List of urban areas by population
of world cities
Definitions and issues
Demographia defines an urban area (urbanized area agglomeration or urban centre) as a continuously built up land mass of urban development that is within a labor market (i.e. metropolitan area or metropolitan region), without regard for administrative boundaries (i.e. municipality, city or commune). Except in Australia, the authorities use a minimum urban density definition of 400 persons per square kilometer (or the nearly identical 1,000 per square mile in the United States). Demographia uses maps, satellite photographs to estimate continuous urbanization. Demographia also uses small area population data, where available, to match population estimates to urbanized land area. National census authority data are presented in Australia, Canada, France, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. Census of India urban agglomerations are not used in some cases because the geographical size of constituent units (municipalities) often includes large rural (non-urban) areas.
Sources for population estimates and land area definitions are coded by letter in the Table below, respectively.
- A: National census authority data agglomeration data (land area or population).
- B: Demographia land area estimate based upon map or satellite photograph analysis.
- C: Demographia population estimate from lower order jurisdictions, including resuction for rural areas.
- D: Population estimate based upon the United Nations agglomeration estimate.
- E: Demographia population estimate from national census authority data.
- F: Other Demographia population estimate, such as from unofficial local reports.
- L: Demographia population estimate from local authority data.
- N: Combined urban area using national census authority data.
The most reliable population estimates are A and N. Population estimates C are generally reliable. Population estimates D are less reliable, because it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the data is based upon metropolitan area, urban area populations or some other definition. Population estimates E are also less reliable, for generally these estimates are derived by subtracting estimated population for the rural parts of metropolitan areas based upon estimated urban versus rural population differentials. Population estimates coded F and L are the least reliable (e.g. Pyongyang in Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and Tunis in Tunisia).
The projected year (2013) population estimate is further calculated from the base year population estimate using population growth rate based upon the United Nations population growth rate with some exceptions.
The estimates are quite different from the list of World's largest urban agglomerations produced by the United Nations that reports inconsistently on urban geographic, despite its reference to agglomerations. This is evident, for example, in Manila, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, Seoul and Moscow, where the UN data are for political jurisdictions, rather than urban areas. In other cases, the UN data is for metropolitan area, which are larger than urban areas (such as in Brazil). Finally, the United Nations data is incomplete, excluding some significant urban areas (such as Essen–Düsseldorf in Germany).
Urban areas are confined to a single metropolitan area or labor market area. In some cases, urban areas have virtually grown together (e.g. Taiheiyō Belt in Japan, the Pearl River Delta in the People's Republic of China and the Northeast megalopolis in the United States), yet are still considered separate urban areas.
Urban areas are confined to a single nation, unless there is freedom of movement (including labor) between the adjacent nations. Currently, this condition is met only between some continental nations of the European Union and Switzerland (e.g. Lille–Kortrijk in both France and Belgium, Aachen–Vaals in both Germany and Netherlands, Saarbrücken–Forbach in both Germany and France, Geneva–Annemasse in both Switzerland and France, and Basel–Lörrach–Saint-Louis in Switzerland, Germany and France). Thus, Detroit–Windsor in both the United States and Canada, and San Diego–Tijuana in both the United States and Mexico are not treated as single urban areas. Moreover, Shenzhen–Hong Kong is treated as separate urban areas, principally because labor movement between the two is limited, with the former within China and the latter a special administrative region of China.
