List of unclassified languages of South America

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Campbell & Grondona[edit]

Campbell & Grondona (2012:116-130) list the following 395 languages of South America as unclassified. Most are extinct.[1] Many were drawn from Loukotka (1968)[2] and Adelaar & Muysken (2004).[3] The majority are not listed in Ethnologue. The list is arranged in alphabetical order.

Some of the greater families of South America: dark spots are language isolates or quasi-isolate, grey spots unclassified languages or languages with doubtful classification.
  • Aarufi – Colombia
  • Aburuñe – Bolivia
  • Acarapi – Brazil
  • Aconipa (Tabancal, Tabancara) – Ecuador; only 5 words known
  • Aguano (Awano, Ahuano, Uguano, Aguanu, Santa Crucino) – Peru
  • Alarua – Brazil
  • Alon – Peru
  • Amasifuin – Peru
  • Amikoana (Amikuân) – Brazil
  • Amoeca – Brazil
  • Amuimo – Brazil
  • Anetine – Bolivia
  • Angara – Peru
  • Anicun – Brazil
  • Anserma (including Caramanta, Cartama) – Colombia
  • Aparea – Argentina
  • Apitupá – Brazil
  • Apiyipán – Bolivia
  • Aracadaini – Brazil
  • Arae – Brazil
  • Aramayu – Brazil
  • Aramurú – Brazil
  • Arapoá – Brazil
  • Arara do Beiradão (Arara do Rio Branco, Arara do Aripuanã) – Brazil
  • Ararau – Brazil
  • Arda – Peru
  • Arma-Pozo – Colombia
  • Aroásene – Brazil
  • Artane – Bolivia
  • Atavila – Peru
  • Aticum (Araticum) – Brazil
  • Atunceta – Colombia
  • Aueiko – Brazil
  • Avis – Brazil
  • Axata Darpa – Paraguay
  • Ayacore – Peru
  • Bagua – Peru; only 3 words known
  • Baixóta – Brazil
  • Bakurönchichi – Brazil
  • Bauá – Brazil
  • Bikutiakap – Brazil
  • Bixarenren – Brazil
  • Boimé (Poyme) – Brazil
  • Bolona – Ecuador
  • Bracamoro (Papamuru) – Peru
  • Buritiguara – Brazil
  • Caapina – Brazil
  • Cachipuna – Peru
  • Cafuana – Brazil
  • Cagua – Colombia
  • Caguan (Kaguan) – Argentina
  • Cahan – Brazil
  • Cajamarca – Peru
  • Cajatambo – Peru
  • Camana (Maje) – Peru
  • Camaraxo – Brazil
  • Camaré – Brazil
  • Campaces – Ecuador; possibly Barbacoan, with Tsafiki, but unconfirmed
  • Canelo – Ecuador
  • Cañacure – Bolivia
  • Capueni – Brazil
  • Capua – Brazil
  • Cara (Scyri, Caranqui, Otavalo) – Ecuador; possibly Barbacoan
  • Carabayo (Yuri, "Amazonas Macusa")
  • Caraguata – Brazil
  • Carapacho – Peru
  • Carára – Brazil
  • Carari – Brazil
  • Cararú (Cajurú) – Brazil
  • Caripó (Curupeche) – Brazil
  • Cascoasoa – Peru
  • Casigara – Brazil
  • Casota – Argentina
  • Cauacaua (Kawakawa) – Brazil
  • Cauauri – Brazil
  • Caucahue – southern Chile
  • Cauni – Brazil
  • Caupuna – Brazil
  • Cavana (Maje) – Peru
  • Caxago – Brazil
  • Cayú – Brazil
  • Ceococe – Brazil
  • Chachapoya (Chacha) – Peru
  • Chancay – Brazil
  • Chechehet ("Pampa") – Argentina
  • Chedua – Peru
  • Chicha – Bolivia
  • Chincha – Peru
  • Chinchipe – Peru
  • Chipiajes – Colombia
  • Chitarero – Colombia
  • Cholto – Peru
  • Chongo – Peru
  • Chono – Ecuador
  • Chumbivilca – Peru; possibly a variety of Puquina; might be Aymaran
  • Chunanawa – Peru
  • Churima – Bolivia
  • Chusco – Peru
  • Ciaman – Colombia
  • Cognomona – Peru
  • Colima[4] – Ecuador; possibly Cariban
  • Comanahua – Peru
  • Comaní – Brazil
  • Comechingón – near Córdoba, Argentina; possibly Huarpean
  • Copallén (Copallín) – Peru; only 4 words known
  • Coritananhó – Brazil
  • Coxima (Koxima) – Colombia
  • Culaycha – Argentina
  • Cumayari – Brazil
  • Cumbazá (Belsano) – Peru
  • Curanave – Brazil
  • Curi – Brazil
