List of vascular plants of Norfolk Island

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Foliage of Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island Pine), a well-known Norfolk Island endemic

This is a list of vascular plants that are indigenous to, or naturalised on, Norfolk Island. The list is based on the most recent authoritative treatment of Norfolk Island, the 1994 Flora of Australia 49. That source is dated in places; for example its classification of the flowering plants uses the Cronquist system, aspects of which are no longer accepted. This list therefore differs from the Flora of Australia treatment in several areas; these are footnoted.

List of flora of Norfolk Island[edit]

Norfolk Island has 523 taxa of vascular plants, 136 of which are indigenous, and 387 naturalised. Forty-four of the indigenous taxa are endemic. There are two endemic genera, Ungeria and Streblorrhiza.

Eudicotyledons[edit]

The eudicots[1] are represented on Norfolk Island by 75 families, 220 genera, and 287 species.

Acanthaceae
Aizoaceae
Amaranthaceae[3]
Anacardiaceae
Apiaceae
Apocynaceae
Araliaceae
Asclepiadaceae
Asteraceae
Basellaceae
Bignoniaceae
Boraginaceae
Brassicaceae
Caesalpiniaceae
Campanulaceae
Cannabaceae[10]
Capparaceae
Caprifoliaceae
Caryophyllaceae
Casuarinaceae
Celastraceae
Calystegia soldanella (Beach Morning Glory)
Convolvulaceae
Corynocarpaceae
Crassulaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Fabaceae
Frankeniaceae
Fumariaceae
Gentianaceae
Geraniaceae
Lamiaceae
Lauraceae
Linaceae
Loranthaceae
Lythraceae
Hibiscus tiliaceus (Beach Hibiscus)
Malvaceae
Meliaceae
Mimosaceae
Moraceae
Myoporaceae
Myrsinaceae
Myrtaceae
Nyctaginaceae
Ochnaceae
Oleaceae
Onagraceae
Orobanchaceae
Oxalidaceae
Papaveraceae
Passifloraceae
Pennantiaceae[17]
Phytolaccaceae
Piperaceae
Pittosporaceae
Plantaginaceae
Plumbaginaceae
Polygalaceae
Polygonaceae
Portulacaceae
Primulaceae
Proteaceae
Ranunculaceae
Rosaceae
Rubiaceae
Rutaceae
Santalaceae
Sapindaceae
Pouteria costata (Bastard Ironwood)
Sapotaceae
Scrophulariaceae
Solanaceae
Sterculiaceae
Thymelaeaceae
Tiliaceae
Urticaceae
Verbenaceae
Violaceae
Viscaceae

Monocotyledons[edit]

The Monocotyledons (monocots) are represented on Norfolk Island by 16 families, 81 genera, and 110 species. Most of them are naturalised, with naturalised grasses account for 5 families, 47 genera and 67 species. Of the 43 indigenous species, 9 are endemic.

Phormium tenax (New Zealand Flax)
Agavaceae
Alliaceae[21]
Araceae
Rhopalostylis baueri
Arecaceae
Asphodelaceae[23]
Cannaceae
Colchicaceae
Commelinaceae
Cyperaceae
Hemerocallidaceae[25]
Iridaceae
Juncaceae
Liliaceae
Limnocharitaceae
Orchidaceae
Pandanaceae
Poaceae
Pontederiaceae
Smilacaceae
Typhaceae

Pinophyta[edit]

Two species of Pinophyta (conifers) occur on Norfolk Island: the popular endemic Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island Pine), and the naturalised Cupressus lusitanica.

Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island Pine)
Araucariaceae
Cupressus lusitanica (Mexican Cypress)
Cupressaceae

Pteridophyta[edit]

The Pteridophyta (ferns) are represented on Norfolk Island by 14 families, 24 genera, and 37 species. Seven species are endemic; none are naturalised.

Adiantaceae
Aspleniaceae
Athyriaceae
Azollaceae
Blechnaceae
Cyatheaceae
Davalliaceae
Dennstaedtiaceae
Dryopteridaceae
Gleicheniaceae
Hymenophyllaceae
Marattiaceae
Nephrolepidaceae
Polypodiaceae
Pteridaceae
Salvinia molesta (Giant Salvinia)
Salviniaceae
Thelypteridaceae
Vittariaceae

Lycopodiophyta[edit]

Norfolk Island has two species of Lycopodiophyta,[33] the indigenous club moss Lycopodiella cernua and the naturalised spikemoss Selaginella kraussiana.

Lycopodiaceae
Selaginellaceae

Psilotophyta[edit]

Norfolk Island has two species of Psilotophyta.[34]

Psilotaceae

Ophioglossophyta[edit]

Norfolk Island has one species of Ophioglossophyta.[35]

