List of vegetarians

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This is a list of notable people who have adhered to a vegetarian diet at some point during their life. In the cases where a person's vegetarian status is disputed or they no longer adhere to a vegetarian diet, this is noted next to their entry as disputed or former.

This list does not include those who are identified as vegan - those who eat no animal products including milk, cheese, or butter - who are listed separately.

Mohandas Gandhi, an Indian political leader
Empedocles, a Greek poet and philosopher
Isaac Bashevis Singer, a Polish-born Jewish-American author, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1978
Christine Lagarde, a French director general of the International Monetary Fund
Paul McCartney, a British singer-songwriter and former member of The Beatles
Martina Navratilova, a Czech American tennis player
Lo Wing-lok, Hong Kong doctor and politician
Adolf Hitler, German politician
Surya Bonaly, a French professional figure skater
Forest Whitaker, an Academy Award winning American actor
Natalie Portman, an American-Israeli actress
Gustav Struve, a German revolutionary
Jane Goodall, a British primatologist
Pythagoras of Samos, a Greek philosopher credited with the discovery of Pythagoras' theorem
Shania Twain, a Canadian singer
George Bernard Shaw, an Irish playwright
Kate Bush, a British singer-songwriter
Leo Tolstoy, a Russian novelist
Sharon den Adel, a Dutch singer
Nicolette Kluijver, a Dutch television presenter
Leonardo da Vinci, an Italian polymath, best known for his work as an artist including the Mona Lisa
Georgina Verbaan, a Dutch actress
Abraham Isaac Kook, the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of the British Mandate for Palestine, born in Latvia
Anni-Frid Lyngstad, a Norwegian singer and member of Swedish pop group ABBA
Frederik van Eeden, a Dutch writer and psychiatrist
Julie Christie, a British actress
Francisco van Jole, a Dutch journalist
Isadora Duncan, an American dancer often credited as the creator of modern dance
Jaime de Magalhães Lima, a Portuguese writer and Tolstoyan
Leona Lewis, a British singer and winner of the third series of The X Factor
Amílcar de Sousa, a Portuguese physician, president of the first Portuguese vegetarian society
Mojo Mathers, a New Zealand politician
Antoni Gaudí, a Spanish Catalan architect
Shanna Moakler, an American model crowned Miss USA 1995 and Playboy Playmate in 2001
John Chrysostom, Archbishop of Constantinople, an important Early Church Father
Lord Byron, a British poet
Esther Ouwehand, a Dutch politician
Dick Gregory, an American comedian
John Harvey Kellogg, an American doctor, best known as the inventor of corn flakes
Gabe Saporta, a Uruguayan musician, lead singer of the synthpop band Cobra Starship
José Mujica, President of Uruguay since 2010
Yasmien Kurdi, Filipino singer, songwriter and actress
Faye Wong, Chinese singer

Vegetarians[edit]

A–F[edit]