According to the report, there are 875 identified urban areas in the world with 500,000 or more population as of 2013. It is important to recognize that most of the data are estimated. Appropriate caution is therefore advised.
Urban areas (population over 2,000,000) ranked by 2013 projected population
|Rank||City||Country or Dependency||Population||Area
Pop. / Area
|1||Tokyo–Yokohama (Keihin)||Japan||37,239,000||8,547||4,400||D / B|
|2||Jakarta (Jabodetabek)||Indonesia||26,746,000||2,784||9,600||C / B|
|3||Seoul–Incheon (Sudogwon)||South Korea||22,868,000||2,163||10,600||C / B|
|4||Delhi||India||22,826,000||1,943||11,800||A / B|
|5||Shanghai||China||21,766,000||3,497||6,200||C / B|
|6||Manila (Metro Manila)||Philippines||21,241,000||1,437||14,800||C / B|
|7||Karachi||Pakistan||20,877,000||803||26,000||C / B|
|8||New York City||United States||20,673,000||11,642||1,800||N / N|
|9||São Paulo||Brazil||20,568,000||3,173||6,500||C / B|
|10||Mexico City (Valley of Mexico)||Mexico||20,032,000||2,046||9,800||C / B|
|11||Beijing||China||18,241,000||3,497||5,200||C / B|
|12||Guangzhou–Foshan (Guangfo)||China||17,681,000||3,173||5,600||C / B|
|13||Mumbai ||India||17,307,000||546||31,700||A / B|
|14||Osaka–Kobe–Kyoto (Keihanshin)||Japan||17,175,000||3,212||5,300||C / B|
|15||Moscow||Russia||15,788,000||4,403||3,600||C / B|
|16||Greater Cairo||Egypt||15,071,000||1,658||9,100||E / B|
|17||Los Angeles||United States||15,067,000||6,299||2,400||N / N|
|18||Kolkata||India||14,630,000||1,204||12,100||A / B|
|19||Bangkok||Thailand||14,544,000||2,331||6,200||C / B|
|20||Dhaka||Bangladesh||14,399,000||324||44,500||C / B|
|21||Buenos Aires||Argentina||13,776,000||2,642||5,200||D / B|
|22||Tehran||Iran||13,309,000||1,360||9,800||E / B|
|23||Istanbul||Turkey||12,919,000||1,347||9,600||A / B|
|24||Shenzhen||China||12,506,000||1,748||7,200||C / B|
|25||Lagos||Nigeria||12,090,000||907||13,300||D / B|
|26||Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||11,616,000||2,020||5,700||C / B|
|27||Paris||France||10,869,000||2,845||3,800||A / A|
|28||Nagoya (Chūkyō)||Japan||10,183,000||3,820||2,700||C / B|
|29||London||United Kingdom||9,576,000||1,623||5,900||A / A|
|30||Lima||Peru||9,400,000||648||14,500||C / B|
|31||Kinshasa||Democratic Republic of the Congo||9,387,000||583||16,100||D / B|
|32||Tianjin||China||9,277,000||1,684||5,500||C / B|
|33||Chennai||India||9,182,000||842||10,900||A / B|
|34||Chicago||United States||9,104,000||6,856||1,300||N / N|
|35||Bengaluru||India||9,044,000||738||12,300||A / B|
|36||Bogotá||Colombia||9,009,000||414||21,700||D / B|
|37||Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)||Vietnam||8,764,000||1,269||6,900||C / B|
|38||Dongguan||China||8,591,000||1,554||5,500||C / B|
|39||Chengdu||China||8,386,000||971||8,600||C / B|
|40||Taipei||Taiwan||8,357,000||1,140||7,300||C / B|
|41||Hyderabad||India||8,206,000||881||9,300||A / B|
|42||Lahore||Pakistan||7,994,000||583||13,700||D / B|
|43||Johannesburg–East Rand||South Africa||7,426,000||2,694||2,800||D / B|
|44||Wuhan||China||7,411,000||1,088||6,800||C / B|
|45||Essen–Düsseldorf (Ruhr Area)||Germany||7,312,000||2,642||2,800||C / B|
|46||Hong Kong||Hong Kong||7,162,000||275||26,100||E / B|
|47||Ahmedabad||India||6,732,000||298||22,600||A / B|
|48||Chongqing||China||6,632,000||881||7,500||E / B|
|49||Kuala Lumpur (Klang Valley)||Malaysia||6,608,000||1,943||3,400||C / B|
|50||Hangzhou||China||6,559,000||1,127||5,800||C / B|
|51||Baghdad||Iraq||6,366,000||596||10,700||D / B|
|52||Toronto||Canada||6,184,000||2,287||2,700||N / N|
|53||Santiago||Chile||6,171,000||984||6,300||C / B|
|54||Madrid||Spain||6,087,000||1,321||4,600||C / B|
|55||Dallas–Fort Worth||United States||6,022,000||5,175||1,200||N / N|
|56||San Francisco–San Jose||United States||6,020,000||2,797||2,200||N / N|
|57||Quanzhou||China||5,913,000||1,399||4,200||C / B|
|58||Miami||United States||5,504,000||3,209||1,800||A / A|
|59||Nanjing||China||5,770,000||1,140||5,100||E / B|
|60||Shenyang||China||5,631,000||881||6,400||C / B|
|61||Belo Horizonte||Brazil||5,582,000||1,088||5,100||D / B|
|62||Philadelphia||United States||5,508,000||5,131||1,100||A / A|
|63||Houston||United States||5,485,000||4,644||1,200||N / N|
|64||Luanda||Angola||5,425,000||767||7,100||D / B|
|65||Xi'an||China||5,332,000||803||6,600||C / B|
|66||Singapore||Singapore||5,287,000||518||10,200||A / B|
|67||Pune||India||5,265,000||376||14,000||A / B|