  • Curiane – northeastern South America; precise location unknown
  • Curierano – Brazil
  • Curizeta – Peru
  • Curubianan – Brazil
  • Curumiá – Brazil
  • Curumro (Kurumro) – Paraguay
  • Curuzirari – Brazil
  • Cutaguá – Brazil
  • Cutría – Brazil
  • Cuximiraíba – Brazil
  • Cuxiuára – Brazil
  • Damanivá – Brazil
  • Dawainomol – Paraguay
  • Demacuri – Brazil
  • Diaguita (Cacan, Kakán) – northwest Argentina; subdivisions are Calchaquí, Capayán, Catamarcano, Hualfín, Paccioca [Pazioca], Pular, Quilme, Yacampis
  • Divihet – Argentina
  • Dokoro – Brazil
  • Duri – Brazil
  • Egualo – Argentina
  • Eimi – Peru
  • Emischata – Argentina
  • Envuelo – Colombia
  • Erema – Brazil
  • Ewarhuyana – Brazil; possibly 12 speakers in Pará State
  • Foklása – Brazil
  • Gadio – Brazil
  • Galache – Brazil
  • Gambéla – Brazil
  • Gorgotoqui – Bolivia
  • Goyana – Brazil
  • Guaca (and Nori) – Colombia
  • Guacará – Argentina
  • Guadaxo – Brazil
  • Guaimute – Brazil
  • Guajarapo (Guasaroca) – Bolivia
  • Guanaca – Colombia; possibly a relative of Guambiano (Barbacoan)
  • Guane – Colombia; possibly Chibchan
  • Guanarú – Brazil
  • Guanavena – Brazil
  • Guarino – Brazil
  • Guenta – Colombia
  • Guyarabe – Brazil
  • Hacaritama – Colombia
  • Harritiahan – Brazil
  • Hiauahim (Javaim) – Brazil
  • Himarimã – Brazil; uncontacted group
  • Huacavilca – Ecuador; extinct
  • Huambuco – Peru; might be a misspelling of Huánuco
  • Huayana – Peru
  • Huayla – Peru
  • Humahuaca (Omaguaca) – Argentina; apparent subdivisions are Fiscara, Jujuy, Ocloya, Osa, Purmamarca, Tiliar; Mason (1950:302) proposed an "Ataguitan" grouping that includes Humahuaca, Diaguita, and Atacameño
  • Iapama – Brazil
  • Ibabi Aniji – Peru
  • Idabaez[5] – Colombia; only 1 word and a chief's name are known
  • Imaré – Brazil
  • Ina – Brazil
  • Iñajurupé – Brazil
  • Irra – Colombia
  • Iruri – Brazil
  • Isolados do Massaco (?) – Brazil
  • Isolados do Tanarú (?) – Brazil
  • Itipuna – Brazil
  • Itucá (Cuacá) – Brazil
  • Jacariá – Brazil
  • Jaguanai – Brazil
  • Jaguanan – Brazil
  • Jamundi – Colombia; may be Yurimangui, but no data
  • Jeticó (Jiripancó) – Brazil
  • Jitirijiti – Colombia; may be Chocó, but no data
  • Jurema – Brazil
  • Juruena – Brazil
  • Jururu – Brazil
  • Kaimbé (Caimbé, Caimbe) – Brazil; extinct
  • Kamba (Camba) – Brazil; possibly Tupian, extinct
  • Kambiwá (Cambiuá, Cambioá) – Brazil; extinct
  • Kantaruré[6] – Brazil
  • Kapinawá – Brazil; extinct
  • Karahawyana – Brazil; possibly Cariban
  • Katembri (Kariri de Mirandela) – Brazil
  • Kiapüre (Quiapyre) – Brazil
  • Kohoroxitari – possibly Tocanoan; may be the same as Baniwa
  • Kokakôre – Brazil
  • Komokare – Brazil
  • Korubo (Caceteiros) – Brazil; possibly Panoan; may be the same as Marúbo, or related to Yanomámi [Yanomaman]
  • Koshurái – Brazil
  • Kururu – Brazil
  • Lache – Colombia; may be Chibchan, but no data
  • Lambi – Brazil
  • Lili – Colombia; may be Yurimangui, but no data
  • Llamish – Peru
  • Macamasu – Brazil
  • Macarú – Brazil
  • Macuani – Brazil
  • Macuaré – Brazil
  • Macuja – Brazil
  • Macuruné – Brazil
  • Mairajiqui – Brazil
  • Malaba – Ecuador; may be Barbacoa (Chibchan), but no data
  • Malibú – Colombia; possibly Chibchan
  • Malquesi – Paraguay
  • Manesono (Mopeseano) – Bolivia
  • Manta – Ecuador; possibly Chimú, but only a few patronyms are known
  • Maracano – Brazil
  • Marapaña – Brazil
  • Maricoxi – Brazil
  • Maricupi – Brazil
  • Maripá – Brazil
  • Maruquevene – Brazil
  • Masa – Argentina
  • Masarari – Brazil