Name Occupation Country Source
Scott Adams Author and creator of the Dilbert comic strip United States [1]
Sharon den Adel Singer-songwriter, fashion designer Netherlands [2]
Shmuel Yosef Agnon Nobel Prize laureate writer and was one of the central figures of modern Hebrew fiction Israel [3](pp171–172)
Dianna Agron Actress, singer, dancer United States [4][5]
eden ahbez Songwriter, recording artist United States [6](p171)[7][8]
Damon Albarn Musician, record producer, composer United Kingdom [9]
William Andrus Alcott Educator, physician, author United States [6](pp34–44)[10]
Quinn Allman Musician, producer United States [11]
Lauren Anderson Model United States [12]
Apollonius of Tyana Neopythagorean philosopher Greece [13](pp30–35)
Christina Applegate Actress United States [14][15]
Johnny Appleseed Pioneer, missionary and gardener United States [6](pp6–7)[16][17](pp184–186,307–310)
Richard Ashcroft Musician, best known as lead singer of The Verve United Kingdom [18]
Joan Armatrading Singer-songwriter United Kingdom [19]
Nadja Auermann Model and actress Germany [20][21]
Thaila Ayala Actress, model Brazil [22]
Amitabh Bachchan Actor, producer, singer, television presenter India [23]
Bae Jong-ok Actress South Korea [24]
Nic Balthazar Film director, television and radio presenter Belgium [25]
Arnaldo Baptista Singer-songwriter, musician Brazil [26]
Bob Barker Game show host United States [27]
Basil of Caesarea Bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey) Turkey [28](pp159–160)[29](p78)
Rabia Basri Muslim saint and Sufi mystic Iraq [30][31]
Jeff Beck Musician, songwriter, actor United Kingdom [32]
Conrad Beissel Religious leader Germany [6](p3)
Raja Bell Professional basketball player United States [33]
Lexi Belle Pornographic actress United States [34]
Hilary Benn Politician United Kingdom [35]
J. D. Beresford Novelists United Kingdom [36]
Elizabeth Berkley Actress United States [37]
Annie Besant British Theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule United Kingdom [38](pp99–107)
Traci Bingham Actress/Model United States [39]
Barry Black Minister,[disambiguation needed] clergyman United States [40][41]
Pippa Black Actress Australia [42]
Kees Boeke Reformist educator, Quaker missionary and pacifist Netherlands [43](p240)
Michael Bolton Singer, songwriter United States [44]
Surya Bonaly Professional figure skater France [45]
Cory Booker United States Senator United States [46][47]
Bramwell Booth Chief of the Staff of The Salvation Army United Kingdom [48]
Magnus Børmark Member of the Norwegian band Gåte Norway [49]
Wouter Bos Politician, Management consultant Netherlands [nb 1]
Jacques Boyer Professional bicycle racer who, in 1981, was the first American to participate in the Tour de France United States [51]
Claudia de Breij Comedian, show host and radio disk jockey Netherlands [nb 2]
Eva Briegel Singer and member of the rock band Juli Germany [53]
Christie Brinkley Model, actress, designer United States [54]
Saint John de Brito Jesuit missionary and martyr Portugal [28](p198)[55](pp28–29, 203)[55](pp295–300)[55](pp350–358)
Peter Brock One of Australia's best-known and most successful motor racing drivers Australia [56]
Fenner Brockway Politician United Kingdom [57][58]
Luitzen E.J. Brouwer Mathematician and philosopher Netherlands [43](p236)
Chris Browne Comic strip artist and cartoonist who writes and draws the comic strip Hägar the Horrible United States [59]
Gautama Buddha Spiritual teacher on whose teachings Buddhism was founded Nepal [30][38](pp11–88)[60](pp21–23)[61](pp17–21)[62](pp50–57)[nb 3]
Kathalijne Buitenweg Politician Netherlands [63]
Enrique Bunbury Rock singer-songwriter Spain [64]
Peter Burwash Former tennis player, current tennis coach, television commentator, motivational speaker, writer Canada [65]
Kate Bush Musician, vocalist, songwriter, record producer United Kingdom [66]
Lauren Bush Model, Designer, niece of former President George W. Bush United States [67][68][69][70]
Julia Carling Journalist and television presenter United Kingdom [71]
Edward Carpenter Poet, anthologist, early gay activist and socialist philosopher United Kingdom [61](pp79–80)[72](pp256–266,276)
Paul Carton Physician France [73]
Dan Castellaneta Voice actor, writer, actor, comedian, singer United States [74]
Saint Catherine of Siena Tertiary of the Dominican Order, and a Scholastic philosopher and theologian Italy [28](pp167–168)[29](p89)
Stephen Chan Chi Wan General manager of Television Broadcasts Limited, CEO of Commercial Radio Hong Kong Hong Kong [75]
Jacky Cheung Singer, actor, songwriter Hong Kong [76]
Sri Chinmoy Spiritual teacher, poet, artist, athlete India [77]
Michael Guy Chislett Musician, songwriter, Producer Australia [78]
Julie Christie Actress United Kingdom [79][80]
Saint John Chrysostom Early Church Father Turkey [29](p79)[72](p124)
Alexa Chung Television presenter, model and contributing editor at British Vogue United Kingdom [81]
Daniël de Clercq Socialist and activist Netherlands [82]
Sue Coe Artist, illustrator United Kingdom [83]
J. M. Coetzee Novelist, essayist, literary critic, linguist, translator South Africa [84](pp63–65)[85]
Rabbi David Cohen Rabbi, talmudist, philosopher, and kabbalist Israel [3](p172)[86]
She'ar Yashuv Cohen Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Haifa, Israel Israel [3](pp172–173)[86]
John Coltrane Saxophonist, composer, bandleader United States [87]
Pat Condell Writer, political commentator, comedian and atheist internet personality United Kingdom [nb 4]
Confucius Teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history China [89][90]
Abbie Cornish Actress Australia [91]
Hugo Brandt Corstius Author Netherlands [92]
Elvis Costello Musician, singer-songwriter, record producer United Kingdom [93]
Roger Crab Haberdasher, herbal doctor and writer United Kingdom [94](pp26–38)
Stafford Cripps Politician United Kingdom [95][96]
Ernest Howard Crosby Reformer and author United States [6](pp143–147)
Peter Cushing Actor United Kingdom [97]
Chuck D Rapper, publisher, lecturer, activist, record producer United States [98][99]
Thomas D. Rapper in the German hip hop group Die Fantastischen Vier Germany [100]
Eugen d'Albert German pianist and composer Germany [nb 5]
Jeru the Damaja Rapper and recording artist United States [102]
Georg Friedrich Daumer Poet and philosopher Germany [103](pp282–286)
Morarji Desai Indian independence activist and the fourth Prime Minister of India from 1977–79 India [104]
Floortje Dessing Presenter, TV producer, interpreter Netherlands [105]
Peter Dinklage Actor United States [106]
Mike Dirnt Musician, songwriter United States [107]
Eliza Doolittle Singer-songwriter United Kingdom [108][109][110]
David D'Or Musician, vocalist, composer, songwriter Israel [111]
Pia Douwes Musical theatre actress Netherlands [52]
Muriel Dowding, Baroness Dowding Animal rights activist United Kingdom [112](pp137–151)
Anna Drijver Model, Actress Netherlands [113]
Michael Clarke Duncan Actor, voice actor United States [114]
Isadora Duncan Dancer, considered by many to be the creator of modern dance United States [115]
Frederik van Eeden Late 19th century and early 20th century Dutch writer and psychiatrist Netherlands [116]
Michael Eisner Businessman, former CEO of The Walt Disney Company United States [117]
Empedocles Pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek city in Sicily Greece [13](pp30–32)[29](pp41–42)[72](pp64–66)
Guy Endore novelist, screenwriter United States [118]
Selma Ergeç actress, beauty pageant titleholder, model, designer, philologist, psychologist, doctor Turkey [119]
Kevin Eubanks Musician United States [120]
Joshua Evans Quaker minister, journalist, and abolitionist United States [121](p40)[6](p7)
Henri W.PH.E. van den Bergh van Eysinga Revolutionary and a philosophical writer Netherlands [43](p228)
Corey Feldman Actor United States [122]
Marty Feldman comedian and actor England [123]
Adam Ferguson Scottish philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment United Kingdom [103](p208)[124](pp204–206)
Vanessa Ferlito Actress United States [125]
Marsilio Ficino One of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance Italy [126]
Doug Fieger Musician, songwriter, member of new wave rock quartet The Knack United States [127]
Jon Fitch Mixed martial artist United States [128]
Jerome Flynn Actor United Kingdom [129]
Jonathan Safran Foer Novelist, short story writer United States [130]
Alina Foley Actress, daughter of Dave Foley United States [131]
Desmond Ford Evangelical Christian and an Australian theologian Australia [132][133]
Thomas Ignatius Maria Forster Astronomer and naturalist United Kingdom [94](pp374–375)
J. D. Fortune Musician Canada [134]
Jorja Fox Actress, musician, songwriter United States [135][136]
Sage Francis Rapper, Spoken word artist United States [137]
Saint Francis of Paola Mendicant friar and the founder of the Roman Catholic Order of Minims Italy [28](p146)
Martin Freeman Actor United Kingdom [138]
Sadie Frost Actress United Kingdom [139]