|68||Milan||Italy||5,248,000||1,891||2,800||C / B|
|69||Riyadh||Saudi Arabia||5,133,000||1,502||3,400||E / B|
|70||Khartoum||Sudan||4,919,000||932||5,300||D / B|
|71||Saint Petersburg||Russia||4,899,000||1,191||4,100||D / B|
|72||Washington, D.C.||United States||4,825,000||3,424||1,400||A / A|
|73||Surat||India||4,791,000||161||29,800||A / B|
|74||Bandung||Indonesia||4,764,000||427||11,100||C / B|
|75||Atlanta||United States||4,707,000||6,851||700||A / A|
|76||Surabaya||Indonesia||4,703,000||673||7,000||C / B|
|77||Yangon (Rangoon)||Burma||4,620,000||350||13,200||D / B|
|78||Barcelona||Spain||4,604,000||1,075||4,300||C / B|
|79||Alexandria||Egypt||4,603,000||293||15,700||E / B|
|79||Abidjan||Ivory Coast||4,603,000||324||14,200||D / B|
|81||Guadalajara||Mexico||4,567,000||699||6,500||D / B|
|82||Harbin||China||4,543,000||518||8,800||C / B|
|83||Boston||United States||4,514,000||5,325||800||N / N|
|84||Nairobi||Kenya||4,457,000||557||8,000||C / B|
|85||Qingdao||China||4,444,000||1,153||3,900||C / B|
|86||Suzhou||China||4,402,000||907||4,900||C / B|
|87||Ankara||Turkey||4,221,000||583||7,200||D / B|
|88||Monterrey||Mexico||4,220,000||894||4,700||D / B|
|89||Zhengzhou||China||4,184,000||648||5,600||C / B|
|90||Salvador||Brazil||4,075,000||389||10,500||D / B|
|91||Phoenix||United States||4,044,000||3,276||1,200||N / N|
|92||Porto Alegre||Brazil||4,002,000||777||5,200||D / B|
|93||Sydney||Australia||3,956,000||2,037||1,900||A / A|
|93||Berlin||Germany||3,956,000||1,347||2,900||C / B|
|95||Accra||Ghana||3,933,000||945||4,200||C / B|
|96||Kuwait City||Kuwait||3,851,000||712||5,400||D / B|
|97||Rome||Italy||3,798,000||1,114||3,400||C / B|
|98||Recife||Brazil||3,793,000||414||9,200||D / B|
|98||Dalian||China||3,793,000||777||4,900||C / B|
|100||Melbourne||Australia||3,761,000||2,543||1,500||A / A|
|101||Detroit||United States||3,734,000||3,463||1,100||A / A|
|102||Medellín||Colombia||3,732,000||189||19,700||E / B|
|103||Naples||Italy||3,726,000||1,023||3,600||C / B|
|104||Dar es Salaam||Tanzania||3,723,000||570||6,500||C / B|
|105||Fortaleza||Brazil||3,636,000||725||5,000||D / B|
|105||Kano||Nigeria||3,636,000||251||14,500||D / B|
|107||Fuzhou||China||3,625,000||440||8,200||E / B|
|108||Cape Town||South Africa||3,560,000||816||4,400||D / B|
|109||Taiyuan||China||3,526,000||466||7,600||C / B|
|110||Hefei||China||3,523,000||596||5,900||C / B|
|111||Athens||Greece||3,510,000||583||6,000||C / B|
|112||Jinan||China||3,479,000||725||4,800||C / B|
|113||Kabul||Afghanistan||3,476,000||259||13,400||D / B|
|114||Durban (eThekwini)||South Africa||3,457,000||1,036||3,300||D / B|
|115||Montreal||Canada||3,450,000||1,546||2,200||A / A|
|116||Wuxi||China||3,445,000||673||5,100||C / B|
|117||Tel Aviv||Israel||3,421,000||479||7,100||D / B|
|118||Kunming||China||3,413,000||596||5,700||C / B|
|118||Jeddah||Saudi Arabia||3,413,000||842||4,100||E / B|
|120||Xiamen||China||3,388,000||583||5,800||C / B|
|121||Busan||South Korea||3,384,000||259||13,100||E / B|
|122||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||3,319,000||1,230||2,700||C / B|
|123||Ningbo||China||3,312,000||738||4,500||C / B|
|124||Caracas||Venezuela||3,279,000||272||12,100||D / B|
|125||Dakar||Senegal||3,270,000||194||16,800||D / B|
|126||Aleppo||Syria||3,264,000||259||12,600||D / B|
|127||Curitiba||Brazil||3,233,000||842||3,800||D / B|
|128||Changsha||China||3,228,000||466||6,900||C / B|
|129||Addis Ababa||Ethiopia||3,226,000||389||8,300||C / B|
|130||Changchun||China||3,212,000||531||6,000||C / B|
|131||Jaipur||India||3,208,000||168||19,100||A / B|
|132||Faisalabad||Pakistan||3,197,000||181||17,600||D / B|
|133||Ibadan||Nigeria||3,180,000||389||8,200||D / B|
|133||Seattle||United States||3,180,000||2,616||1,200||A / A|
|135||Rawalpindi–Islamabad||Pakistan||3,135,000||427||7,300||C / B|
|136||Casablanca||Morocco||3,120,000||220||14,200||D / B|
|137||Mashhad||Iran||3,097,000||298||10,400||E / B|
|138||Chittagong||Bangladesh||3,073,000||111||27,600||C / B|
|139||San Diego||United States||3,065,000||1,896||1,600||A / A|
|140||Pyongyang||North Korea||3,048,000||176||17,300||F / B|
|141||Shijiazhuang||China||3,044,000||518||5,900||C / B|
|141||Kanpur||India||3,044,000||192||15,900||A / B|
|143||Kumasi||Ghana||3,031,000||337||9,000||C / B|
|144||Lucknow||India||3,026,000||238||12,700||A / B|
|145||Algiers||Algeria||2,994,000||453||6,600||D / B|
|146||Taichung||Taiwan||2,973,000||492||6,000||E / B|
|147||Changzhou||China||2,971,000||829||3,600||C / B|
