike
Norfolk and Princess Anne Turnpike
North Fork Turnpike
North Frederick Turnpike February 24, 1851 Winchester - Berkeley Springs - Maryland U.S. Route 522
North River Turnpike 1851
Northwestern Turnpike March 3, 1834 Winchester - Capon Bridge - Romney - Grafton - Bridgeport - Clarksburg - West Union - Parkersburg U.S. Route 50 Tolled state improvement
Ohio River and Maryland Turnpike Pennsylvania - Brandonville - Bruceton Mills - Morgantown - Fairmont - Mannington - Pine Grove - New Martinsville WV Route 26, old WV Route 73, WV Route 857, U.S. Route 19, U.S. Route 250, Price Fork Road, WV Route 20 Tolled state improvement
Parkersburg to Charleston Turnpike
Parkersburg and Elizabethtown Turnpike
Patterson's Creek Valley Turnpike
Pennsylvania, Beverly and Morgantown Turnpike See Morgantown and Beverly Turnpike
Petersburg and Jerusalem Plank Road Petersburg - Courtland U.S. Route 301, VA Route 35
Pittsylvania, Franklin and Botetourt Turnpike Danville - Callands - Rocky Mount - Roanoke - Fincastle VA Route 41, Sago Road, Smith Road, Danville Turnpike, Chestnut Mountain Road, Colonial Turnpike, Sontag Road, U.S. Route 220, Naff Road, Merriman Road, Starkey Road, Franklin Road, Old Mountain Road, U.S. Route 220
Pittsylvania and Lynchburg Turnpike Danville - Chatham - Lynchburg U.S. Route 29, Chalk Level Road, Telegraph Road, Wards Road, U.S. Route 29
Pleasant Valley and Tunnelton Turnpike
Potomac Turnpike 1851
Price's Turnpike and Cumberland Gap Road March 5, 1834 Cumberland Gap - Tazewell - Bluefield - Narrows - Pearisburg - New Castle - Barbours Creek College Estates Road, VA Route 91, U.S. Route 19, WV Route 112, old U.S. Route 460, VA Route 100, U.S. Route 460, VA Route 42, VA Route 615 Tolled state improvement
Princeton and Red Sulphur Turnpike Princeton - Athens - Hill Top - Shanklins Ferry - Ballard WV Route 20, Red Sulphur Turnpike, Laurel Creek Road, abandoned portion, Shanklins Ferry Crossing, Ballard Road
Pulaski and Giles Turnpike
Raleigh and Grayson Turnpike
Raleigh and Wythe Line Turnpike March 3, 1860
Ravenswood and Reedy Creek Turnpike
Ravenswood and Spencer Turnpike Spencer - Reedy - Sandyville - Ravenswood WV Route 14, Liverpool Road, U.S. Route 33
Red and Blue Sulphur Springs Turnpike Red Sulphur Springs - Alderson[citation needed] - Blue Sulphur Springs
Reedy and Harrisville Turnpike
Rich Mountain Turnpike
Rich Patch Turnpike
Richlands and Kentucky Line Road March 8, 1847 Richlands - Kentucky U.S. Route 460 Tolled state improvement
Richmond Turnpike January 5, 1804 Richmond - Short Pump U.S. Route 250
Richmond and Charlottesville Turnpike
Richmond and Columbia Turnpike January 24, 1804 Richmond - Goochland VA Route 6
Richmond and Henrico Turnpike
Richmond and Osborne Turnpike Richmond - Osborne Landing Osborne Turnpike
Richmond, Williamsburg and Central Turnpike
Richpatch Turnpike
Riffle's Run to Greenbrier River Turnpike
Ritchie and Gilmer Turnpike
Rivanna and Rockfish Gap Turnpike Charlottesville - Rockfish Gap U.S. Route 250
Rockfish River to Valley Road Turnpike
Rockingham Turnpike
Rocky Mount Turnpike Lynchburg - Rocky Mount - Floyd
Russell Old Courthouse and Abingdon Turnpike
Russell and Washington Turnpike
Salem and Harrisville Turnpike
Salem and New Castle Turnpike Starkey Park - Salem - New Castle Merriman Road, VA Route 419, U.S. Route 11, VA Route 311
Salem and Orleans Turnpike
Salem and Pepper's Ferry Turnpike Salem - Blacksburg - Peppers Ferry U.S. Route 11, Northfork Road, Cedar Run Road, VA Route 412, Prices Fork Road, VA Route 114 Truncated from Salem to Lafayette when the Southwestern Turnpike was built over it
Salem Station and Rappahannock Turnpike
Salt and Red Sulphur Springs Turnpike
Saltville and Laurel Turnpike
Sandy River Turnpike
Shepherdstown and Smithfield Turnpike 31 January 1816 Old Route 340 - Shepherdstown Halltown Road - Route 230
Shinnston Turnpike
Shinnston and Middlebourne Turnpike
Sinking Creek and Craig's Creek Turnpike
Sir John's Run Turnpike
Sistersville and Salem Road Tolled state improvement
