List of universities in China

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This article is a list of universities in mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau (of P.R.C.) as well as in Taiwan (of R.O.C.).

By the end of 2004, there were 2,236 colleges and universities, with over 20 million students enrolled in mainland China.[1] More than 6 million Chinese students graduated from university in 2008.[2] The "Project 211" for creating 100 universities began in the mid-1990s, and has merged more than 700 institutions of higher learning into about 300 universities. Corresponding with the merging of many public universities, has been the rapid expansion of the private sector in mainland China since 1999. As of 2006, private universities accounted for around 6 percent of student enrolments, or about 1.3 million of the 20 million students enrolled in formal higher education.[3][dubious ]

List of universities by provincial-level divisions[edit]

People's Republic of China[edit]

The following notation is used:

  • National (Direct): Directly administered by the Chinese Ministry of Education (MOE)
  • National (Other): Administered by other ministries
  • Ω (National Key Universities): Universities with high regards from the MOE and the Chinese government
  • Provincial: Public university administered by the province
  • Municipal: Public university administered by the municipality
  • Private: Privately owned and funded university

Municipalities[edit]

Provinces[edit]

Autonomous regions[edit]

Special administrative regions[edit]

Republic of China[edit]

Leading and time-honored universities in China[edit]

Peking University is the first formally established modern national university of China. It was founded as Imperial Capital University (京師大學堂) in 1898 in Beijing as a replacement of the ancient Guozijian, the national central institute of learning in China's traditional educational system in the past thousands of years. Three years earlier, Sheng Xuanhuai submitted a memorial to Guangxu Emperor to request for approval to set up a modern higher education institution in Tianjin. After approval on October 2, 1895, Peiyang Western Study School (天津北洋西學學堂) was founded by him and American educator Charles Daniel Tenney (丁家立) and later developed to Peiyang University (北洋大學堂). In 1896, Sheng Xuanhuai delivered his new memorials to Guangxu Emperor to make suggestion that two official modern higher education institutions should be established in Beijing/Tangshan and Shanghai. In the same year, he founded Nanyang Public School (南洋公學) in Shanghai by an imperial edict issued by Guangxu Emperor. The institution initially included elementary school, secondary school, college, and a normal school. Later the institution changed its name to Jiao Tong University (also known as Chiao Tung University). In the 1930s, the university often referred itself as "MIT in the East"[4][5][6] due to its reputation of nurturing top engineers and scientists. In the 1950s, part of this university was moved to Xi'an, Shaanxi, and was established as Xi'an Jiaotong University; the part of the university remaining in Shanghai was renamed Shanghai Jiao Tong University. These two universities have developed independently since then, along with the original Beijing Jiaotong University.

Meanwhile, Wuhan University also claimed that its predecessor Ziqiang Institute (自強學堂) was the first modern higher education institution in China. On November 29, 1893, Zhang Zhidong submitted his memorial to Guangxu Emperor to request for approval to set up an institution designed for training students specializing in foreign languages, mathematics, science and business. After Ziqiang was founded in Wuchang, not only courses in foreign languages was taught, courses in science (chemical and mining courses starting from 1896) and business (business course starting from the very beginning) were also developed at the school.[7] Later, although the school officially changed its name to Foreign Languages Institute (方言學堂) in 1902, the school still offered courses in science and business.[7] In China, there had been some earlier schools specializing in foreign languages learning, such as Schools of Combined Learning in Beijing (京師同文館, founded in 1862[remark 1]), in Shanghai (上海同文館/上海廣方言館, founded in 1863), and in Guangzhou (廣州同文館), founded in 1864, but few provided courses in other fields, which hardly qualified as modern education institutions. Some argued that Wuhan University can only traced its history back to 1913, when the National Wuchang Higher Normal College (國立武昌高等師範學校) was established, but Wuhan University officially recognized its establishment as in 1893, relying on the abundance of historical documentation and the experts' endorsement.[8]

Besides, Tianjin University celebrated its 100th anniversary in 1995, which would predate the establishment of Peking University. Jiao Tong University (in all Beijing Jiaotong University, Shanghai and Xi'an) followed in 1996. Other leading universities, such as Zhejiang University (1897), Peking University (1898), Nanjing University (1902), Fudan University (1905),Tongji University (1907) and Tsinghua University (1911) also recently celebrated their hundredth anniversaries, one after another.

The first university in Taiwan is Taihoku Imperial University (now National Taiwan University) founded in 1928. After Chinese Civil War, part of the famous universities in mainland China were transferred to Taiwan, such as National Central University and National Tsing Hua University. As a result, some universities on both sides of the Taiwan Strait share the same names.

Remark:

  1. ^ In 1902, School of Combined Learning in Beijing was merged with Imperial Capital University, now Peking University. However, Peking University never claims 1862 as its year founded. Neither does Peking University claim the year of establishing the Guozijian, which can date back more than one thousand years. Hunan University, with a similar history with Peking, often traced its history back to a school established in 976 A.D, thus giving this university a thousand years of history. See [1].

People's Republic of China[edit]

C9 League[edit]

The C9 League is an alliance of nine most prestigious Chinese universities, including Peking University, Tsinghua University, Fudan University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Nanjing University, University of Science and Technology of China, Zhejiang University, Xi'an Jiao Tong University and Harbin Institute of Technology. These nine universities made up the C9 League in 2009,[9] which is referred to as the Chinese equivalent of the US Ivy League.[10] According to QS World University Rankings 2011/12,[11] the first seven are considered as among the top 200 universities in the world, with the ranks 46, 47, 91, 124, 186, 188, and 191. For more details about this university alliance, see C9 League.

36 leading universities in mainland China (by geographical regions)[edit]

Province/Municipality University
NORTH (10)
Beijing (8) Peking University
Tsinghua University
Renmin University of China
Beijing Normal University
Beihang University
Beijing Institute of Technology
Beijing Forestry University
China Agricultural University
Tianjin (2) Nankai University
Tianjin University
NORTHEAST (3)
Heilongjiang Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin
Jilin Jilin University, Changchun
Liaoning Dalian University of Technology, Dalian
EAST (11)
Anhui University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei
Fujian Xiamen University, Xiamen
Jiangsu (2) Nanjing University, Nanjing
Southeast University, Nanjing
Shandong (2) Shandong University, Jinan
Ocean University of China, Qingdao
Shanghai (4) Fudan University
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Tongji University
East China Normal University
Zhejiang Zhejiang University, Hangzhou
SOUTH CENTRAL (6)
Guangdong (2) Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou
South China University of Technology, Guangzhou
Hubei (2) Wuhan University, Wuhan
Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan
Hunan (2) National University of Defense Technology, Changsha
Central South University, Changsha
WEST (6)
Chongqing Chongqing University
Gansu Lanzhou University, Lanzhou
Shaanxi (2) Xidian University, Xi'an
Xi'an Jiao Tong University, Xi'an
Sichuan (2) Sichuan University, Chengdu
University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu

Leading universities in Hong Kong and Macau[edit]

Hong Kong (6) The University of Hong Kong, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Baptist University
Macau (1) University of Macau

Republic of China[edit]

Taipei (3) National Taiwan University, National Yang Ming University, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Tainan (1) National Cheng Kung University
Hsinchu (2) National Tsing Hua University, National Chiao Tung University
Taoyuan (1) National Central University
Kaohsiung (1) National Sun Yat-sen University

Rankings[edit]

Some established rankings in Wikipedia:

Other rankings in external links:

See also[edit]

Related lists[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]