|148||İzmir||Turkey||2,946,000||272||10,800||D / B|
|149||Ürümqi||China||2,939,000||376||7,800||X / B|
|150||Hyderabad||Pakistan||2,850,000||73||39,300||C / B|
|151||Wenzhou||China||2,817,000||259||10,900||C / B|
|152||Kiev||Ukraine||2,816,000||544||5,200||D / B|
|153||Kaohsiung||Taiwan||2,796,000||363||7,700||E / B|
|154||Kalyan||India||2,763,000||93||29,600||C / B|
|155||Guiyang||China||2,749,000||298||9,200||C / B|
|156||Damascus||Syria||2,749,000||181||15,200||D / B|
|157||Minneapolis–Saint Paul||United States||2,731,000||2,647||1,000||A / A|
|158||Lisbon||Portugal||2,697,000||958||2,800||D / B|
|159||Maputo||Mozambique||2,691,000||414||6,500||E / B|
|160||Sapporo||Japan||2,654,000||622||4,300||D / B|
|161||Amman||Jordan||2,630,000||344||7,600||E / B|
|162||Douala||Cameroon||2,612,000||205||12,800||D / B|
|163||Sana'a||Yemen||2,608,000||179||14,600||D / B|
|164||Nagpur||India||2,605,000||220||11,800||A / B|
|165||Pretoria (Tshwane)||South Africa||2,602,000||1,230||2,100||C / B|
|166||Yaoundé||Cameroon||2,587,000||231||11,200||D / B|
|167||Fukuoka||Japan||2,556,000||531||4,800||C / B|
|168||Campinas||Brazil||2,541,000||932||2,700||C / B|
|169||Hanoi||Vietnam||2,533,000||285||8,900||C / B|
|170||Tampa–St. Petersburg||United States||2,516,000||2,479||1,000||A / A|
|171||Lanzhou||China||2,514,000||220||11,400||C / B|
|172||Katowice–Gliwice–Tychy (Silesian Metropolis)||Poland||2,507,000||725||3,500||C / B|
|173||Denver||United States||2,505,000||1,730||1,400||A / A|
|174||Cali||Colombia||2,486,000||155||16,000||D / B|
|175||Nanchang||China||2,469,000||544||4,500||C / B|
|176||Cebu City (Metro Cebu)||Philippines||2,463,000||207||11,900||C / B|
|177||Tunis||Tunisia||2,456,000||363||6,800||F / B|
|178||Daegu||South Korea||2,400,000||246||9,800||E / B|
|179||Brasília||Brazil||2,394,000||673||3,600||E / B|
|180||Guayaquil||Ecuador||2,379,000||220||10,800||D / B|
|181||Puebla||Mexico||2,374,000||622||3,800||D / B|
|182||Shantou||China||2,364,000||363||6,500||C / B|
|183||Abuja||Nigeria||2,360,000||225||10,500||D / B|
|184||Maracaibo||Venezuela||2,343,000||155||15,100||D / B|
|185||Port-au-Prince||Haiti||2,332,000||171||13,600||D / B|
|186||Tashkent||Uzbekistan||2,316,000||531||4,400||D / B|
|187||Zhangjiagang–Jiangyin||China||2,306,000||492||4,700||C / B|
|188||Frankfurt||Germany||2,303,000||673||3,400||C / B|
|189||Isfahan||Iran||2,299,000||350||6,600||E / B|
|190||Birmingham||United Kingdom||2,297,000||600||3,800||A / A|
|191||Nanning||China||2,277,000||306||7,500||E / B|
|192||Zhongshan||China||2,275,000||648||3,500||C / B|
|193||Indore||India||2,264,000||130||17,500||A / B|
|194||Santo Domingo||Dominican Republic||2,257,000||246||9,200||D / B|
|195||Baltimore||United States||2,251,000||1,857||1,200||A / A|
|196||Medan||Indonesia||2,250,000||246||9,100||D / B|
|197||Coimbatore||India||2,246,000||171||13,100||A / B|
|197||Manchester||United Kingdom||2,246,000||558||4,000||A / A|
|199||Kochi (Cochin)||India||2,211,000||220||10,000||A / B|
|200||Asunción||Paraguay||2,203,000||557||4,000||D / B|
|201||Chaoyang–Chaonan||China||2,200,000||272||8,100||C / B|
|202||Ouagadougou||Burkina Faso||2,193,000||350||6,300||D / B|
|203||Bamako||Mali||2,193,000||311||7,100||D / B|
|204||Panama City||Panama||2,182,000||168||13,000||D / B|
|205||Colombo||Sri Lanka||2,177,000||223||9,800||E / B|
|206||Vancouver||Canada||2,166,000||1,150||1,900||A / A|
|207||San Juan||Puerto Rico||2,163,000||2,246||1,000||A / A|
|208||St. Louis||United States||2,157,000||2,393||900||A / A|
|209||Patna||India||2,139,000||127||16,900||A / B|
|210||Goiânia||Brazil||2,131,000||673||3,200||D / B|
|211||Linyi||China||2,123,000||596||3,600||C / B|
|212||Kozhikode (Calicut)||India||2,120,000||119||17,800||A / B|
|213||Rotterdam–The Hague||Netherlands||2,119,000||842||2,500||C / B|
|214||Belém||Brazil||2,116,000||259||8,200||D / B|
|215||Baku||Azerbaijan||2,112,000||298||7,100||D / B|
|215||Havana||Cuba||2,112,000||285||7,400||D / B|
|217||Shaoxing||China||2,094,000||461||4,500||E / B|
|218||Antananarivo||Madagascar||2,075,000||220||9,400||C / B|
|219||Cologne–Bonn||Germany||2,069,000||932||2,200||C / B|
|220||Baotou||China||2,065,000||376||5,500||C / B|
|221||Tangshan||China||2,059,000||277||7,400||E / B|
|222||Beirut||Lebanon||2,035,000||673||3,000||D / B|
|223||Kitakyūshū||Japan||2,005,000||492||4,100||C / B|
|224||Port Harcourt||Nigeria||2,002,000||158||12,700||C / B|
Number of urban areas (population over 2,000,000) by country in 2013
224 areas in total.