Smithfield, Charles Town and Harper's Ferry Turnpike 18 February 1830 Middleway - Charles Town - Harpers Ferry Old Middleway Pike Middleway Pike Washington Street Sommerset Boulevard Halltown Road Shipley School Road Allstadts Hill Road Columbia Street
Smyth Courthouse and Plaster Banks Turnpike
Snicker's Gap Turnpike Aldie - Snicker's Gap - Shenandoah River
Southwestern Turnpike January 28, 1846 Buchanan - Cloverdale - Salem - Christiansburg - Newbern - Wytheville - Marion - Abingdon - Bristol U.S. Route 11, VA Route 117, U.S. Route 460, U.S. Route 11 Tolled state improvement
Sperryville and Rappahannock Turnpike Sperryville - Washington - Warrenton U.S. Route 211
Sperryville to Swift Run Gap Turnpike
St. Mary's Turnpike
Staunton to Callaghan's Turnpike
Staunton and James River Turnpike March 8, 1824 Staunton - Waynesboro - Scottsville U.S. Route 250, Plank Road, VA Route 20
Staunton and Parkersburg Road Staunton - Monterey - Beverly - Buckhannon - Weston - Parkersburg VA Route 254, Old Parkersburg Turnpike, U.S. Route 250, Rich Mountain Road, WV Route 151, U.S. Route 33, WV Route 47 Tolled state improvement
Strasburg and Capon Turnpike
Summersville and Slaven Cabin Turnpike
Sweet and Salt Sulphur Springs Turnpike
Sweet Springs and Price's Mountain Turnpike Fincastle - Sweet Springs Grove Hill Road, VA Route 611, Potts Mountain Road, abandoned portion across the state line, McDaniel Road
Swift Run Gap Turnpike Fredericksburg - Orange - Stanardsville - Swift Run Gap - Elkton VA Route 3, VA Route 20, Scuffletown Road, Fredericksburg Road, U.S. Route 33 Part of the road was sold to the Fredericksburg and Valley Plank Road
Tazewell Courthouse and Fancy Gap Road March 17, 1849 Tazewell - Wytheville Tolled state improvement
Tazewell Courthouse and Kentucky Turnpike Baptist Valley Road
Tazewell Courthouse and Richlands Road Tazewell - Richlands Tolled state improvement
Tazewell Courthouse and Saltville Turnpike March 10, 1851 Tazewell - Saltville
Teay's Valley and Gallipolis Turnpike
Thornton's Gap Turnpike
Tunnelton and Ices Ferry Turnpike
Tye River and Blue Ridge Turnpike
Upperville and Manassas Gap Plank Road
Valley Turnpike March 24, 1838 Winchester - Harrisonburg - Staunton
Walker's Creek and Holston Turnpike
Warm Springs to Bull Pasture River Turnpike
Warm Springs and Harrisonburg Turnpike January 29, 1830 Harrisonburg - Bridgewater - Warm Springs VA Route 42, Mossy Creek Road, Freemason Run Road, Stribling Springs Road, U.S. Route 250, Deerfield Valley Road, VA Route 39
Warm Springs, Huntersville and Romney Turnpike
Warm Springs Mountain Turnpike
Warrenton to New Market Turnpike
Warrenton to Occoquan Turnpike
Warrenton and Rappahannock Turnpike
Washington and Alexandria Turnpike U.S. Route 1; Jefferson Davis Highway[1]
Wellsburg Turnpike
Wellsburg and Bethany Turnpike Wellsburg - Bethany WV Route 67
Wellsburg and Washington Turnpike Wellsburg - Pennsylvania WV Route 27
Welltown Turnpike Welltown - north of Winchester[citation needed] Welltown Road[citation needed] Managed by the Winchester and Martinsburg Turnpike
West Milford and New Salem Turnpike
West Union Turnpike
Westham Turnpike Richmond - Westham VA Route 147
Weston and Fairmont Turnpike Weston - Clarksburg - Fairmont U.S. Route 19, Lost Creek Road, U.S. Route 19
Weston and Gauley Bridge Turnpike
Weston and West Union Turnpike
Wheeling, West Liberty and Bethany Turnpike Wheeling - West Liberty - Bethany WV Route 88
White and Salt Sulphur Springs Turnpike Caldwell - Salt Sulphur Springs WV Route 63, U.S. Route 219
Williamsport Turnpike
Wilson Creek and South Fork Turnpike
Winchester to Bath Turnpike
Winchester and Berkeley Springs Turnpike
Winchester and Berry's Ferry Turnpike Winchester - Millwood - Berrys U.S. Route 50
Winchester and Hardy Turnpike
Winfield and Thompsonville Turnpike
Wolf Creek Turnpike May 11, 1852
Wythe Turnpike
Wytheville and Grayson Turnpike

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rose, C.B., Jr. (1976). Arlington County, Virginia: A History. Arlington Historical Society, Inc. p. 75.