List of urban rail systems in Japan

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List of urban rail systems in Japan lists urban rail transit systems in Japan, organized by metropolitan area (都市圏?), including number of stations, length (km), and average daily and annual ridership volume. Data is shown only for those areas designated as major metropolitan areas (大都市圏?) by the Statistics Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications.

Considerations[edit]

There are several considerations for the data presented in this list.

The Tenjin Underground Mall connects Tenjin and Tenjin-Minami on the Fukuoka City Subway. Together, these two stations are considered an interchange station, but because they are given distinct station names, they are counted as separate stations in this list.

Station count[edit]

Data is broken down at the line level, then rolled up for each specific railway operator. The total station count for each operator is a “unique station” count—an interchange or transfer station between two lines operated by the same company is counted as a single station. As a result, summing together the station counts for all of the lines under a single railway operator will generally yield a value greater than the total station count cited for the operator.

Some station pairs are officially considered interchanges by their respective railway operators despite having different names (e.g., Tameike-Sannō and Kokkai-gijidō-mae on the Tokyo Metro and Tenjin and Tenjin-Minami on the Fukuoka City Subway). As the names are different, however, they are counted as separate stations in this list.

Length[edit]

In a similar fashion to the station count, length is counted as route kilometers, but only considers “unique” segments. The following considerations are relevant for the lengths referenced in the tables.

Intra-company considerations[edit]

The 12.5 km quadruple-track section of the Keihan Main Line between Tenmabashi and the Neyagawa Signal Box is branded entirely as the “Keihan Main Line”, and is counted only once in this list.

Generally, multiple-track sections classified under the same line name and without operational segregation into separate lines are only counted once, not twice. Examples include the quadruple-track sections of the Keihan Main Line and Tōbu Isesaki Line, which are only counted once because fast (i.e., limited-stop) and slow (i.e., local or all-stop) services are branded together as a single line, not separately as distinct lines.

Other cases include double junctions where a double-track branch line ties into a double-track main line, permitting interlining of the branch line with the main line. Examples include Keiō Sagamihara Line trains that continue past Chōfu Station onto the Keiō Line. In this situation, the trackage of the Keiō Sagamihara Line is counted as only the section between Chōfu and Hashimoto Station, while the double-track section east of Chōfu is counted under the Keiō Line, following traditional conventions for railway line nomenclature in Japan.

Likewise, double-track segments shared by lines under the same operator are only counted once. Examples include the Yamanote Freight Line between Ikebukuro and Ōsaki, a segment shared by the Saikyō Line and Shōnan-Shinjuku Line. In this situation, the trackage is counted only once, under the Saikyō Line. Similarly, tabulations for the larger tram systems with a high degree of interlining, such as Hiroshima Electric Railway, also consider only unique segments, and sections where multiple routes overlap are only counted once.

East of Mitaka, rapid and local services on the Chūō Main Line in the Greater Tokyo Area are segregated from each other, with each provided a dedicated pair of tracks and distinctive branding (orange for the rapid services and yellow for the local services).

However, if there is some reasonable segregation of operations or distinction between lines, the trackage is counted more than once. Examples include the various quadruple-track sections of East Japan Railway Company (JR East) that provide segregated local and rapid services (e.g., Chūō Rapid Line vs. Chūō-Sōbu Line). Here, the route-kilometers are counted twice, once under the Chūō Rapid Line and again under the local Chūō-Sōbu Line.

Other situations include quadruple-track sections at the confluence of two distinct double-track lines, such as the Ōsaka UehommachiFuse quadruple-track section of the Kintetsu network in central Ōsaka, officially designated as part of the Kintetsu Osaka Line but actually two lines (the Kintetsu Osaka Line and Kintetsu Nara Line) sharing a single right-of-way west of Fuse. A similar situation applies for many JR East lines—the Yamanote Line and Keihin-Tōhoku Line officially use tracks classified as part of the Tōkaidō Main Line and Tōhoku Main Line, but that are fully segregated from the tracks used by the respective services operating under the names “Tōkaidō Line” and “Utsunomiya Line” / “Takasaki Line”.

Cross-company considerations[edit]

Extensive through-service arrangements in Japan allow trains owned by one railway to operate far out into other parts of the metropolitan area. This Keikyu train is arriving at Narita Yukawa Station on the Keisei Narita Airport Line in far eastern Tokyo, bound for Haneda Airport and traditional Keikyu territory in southwestern Tokyo via the Hokusō Line, Keisei Oshiage Line, and Toei Asakusa Line. This non-Keikyu trackage is not included as part of Keikyu’s network length.