- People's Republic of China (including Hong Kong): 46
- United States (including Puerto Rico): 21
- India: 19
- Brazil: 12
- Japan: 6
- Pakistan and Nigeria: 5 each
- Germany, Indonesia, Mexico, and South Africa: 4 each
- Canada, Republic of China (Taiwan), Colombia, Iran, Italy, Republic of Korea (South Korea), Turkey and United Kingdom: 3 each
- Australia, Bangladesh, Cameroon, Egypt, Ghana, Philippines, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Syria, Venezuela and Vietnam: 2 each
- 46 other countries: 1 each
Number of urban areas (population over 500,000) by country in 2013
875 areas in total. Urban areas of Lille, Aachen, Saarbrücken, Geneva are counted twice, while urban area of Basel is counted thrice below.
- People's Republic of China (including Hong Kong and Macau): 174
- India: 93
- United States (including Puerto Rico): 74
- Russia: 39
- Brazil: 34
- Mexico: 27
- Japan: 23
- Indonesia: 22
- Nigeria: 17
- Germany: 16
- France: 13
- Iran and Turkey: 12 each
- Pakistan and Republic of Korea (South Korea): 11 each
- Ukraine and United Kingdom: 10 each
- Argentina, Colombia, Italy and Spain: 9 each
- Canada and Philippines: 8 each
- Democratic Republic of the Congo, Morocco, Poland and Venezuela: 7 each
- Australia, Iraq, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia and South Africa: 6 each
- Republic of China (Taiwan): 5
- Bangladesh, Belgium, Egypt, Kazakhstan, Peru, Vietnam and Yemen: 4 each
- Algeria, Bolivia, Chile, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), Israel, Ivory Coast, Myanmar, Netherlands, Switzerland and Syria: 3 each
- Angola, Belarus, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Ghana, Greece, Kenya, Libya, Malawi, Portugal, Senegal, Sweden, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan and Zimbabwe: 2 each
- 74 other countries: 1 each
- List of metropolitan areas by population
- List of urban agglomerations by population
- List of agglomerations by population
- List of cities by population
- List of largest cities throughout history
- List of countries by population
References and notes
- Demographia World Urban Areas (World Agglomerations): 9th Annual Edition, March 2013
- Includes large areas of Tokyo, Kanagawa, Chiba and Saitama prefectures and small areas of Gunma, Tochigi and Ibaraki prefectures. Excludes urban areas of Utsunomiya (500,000; 119 km2) and Mito (500,000; 246 km2).
- Various international sources limit their population estimates to DKI Jakarta itself (the national capital district). However, the urbanization of Jakarta extends into the regencies of Tangerang, Bekasi, Bogor and Karawang and the separate cities of Bekasi, Depok and Bogor. Excludes urban areas of Karawang (650,000; 207 km2) and Serang (525,000; 65 km2).
- Includes satellite cities in Gyeonggi Province such as Suwon, Goyang, Seongnam, Bucheon and Ansan which are treated as separate urban agglomerations by the United Nations. Excludes urban area of Cheonan (500,000; 57 km2) in Chungcheongnam-do.
- Includes Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Noida, Gurgaon and Bahadurgarh. Excludes uran area of Meerut (1,489,000; 104 km2).
- Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo, Changzhou, Shaoxing, and urban area of Zhangjiaggang-Jiangyin within the prefecture-level cities of Suzhou and Wuxi are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Yangtze River Delta economic zone. Huai'an (1,856,000; 148 km2), Xuzhou (1,246,000; 233 km2), Nantong (1,036,000; 233 km2), Lianyungang (985,000; 155 km2), Zhenjiang (983,000; 168 km2), Yancheng (797,000; 207 km2), Huzhou (690,000; 111 km2), Taizhou (in Jiangsu Province; 300,000; 117 km2) and Suqian (220,000; 36 km2), as well as urban areas of Yangzhou (1,593,000; 233 km2) and Gaoyou (180,000; 39 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Yangzhou, urban areas of Kunshan (1,596,000; 492 km2), Changshu (1,139,000; 285 km2) and Taicang (523,000; 117 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Suzhou, urban areas of Cixi (1,200,000; 298 km2) and Yuyao (650,000; 122 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Ningbo, urban areas of Jiaxing (1,044,000; 259 km2) and Tongxiang (510,000; 52 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jiaxing, urban areas of Wenling (510,000; 52 km2), Jiaojiang (375,000; 41 km2) and Huangyan (200,000; 34 km2) within the prefectrure-level city of Taizhou (in Zhejiang Province), urban areas of Zhuji (500,000; 117 km2) and Shangyu (400,000; 158 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Shaoxing, urban areas of Yiwu-Dongyang (925,000; 233 km2), Jinhua (520,000; 186 km2), Yongkang (500,000; 223 km2), Dongyang (260,000; 104 km2) and Lanxi (220,000; 34 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jinhua, and urban area of Fuyang (450,000; 49 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Hangzhou are also excluded.
- The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations), tend to be limited to Metro Manila, which is a province level jurisdiction. The continuous urbanization of Manila extends outward into Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Rizal and Batangas provinces. The Demographia population estimate is a “build-up” of municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration).
- The population is lower than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which include metropolitan area population not within the continuously developed urban area.
- Demographia defines urban area of New York as a combination of New York–Newark, Bridgeport–Stamford, New Haven, Trenton, Danbury and Twin Rivers urbanized areas. New York and Philadelphia (same with Philadelphia urbanized area) are treated as separate urban areas. Urban areas of Hartford (925,000; 1,336 km2), Allentown–Bethlehem (665,000; 896 km2), Springfield (621,000; 904 km2), Harrisburg (446,000; 673 km2), Poughkeepsie (427,000; 847 km2), Lancaster (405,000; 642 km2), Reading (284,000; 269 km2), Atlantic City (250,000; 324 km2), York (235,000; 342 km2), Norwich–New London (209,000; 394 km2), Waterbury (195,000; 233 km2) and Pottstown (108,000; 205 km2) are also excluded.
- Includes Francisco Morato. Excludes urban area of Santos (1,716,000; 207 km2).
- Excludes urban areas of Toluca (1,747,000; 220 km2) and Cuernavaca (675,000; 171 km2).
- Excludes urban areas of Baoding (1,283,000; 220 km2), Zhangjiakou (1,322,000; 220 km2) and Chengde (108,000; 23 km2).
- Hong Kong in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Shenzhen are treated as separate urban areas because of the lack of freedom of labor movement without trade, immigration or customs barriers. Guangzhou–Foshan, Shenzhen, Dongguan and Zhongshan are also treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Pearl River Delta economic zone. While Guangzhou and Foshan are combined into a single urban area because they have become more economically integrated than the other urban areas, other areas in the Pearl River Delta economic region remain classified as separate urban areas. Thus, urban areas of Huizhou (1,387,000; 168 km2), Zhuhai (1,274,000; 246 km2) and Zhaoqing (500,000; 65 km2) as well as urban areas of Jiangmen (920,000; 259 km2) and Taishan (204,000; 44 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jiangmen, urban area of Lishui (300,000; 44 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Foshan and urban are of Macau (560,000; 21 km2) in the Macau Special Administrative Region are excluded. Urban area of Guangzhou–Foshan includes Shunde within the prefecture-level city of Foshan, which has been excluded in the 2011 edition. Urban area of Shenzhen includes Huiyang within the prefecture-level city of Huizhou, which has been excluded in the 2010 edition. Urban area of Huizhou includes only Huicheng District. The Demographia estimate for Dongguan is lower than last year, because local estimates previously used were higher than reported in the 2010 census.
- Mumbai and Kalyan are treated as separate urban areas, although the census of India classifies Kalyan within the Mumbai agglomeration. Kalyan is excluded by Demographia because of the lack of continuous urbanization with Mumbai. Urban area of Mumbai includes Panvel and Navi Mumbai, but excludes urban area of Vasai–Virar (1,147,000; 91 km2) and Bhiwandi (737,000; 52 km2), which have been included in the 2011 edition. A large part of the municipality of Mumbai is rural, composed of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park and thus not included in the urban area.
- Includes Nara and Himeji. United Nations estimates separate Osaka–Kobe and Kyoto and exclude both Nara and Himeji. Excludes urban area of Ōtsu (775,000; 303 km2) and Wakayama (430,000; 91 km2).
- The population estimate is suspect, due to the lack of readily available data for local areas outside the city jurisdiction (Moscow Oblast). Demographia is indebted to Richard Forstall, who has provided local authority area population data for portions of Moscow Oblast within the Moscow urban areas. Other estimates (such as the United Nations estimate) include only the municipality of Moscow, which includes only part of the urban footprint. Includes Elektrostal–Noginsk within Moscow Oblast, which has been excluded in the 2011 edition.