Ophioglossaceae

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Flora of Australia uses Cronquist's Dicotyledonae, but this is no longer considered a "good" group; here we use the eudicot group.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp These taxa did not appear in Flora of Australia, but were reported as new records for Norfolk Island in de Lange et al. (2005).
  3. ^ Flora of Australia listed a number of species under family Chenopodiaceae; these are here listed under Amaranthaceae in accordance with the APG II system.
  4. ^ Achyranthes margaretarum is a new species that was split off from A. arborescens in 2001.
  5. ^ The record of Atriplex cinerea on Norfolk Island was excluded in Flora of Australia, but has since been admitted.
  6. ^ a b At least one putative collection of Euchiton involucratus from Norfolk Island has now been identified as Euchiton sphaericus. Whether E. involucratus also occurs on Norfolk Island is now uncertain.
  7. ^ A localised population of Erechtites hieraciifolia was naturalised on Norfolk Island in 1987, but the species has not been seen there since 1989.
  8. ^ Picris burbidgeae was listed in Flora of Australia as P. hieracoides.
  9. ^ Flora of Australia listed Senecio australis as endemic to Norfolk Island, but indigenous populations have since been found in New Zealand.
  10. ^ Celtis paniculata was treated under Ulmaceae in Flora of Australia; it is here treated as Cannabaceae in accordance with the APG II system.
  11. ^ Ipomoea cairica is listed in Flora of Australia as naturalised, but de Lange et al. (2005) suggest that it may be indigenous.
  12. ^ Flora of Australia treated Homalanthus populifolius as indigenous, but in 1904 Joseph Maiden stated that it had been introduced in a consignment of plants from Lord Howe Island.
  13. ^ a b Streblorrhiza and Ungeria are endemic genera.
  14. ^ Flora of Australia lists Geranium gardneri as naturalised in Norfolk Island, but the variant of G. gardneri that occurs on Norfolk Island has since been published as G. gardneri in de Lange et al. (2005)
  15. ^ Cryptocarya triplenervis was excluded from Flora of Australia as a probable erroneous collection, but has since been collected a number of times, and was admitted by de Lange et al. (2005).
  16. ^ a b c d Flora of Australia treated all of the Oxalis species on Norfolk Island as Oxalis corniculata. This complex is now usually treated as five distinct species, of which four occur on Norfolk Island.
  17. ^ Flora of Australia treated Pennantia endlicheri under the Icacinaceae; the monotypic family Pennantiaceae has since been revived.
  18. ^ Pennantia endlicheri was not listed as endemic in Flora of Australia, as the Three Kings Island populations of Pennantia were then considered members of that species. These are now treated as P. baylisiana, and P. endlicheri is considered endemic to Norfolk Island.
  19. ^ Boehmeria australis subsp. australis was listed as Boehmeria australis var. australis in Flora of Australia. It was automatically promoted to subspecies rank when de Lange et al. (2005) promoted the Kermadec Islands taxon Boehmeria australia var. dealbata to subspecies rank.
  20. ^ Flora of Australia listed Cordyline obtecta as endemic, but the Three Kings Island endemic C. kaspar has since been reduced to synonymy with C. obtecta.
  21. ^ Nothoscordum borbonicum was treated under the Liliaceae in Flora of Australia; it is here treated as an Alliaceae in accordance with the APG II system.
  22. ^ Flora of Australia listed Rhopalostylis baueri var. baueri as an endemic variety, but the varieties were demoted to synonymy with R. baueri in de Lange et al. (2005). The species is not endemic.
  23. ^ de Lange et al. (2005) treats Aloe maculata under family Hemerocallidaceae, apparently in error.
  24. ^ Isolepis cernua var. setiformis appeared in Flora of Australia as "?Isolepis sp."
  25. ^ Flora of Australia treated Dianella intermedia under the Liliaceae family; it is now treated under the Hemerocallidaceae or Xanthorrhoeaceae family.
  26. ^ Freycinetia baueriana was treated as F. b. subsp. baueriana in Flora of Australia; it is now given species rank.
  27. ^ Flora of Australia listed Bromus catharticus, but these specimens have now been referred to B. willdenowii.
  28. ^ Elymus multiflorus subsp. kingianus was listed at variety rank in Flora of Australia; it was promoted in de Lange et al. (2005).
  29. ^ Flora of Australia listed Elymus rectisetus, but the Norfolk Island specimens have since been referred to E. scaber.
  30. ^ a b Flora of Australia listed the Oplismenus hirtellus; de Lange et al. (2005) refined this to subspecies level as O. h. subsp. hirtellus and O. h. subsp. imbecillus
  31. ^ Flora of Australia excluded Paspalum orbiculare because the author was unaware of any recent collections. At least one collection has been made since.
  32. ^ Flora of Australia does not include Nephrolepis flexuosa, as this name was then considered synonymous with Nephrolepis cordifolia. It was re-instated as a current species name by de Lange et al. in 2005.
  33. ^ Flora of Australia places Lycopodiaceae and Selaginellaceae in Pteridophyta; in modern taxonomy these are placed in Lycopodiophyta.
  34. ^ Flora of Australia places Psilotaceae in Pteridophyta; in modern taxonomy this is placed in Psilotophyta.
  35. ^ Flora of Australia places Ophioglossaceae in Pteridophyta; in modern taxonomy this is placed in Ophioglossophyta.

References[edit]

  • Green, P.S. (1994). "Norfolk Island & Lord Howe Island". Flora of Australia, Volume 49: Oceanic Islands 1. Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. pp. 1–26. ISBN 0-644-29385-3. 
  • de Lange, P. J., et al. (2005). "Vascular flora of Norfolk Island: some additions and taxonomic notes". New Zealand Journal of Botany 43 (2): 563–596. doi:10.1080/0028825X.2005.9512975.