As a general rule, trackage used by one company but owned by another company as part of a trackage rights or Through Train (直通運転?) (often translated as through-service) agreement is not counted under the first company. For example, trackage on the Toei Asakusa Line is not counted under Keikyu Corporation, Keisei Electric Railway, or the Hokusō Railway, despite the fact that all three operate their trains on the Asakusa Line. However, this list makes some exceptions to this rule, the most notable being the Keisei-TakasagoInba-Nihon-Idai section of the Keisei Narita Airport Line, which is shared with trains operated by Hokusō Railway but owned partially by Hokusō Railway (Keisei-Takasago – Komuro) and Chiba New Town Railway (Komuro – Inba-Nihon-Idai). This shared trackage is counted once under Hokusō Railway and again under Keisei Electric Railway.

Similar exceptions include trackage owned by third-sector railways that do not own any of their own rolling stock and instead contract out train operations to through-servicing operators. Notable examples include the double-track approach into Narita Airport, which is owned by the third-sector Narita Airport Rapid Railway. All trains on this railway, however, are operated by either JR East or Keisei Electric Railway, with each operator getting dedicated usage of one of the two tracks into the Airport. In this situation, the JR East single-track section is counted in the JR total, while the Keisei single-track section is counted in the Keisei total.

Ridership[edit]

Both average daily and annual ridership are included, because only average daily ridership or annual ridership (not both) is available for some operators. In cases where data for only one of the two is available, care has been taken to not extrapolate the passenger volume to obtain the other, as there is a potential margin of error when attempting to derive average daily ridership from annual ridership (which is usually rounded to the nearest thousand passengers) and natural disasters or other unforeseen situations may force some operators to shut down for extended periods of time, as happened with the Sendai Subway in the days following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.

Categories[edit]

For readability and ease of comparison across metropolitan areas, systems within each metropolitan area are broken down into the following categories:

JR West’s “Urban Network” in the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto area provides an extensive web of fast urban and suburban rail service connecting primary and secondary cities in the metropolitan area.
  • Japan Rail metropolitan network: Urban rail services operated by Japan Rail Group companies. While JR Group companies administer networks spanning multiple regions and operate various long-distance and intercity services such as limited expresses and Shinkansen high-speed rail, services in metropolitan areas are often focused on providing urban and suburban transit. JR East, for example, is the largest single urban rail operator in the world, carrying around 14 million passengers daily on its extensive rail network in Greater Tokyo.[1]
  • Other major railways: Any other major railways not fitting any of the above four categories. Examples include the Minatomirai Line (generally considered a “subway”, but administered by a third-sector company) or the Enoshima Electric Railway (a privately operated railway, but too small to be considered a major or semi-major private railway).
  • Other minor railways: Any other systems which provide rail service in the metropolitan area but do not fall into the above categories. Examples include tourist-heavy lines like the Disney Resort Line (a monorail line primarily serving the Tokyo Disney Resort), local people mover systems such as the Yamaman Yūkarigaoka Line (a small automated guideway transit system primarily serving to connect a new town development with a major suburban railway station), or other minor systems like the Mizuma Railway (a minor private railway in suburban Osaka).
  1. ^ Ogasawara, Minoru. "Towards Realization of a Next Generation Commuter Train System". JR East Technical Review (East Japan Railway Company (JR East)) 05: 4–11. ISSN 1347-8419. 

List[edit]

Fukuoka–Kitakyushu[edit]

Hiroshima[edit]

Nagoya (Chūkyō)[edit]

Niigata[edit]

Okayama[edit]

Osaka‒Kobe‒Kyoto (Keihanshin)[edit]

Sapporo[edit]

Sendai[edit]

Shizuoka‒Hamamatsu[edit]