- Combination of Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana, Riverside–San Bernardino and Mission Viejo urbanized areas. Excludes urban areas of Temecula–Murrieta (472,000; 420 km2), Indio–Palm Springs (370,000; 373 km2), Oxnard (369,000; 218 km2), Lancaster–Palmdale (358,000; 300 km2), Victorville–Hesperia–Apple Valley (350,000; 433 km2), Santa Clarita (272,000; 199 km2), Thousand Oaks (216,000; 223 km2), Santa Barbara (196,000; 145 km2), Hemet (163,000; 127 km2) and Simi Valley (126,000; 80 km2).
- Includes urban area of Narayanganj which has been excluded in the 2011 edition.
- Excludes urban area of La Plata (675,000; 228 km2) which has been included in the 2007 edition.
- Includes Eslamshahr and Karaj which has been excluded in the 2012 edition.
- Higher population estimates are indicated by some source. The Demographia population estimate is determined from accumulating smaller area population data from the 2006 census. Excludes urban area of Ikorodu (525,000; 130 km2) within Lagos State.
- Includes Toyohashi.
- Greater London urban area. Excludes urban areas of Reading (318,000; 84 km2), Southend-on-Sea (295,000; 72 km2), Aldershot (252,000; 79 km2), Luton (258,000; 51 km2), Medway (244,000; 52 km2), Crawley (181,000; 58 km2), Slough (164,000; 34 km2), Basildon (145,000; 37 km2), High Wycombe (133,000; 39 km2), Chelmsford (112,000; 26 km2) and Maidstone (108,000; 25 km2).
- Excludes urban area of Brazzaville (1,685,000; 181 km2) in the Republic of the Congo.
- Tianjin and Tangshan are treated as separate urban areas. Urban areas of Cangzhou (500,000; 130 km2) and Langfang (465,000; 130 km2) as well as urban area of Qian'an (400,000; 168 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Tangshan are also excluded. The population of the urban area of Tianjin is lower than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which include metropolitan area population not within the continuously developed urban area. The Demographia population estimate is a “build-up” of sub-municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration).
- Combination of Chicago, Kenosha and Round Lake Beach–McHenry–Grayslake urbanized areas. Excludes urban areas of Milwaukee (1,388,000; 1,414 km2), Rockford (301,000; 396 km2), South Bend (278,000; 417 km2), Elkhart (144,000; 238 km2) and Racine (134,000; 127 km).
- The population is higher than other estimates (such as the United Nations), which do not include all population within the continuously developed urban area (especially in New Taipei City). Includes Taoyuan and Jhongli (Chungli) which have been excluded in the 2010 edition. Excludes urban area of Hsinchu (650,000; 117 km2).
- Johannesburg–East Rand and Pretoria are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Vaal Triangle. Urban area of Vereeninging (Emfuleni) (650,000; 337 km2) is also excluded.
- Essen–Düsseldorf and Cologne–Bonn are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area. Excludes urban area of Aachen–Vaals (585,000; 401 km2) in both Germany and the Netherlands.
- Excludes urban area of Wanzhou (Wanxian) (500,000; 41 km2) within the municipality of Chongqing. The direct-controlled municipality of Chongqing, which is sometimes translated as the direct-controlled city of Chongqing, has the largest population of any organism called a city in the stretches far beyond any reasonable definition of a metropolitan area.
- The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations), which does not include all of the continuously developed urban area in the state of Selangor. Continuous urbanization extends well beyond the municipality of Kuala Lumpur, for example to Port Klang and the area represents a single labor market (metropolitan area). The Demographia population estimate is a “build-up” of municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration). Excludes urban area of Seremban (500,000; 155 km2).
- Combination of population centres of Toronto, Hamilton and Oshawa. Excludes urban areas of Kitchener (445,000; 313 km2), London (366,000; 223 km2), St. Catharines (309,000; 378 km2), Barrie (167,000; 171 km2) and Guelph (122,000; 78 km2) which constitute the Golden Horseshoe metropolitan region in Canada as well as urban areas of Buffalo (919,000; 984 km2) and Rochester (723,000; 839 km2) in the United States.
- Excludes urban area of Valparaíso–Viña del Mar (875,000; 161 km2).
- Combination of Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, Denton–Lewisville and McKinney urbanized areas.
- Combination of San Francisco–Oakland, San Jose, Concord, Vallejo and Livermore urbanized areas. Excludes urban areas of Santa Rosa (308,000; 254 km2), Antioch (278,000; 210 km2), Salinas (185,000; 127 km2), Santa Cruz (164,000; 150 km2), Fairfield (134,000; 101 km2) and Seaside–Monterey–Marina (114,000; 101 km2).
- Includes Shishi and Jinjiang within the prefecture-level city of Quanzhou.
- Miami urbanized area. Includes former urban areas of Fort Lauderdale and West Palm Beach, which were combinde by the US Census Bureau into Miami in 2000.
- Excludes urban areas of Fushun (1,412,000; 130 km2) and Tieling (325,000; 65 km2).
- Combination of Houston and Conroe urbanized areas. Excludes urban area of Texas City (106,000; 197 km2).
- Includes Xianyang which has been excluded in the 2010 edition.
- Excludes urban area of Johor Bahru (1,640,000; 712 km2) in Malaysia and urban area of Batam (900,000; 218 km2) in Indonesia.