  • Masaya – Colombia
  • Mashco – Peru; uncontacted, possibly related to Piro (Arawakan), or "Preandine" (Arawakan)
  • Matará – Argentina
  • Maynas (Mayna, Maina, Rimachu) – Peru; past attempts to link it to Jivaroan, Cahuapanan, Zaparoan, and Candoshi
  • Maxiena (Ticomeri) – Bolivia
  • Mayu – Brazil; possibly the same as Mayo (Panoan) or Morike (Arawakan); mayu is the Quechuan word for 'river, water'
  • Menejou – Brazil
  • Minhahá – Brazil
  • Miarrã – Brazil
  • Mocana – Brazil; may be related to Malibú, but only 2 words known
  • Moheyana – Brazil
  • Morcote – Colombia; may be Chibchan, but no data
  • Moriquito – Brazil
  • Morua – Brazil
  • Moyobamba (Moyo-Pampa) – Peru
  • Muriva – Brazil
  • Muzapa – Peru
  • Muzo[7] – Colombia; may be Pijao (Cariban), but only 3 words known
  • Natagaimas – Colombia; extinct
  • Nacai – Brazil
  • Nambu – Bolivia
  • Nauna – Brazil
  • Nindaso – Peru
  • Nocadeth – Brazil
  • Nomona – Peru
  • Ñumasiara – Brazil
  • Ocra – Peru
  • Ocren – Brazil
  • Ohoma – Argentina; may be the same as Hohoma or Mahoma
  • Oivaneca – Brazil
  • Olmos – Peru; possibly connected with Sechura
  • Onicoré – Brazil
  • Onoyóro – Brazil
  • Orí – Brazil
  • Ortue – Bolivia
  • Otecua – Peru
  • Otegua – Colombia
  • Otí (Eochavante, Chavante) – Brazil; Greenberg classifies it as Macro-Gé, though this is unlikely according to Ribeiro (2006:422)
  • Pacabuey – Colombia; may be Malibú (Chibchan), but no data
  • Pacarará (Pakarara) – Brazil
  • Pacimonari – Venezuela
  • Paguara – Brazil
  • Panatagua (Pantahua) – Peru; extinct, possibly Arawakan
  • Panche[8] – Colombia; possibly Cariban
  • Pankararé (Pankaré) – Bahía, Brazil; extinct
  • Pantágora (Palenque) – Colombia
  • Pao – Venezuela
  • Papamiän – Brazil
  • Papana – Brazil
  • Papavô – Brazil; uncontacted, may be Arawakan or Panoan (?)
  • Paragoaru – Brazil?
  • Paraparixana – Brazil
  • Parapicó – Brazil
  • Patagón – Peru; possibly Cariban
  • Patiti – Brazil
  • Payacú – Brazil
  • Payanso – Peru
  • Pehuenche (Peguenche) – Argentina
  • Peria (Poria) – Brazil
  • Perovosan – Bolivia
  • Piapia – Brazil
  • Pijao (Piajao, Pixao, Pinao) – Colombia
  • Pipipan – Brazil
  • Pocoana – Brazil
  • Porcá – Brazil
  • Porú (Procáze) – Brazil
  • Pubenza [Popayan] – Colombia
  • Puná (Puná Island) – Ecuador
  • Puquina – Peru, Bolivia, Chile
  • Quelosi – Argentina
  • Querandí (Carendie) – Argentina, near Buenos Aires; may be related to Gününa Küne
  • Quiquidcana (Quidquidcana, Kikidkana) – Peru
  • Quijo (Kijo) – Ecuador; may be Barbácoa (Chibchan), but only 3 words are known
  • Quillacinga (Quillasinga)[9] – Ecuador; may be Sebondoy (Chibchan); Fabre (1998:676) reports that the Kamsa (speakers of a language isolate) are descended, at least in part, from the Quillasinga
  • Quimbaya – Colombia; may be Chocó, but only 1 word is known
  • Quimbioá – Brazil
  • Quindío (Quindio) – Colombia
  • Quingnam – Peru; extinct, possibly the same as Lengua (Yunga) Pescadora of colonial sources; according to Quilter et al. (2010), a list of numbers was recently found
  • Qurigmã – Brazil
  • Rabona – Ecuador; possibly Candoshi (Murato), but there are similarities with Aguaruna (Jivaroan)
  • Roramí (Oramí) – Brazil
  • Sácata (Sacata, Zácata, Chillao) – Peru; extinct; may be Candoshi or Arawakan, but only 3 words known
  • Sacosi – Bolivia
  • Sacracrinha (Sequaquirihen) – Brazil
  • Sanavirón – Argentina, near Córdova. Loukotka classified it as an isolate, but there is insufficient data to justify this.