Tokyo (Kantō)[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Defined here as the SUGOCA coverage area (as of 2012.04.01), together with the Gotōji Line and the JōnoTagawa-Gotōji section of the Hita-Hikosan Line. In comparison to the tabulation here, JR Kyūshū's Fukuoka Suburban Area (福岡近郊区間?) as defined for fare calculation purposes includes the HarudaKeisen section of the Chikuhō Main Line and the Tagawa-Gotōji ‒ Imayama section of the Hita-Hikosan Line, but excludes the Kagoshima Main Line south of Tosu; the Nagasaki Main Line; the Chikuhi Line / Karatsu Line; the Nippō Main Line south of Yukuhashi; and the MojiShimonoseki section of the San'yō Main Line.
  2. ^ Defined here as the ICOCA coverage area in the Hiroshima area. The tabulation shown here roughly correlates to JR West’s Hiroshima City Network (広島シティネットワーク?), but includes the HiroMihara section of the Kure Line and the ShiraichiItozaki section of the San'yō Main Line.
  3. ^ Defined here as Kintetsu’s network in the Greater Nagoya Area (Kintetsu Nagoya Line, Kintetsu Yunoyama Line, Kintetsu Suzuka Line, Kintetsu Yamada Line, Kintetsu Toba Line, Kintetsu Shima Line, Kintetsu Hachiōji Line, and Kintetsu Utsube Line).
  4. ^ Defined here as the TOICA coverage area (as of 2012.05.30), together with the SekigaharaMaibara and ŌgakiMino-Akasaka sections of the Tōkaidō Main Line; the YokkaichiKameyama section of the Kansai Main Line; the Kameyama ‒ Taki section of the Kisei Main Line; the Sangū Line; and the ToyokawaHon-Nagashino section of the Iida Line. Unlike Greater Tokyo and Osaka‒Kobe‒Kyoto, JR Central has no suburban area (近郊区間?) defined for the Greater Nagoya area for fare calculation purposes, and the TOICA coverage area is limited, with some trains continuing beyond the boundaries of the current coverage area.
  5. ^ Operated with buses, but also classified as a railway.
  6. ^ Defined here as the Suica coverage area (as of 2012.05.31) in the Niigata area, omitting the Jōetsu Shinkansen. The Suica coverage area is identical in scope to JR East's Niigata Suburban Area (新潟近郊区間?).
  7. ^ Defined here as the ICOCA coverage area (as of 2012.05.31) in the Okayama area, together with the WakeAioi section of the San'yō Main Line; the OsafuneBanshū Akō section of the Akō Line; the ChayamachiUno section of the Uno Line; the HōkaiinTsuyama section of the Tsuyama Line; the Bitchū-TakahashiNiimi section of the Hakubi Line; and the KannabeFuchū section of the Fukuen Line; and omitting the section of the Seto Ōhashi Line south of Kojima. JR West has no suburban area (近郊区間?) defined for the Okayama area for fare calculation purposes, and the ICOCA coverage area is limited, with most trains continuing beyond the boundaries of the current coverage area.
  8. ^ Defined here as Kintetsu’s network in the Osaka‒Kobe‒Kyoto area, comprising the Nara / Kyoto group (Kintetsu Namba Line, Kintetsu Nara Line, Kintetsu Ikoma Line, Kintetsu Keihanna Line, Kintetsu Kyoto Line, Kintetsu Kashihara Line, Kintetsu Tenri Line, and Kintetsu Tawaramoto Line), the Minami-Osaka group (Kintetsu Minami-Osaka Line, Kintetsu Domyoji Line, Kintetsu Nagano Line, Kintetsu Gose Line, and Kintetsu Yoshino Line), and two lines of the Osaka / Nagoya group (the Kintetsu Shigi Line and the Ōsaka UehommachiAoyamachō section of the Kintetsu Osaka Line).
  9. ^ Annual ridership for Kintetsu includes passengers on lines outside of the Osaka‒Kobe‒Kyoto area, including lines in the Greater Nagoya area.
  10. ^ Defined here as the union of JR West’s Urban Network (アーバンネットワーク?) (as of 2012.03.17) and the Osaka Suburban Area (大阪近郊区間?) for fare calculation purposes, omitting Shinkansen sections. The Urban Network is mostly identical to the Osaka Suburban Area, but omits the Kakogawa Line; the SasayamaguchiTanikawa section of the Fukuchiyama Line; the MaibaraShin-Ōsaka section of the Tōkaidō Shinkansen; and the Nishi-AkashiAioi section of the Sanyō Shinkansen. The Urban Network also includes the Ōmi-ShiotsuTsuruga section of the Hokuriku Main Line and the HimejiKamigōri section of the San'yō Main Line, which are not included in the Osaka Suburban Area.
  11. ^ Defined here as JR Hokkaidō’s Sapporo suburban area network (as of 2012.05.31).
  12. ^ Defined here as the Suica coverage area (as of 2012.05.31) in the Sendai area, omitting the Tōhoku Main Line south of Shiroishi Station and the Tōhoku Shinkansen.
  13. ^ Defined here as the TOICA coverage area (as of 2012.05.30) east of Toyohashi, together with the KannamiAtami section of the Tōkaidō Main Line and the Nishi-FujinomiyaShibakawa section of the Minobu Line. JR Central has no suburban area (近郊区間?) defined for the Shizuoka‒Hamamatsu area for fare calculation purposes, and the TOICA coverage area is limited, with many trains continuing beyond the boundaries of the current coverage area.
  14. ^ Tokyo Metro officially counts Tameike-Sannō (Tokyo Metro Ginza Line and Tokyo Metro Namboku Line) and Kokkai-gijidō-mae (Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line and Tokyo Metro Chiyoda Line) as a single station with four lines, yielding a total of 142 unique stations.
  15. ^ Defined here as JR East's Tokyo Suburban Area (東京近郊区間?) for fare calculation purposes, and roughly correlating with the Suica coverage area (as of 2012.03.17). However, Suica coverage does not extend to the Karasuyama Line, Kashima Line, and Kururi Line, which are considered part of the Tokyo Suburban Area.

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See also[edit]