- The population is higher than other agglomeration estimates (such as the United Nations), which does not include all of the continuously developed urban area, which stretches into Como, Lecco and Varese provinces. Excludes Bergamo which has been included in the 2007 edition (4,950,000; 3,043 km2 in total).
- Include communities under the authority of the Town Council.
- The US Census Bureau combines Washington and Baltimore into a single metropolitan area (consolidated area) but Demographia considers the two (same with Washington, DC and Baltimore urbanized areas) as separate urban areas. Urban areas of Aberdeen–Havre de Grace (214,000; 339 km2), Hagerstown (183,000; 344 km2), Frederick (142,000; 189 km2), Fredericksburg (141,000; 202 km2) and Waldorf (110,000; 176 km2) are also excluded.
- Atlanta urbanized area. Excludes urban areas of Gainsville (131,000; 326 km2) and Athens (129,000; 254 km2).
- Excludes urban areas of Acheng (300,000; 39 km2) and Shangzhi (250,000; 18 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Harbin.
- Combination of Boston and Nashua urbanized areas. Excludes urban areas of Providence (1,187,000; 1,412 km2), Worcester (489,000; 787 km2), Barnstable (247,000; 717 km2), Manchester (159,000; 223 km2), New Bedford (149,000; 142 km2) and Leominster–Fitchburg (117,000; 168 km2).
- Excludes urban area of Feira de Santana (525,000; 78 km2).
- Combination of Phoenix–Mesa, Avondale and Sierra Vista urbanized area.
- Excludes urban areas of Newcastle (308,000; 292 km2), Central Coast (298,000; 401 km2) and Wollongong (246,000; 219 km2).
- Excludes the State of the Vatican City.
- Excludes urban area of Geelong (144,000; 115 km2).
- Detroit urbanized area. Excludes urban areas of Toledo (508,000; 622 km2), Flint (355,000; 611 km2), Ann Arbor (308,000; 414 km2) and South Lyon (120,000; 267 km2) in the United States as well as urban area of Windsor (276,000; 176 km2) in Canada .
- Includes Yuci District in Jinzhong which has been excluded in the 2012 edition.
- Population centre of Montréal.
- Excludes urban area of Zhangzhou (1,200,000; 350 km2).
- Excludes urban areas of Ulsan (1,087,000; 104 km2) and Changwon (1,000,000; 104 km2).
- Includes Sharjah.
- Seattle urbanized area. Excludes urban areas of Bremerton (199,000; 352 km2), Olympia (180,000; 275 km2) and Marysville (145,000; 212 km2).
- San Diego urbanized area. Excludes urban area of Tijuana (1,827,000; 466 km2) in Mexico.
- Excludes urban areas of Ruian (965,000; 132 km2) and Cangnan (700,000; 65 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Wenzhou.
- Minneapolis–St. Paul urbanized area.
- Includes Matola.
- Includes Az-Zarqa.
- Fukuoka and Kitakyūshū are treated as separate urban areas. Some sources combine Fukuoka with Kitakyūshū (such as the United Nations), which is not a part of the continuous urbanization of Fukuoka. The Demographia population estimate is a “build-up” of municipality population within the continuously developed area (urban area or agglomeration).
- Tampa–St. Petersburg urbanized area. Excludes urban areas of Sarasota–Bradenton (654,000; 847 km2), Lakeland (269,000; 378 km2), Winter Haven (201,000; 347 km2) and Spring Hill (149,000; 251 km2).
- Denver–Aurora urbanized area. Excludes urban areas of Fort Collins (268,000; 285 km2), Greeley (121,000; 106 km2) and Boulder (116,000; 83 km2).
- Excludes urban area of Luziânia–Gama (525,000; 259 km2).
- Shantou and Chaoyang–Chaonan within the prefecture-level city of Shantou are treated as separate urban areas. Likewise, urban area of Chaozhou (350,000; 85 km2) as well as urban areas of Puning (910,000; 179 km2) and Jieyang (660,000; 194 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jieyang are excluded.
- West Midlands urban area. Excludes urban area of Coventry (359,000; 81f km2)
- Excludes urban area of Ujjain (500,000; 41 km2).
- Greater Manchester urban area. Excludes urban areas of Liverpool (864,000; 200 km2), Birkenhead (325,000; 88 km2), Preston (313,000; 82 km2), Blackpool (239,000; 61 km2), Wigan (175,000; 44 km2), Warrington (165,000; 45 km2), Burnley (149,000; 36 km2), Blackburn (147,000; 36 km2) and Accrington/Rossendale (125,000; 30 km2).
- Population centre of Vancouver. Excludes urban area of Abbotsford (150,000; 158 km2).
- St. Louis urbanized area.
- Excludes urban areas of Amsterdam (1,050,000; 414 km2), Haarlem (450,000; 142 km2) and Utrecht (400,000; 109 km2) which constitute the Randstad metropolitan region.
- Excludes urban area of Sumqayit (275,000; 91 km2).
- UN Demographic Yearbook
- e-Geopolis project Research Group, University Paris-Diderot
- Th. Brinkhoff: The Principal Agglomerations of the World
- The World Gazetteer
- Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques
- Gridded Population of the World