  • Sapeiné – Peru
  • Seden – Brazil
  • Siberi – Bolivia
  • Sintó (Assek, Upsuksinta) – Paraguay
  • Sinú (Zenú) – Colombia; may be Chocó, but no data
  • Sipisipi – Peru
  • Socorino – Bolivia
  • Stanatevogyet – Paraguay
  • Supuselo – Argentina
  • Surucosi – Bolivia
  • Suruim – Brazil
  • Tacunbiacu – Bolivia
  • Taguaylen – Argentina
  • Tacarúba (Tacarua) – Brazil
  • Taluhet – Argentina
  • Tamacosi – Bolivia
  • Tamaní – Colombia
  • Tamaquéu – Brazil
  • Tamararé – Brazil
  • Tambaruré – Brazil
  • Taminani – Brazil
  • Tanquihua – Peru
  • Tapacurá – Brazil
  • Tapeba – Brazil
  • Tapuisú – Brazil
  • Tarairiú (Tarairiu, Ochucuyana) – Brazil
  • Tarimoxi – Brazil
  • Taripio – Brazil, Suriname
  • Tavúri – Brazil
  • Tchagoyána – Brazil
  • Tchicoyna – Brazil
  • Tegua – Colombia
  • Tepqui – Peru
  • Tevircacap – Brazil
  • Tiboi – Bolivia
  • Timaná – Colombia; may be Andaquí (Chibchan)
  • Tingán – Peru
  • Tingui-Boto – Brazil; extinct; also known as Tingui, Tingui-Botó, Carapató, Karapató
  • Tobachana – Brazil
  • Tohazana – Venezuela
  • Tomata – Bolivia
  • Tomina – Bolivia
  • Tonocoté – Argentina, Chaco region
  • Tororí – Brazil
  • Truká – Brazil
  • Tremembé (Teremembé, Taramembé) – Brazil
  • Tubichaminí
  • Tucumanduba – Brazil
  • Tulumayo – Peru
  • Tupijó – Brazil
  • Tupiokón – Brazil
  • Tutura – Bolivia
  • Uairua – Brazil
  • Uauarate – Brazil
  • Uranaju – Brazil
  • Urucuai – Brazil
  • Uruma – Brazil
  • Uru-Pa-In – Brazil
  • Urupuca – Brazil
  • Ururi – Brazil, Mato Grosso
  • Vanherei – Brazil
  • Vouve – Brazil
  • Waitaká (Guaitacá, Goyatacá, Goytacaz) – Brazil; subdivisions: Mopi, Yacorito, Wasu, Miri
  • Wakoná (Wacona, Acona) – Brazil
  • Walêcoxô – Brazil
  • Wasu (Waçu, Wassu) – Brazil
  • Wau – Peru
  • Xaquese – Bolivia
  • Xaray – Bolivia
  • Xibata – Brazil
  • Xipará – Brazil
  • Xiroa – Ecuador; mentioned in early sources, and may be a variant spelling of Jívaro
  • Xokó – Brazil; only 4 words are known; also known as Chocó, Shoco, Shokó, Chocaz
  • Yalcón – Colombia; may be Andaquí (Chibchan), but no data
  • Yamesí – Colombia; may be Andaquí (Chibchan), but no data
  • Yampará – Bolivia
  • Yaperú (Naperú, Apirú) – Paraguay
  • Yarí – Colombia; may be a Carijona (Cariban dialect), West Tucanoan, or Huitoto[an]
  • Yariguí (Yarigüí) – Colombia; may be Opone (Karaib), but no data (Yarigui people)
  • Yauei – Brazil
  • Yenmu – Colombia
  • Yoemanai – Brazil
  • Yufiua – Brazil
  • Yumbo – Ecuador; may be Barbácoa (Chibchan), but no data
  • Zapazo – Peru
  • Zuana – Brazil
  • Yurimagua (Zurimagua, Jurimagua) – Peru
  • Zurina – Brazil

Ethnologue[edit]

Ethnologue 17 lists the following languages of South America as unclassified:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Campbell, Lyle, and Verónica Grondona (eds). 2012. The indigenous languages of South America: a comprehensive guide. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
  2. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír. 1968. Classification of South American Indian Languages Los Angeles: Latin American Studies Center, UCLA.
  3. ^ Adelaar, Willem F.H., and Pieter C. Muysken. 2004. The Languages of the Andes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  4. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Colima". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  5. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Idabaez". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  6. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kantarure". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  7. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Muzo". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  8. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Panche". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  9. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Quillacinga". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 

See also[edit]