G–L[edit]

Name Occupation Country Source
Gaahl Musician Norway [140]
Mohandas Gandhi Indian spiritual and political leader India [141](p.xii)[142]
Gao Yuanyuan Actress China [143]
Antoni Gaudí Catalan architect and figurehead of Catalan Modernism Spain [144]
John Gay Poet and dramatist and member of the Scriblerus Club United Kingdom [103](pp115–119)
Don Gerritsen United Nations Representative Netherlands [145]
Philip Glass Composer United States [146]
Bobcat Goldthwait Actor, comedian, screenwriter, film director, television director United States [147]
Lewis Gompertz Inventor and a founding member of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals United Kingdom [148]
João Gordo Singer-songwriter, musician, talk show host Brazil [149]
Shlomo Goren Chief Rabbi of the Military Rabbinate of the IDF Israel [3](pp104,173–174)[86]
Dave Gorman Author, comedian United Kingdom [150]
Angela Gossow Singer-songwriter, manager, journalist Germany [151][152]
Lawrence Gowan Musician, songwriter Canada [153][154][time needed]
Sylvester Graham Dietary reformer United States [6](pp15–70)[38](pp141–148)
Percy Grainger Composer, arranger and pianist Australia [155](pp78–79)
Dion Graus Politician and animal rights activist Netherlands [156]
Anthony the Great Christian saint from Egypt, a prominent leader among the Desert Fathers Egypt [28](pp22–23)[nb 6]
Ashoka the Great Emperor of the Maurya Dynasty India [13](pp75–77)[38]

(pp14–15)[60](pp22–23)[61](pp19–20)[62](pp55–57)

Dick Gregory Comedian, social activist, social critic, writer, and entrepreneur United States [38](pp215–218)
Amanda Griffin Model, Television host Philippines [158]
Angela Groothuizen Singer, actress, television personality Netherlands [159]
Benjamin Grosvenor Musician United Kingdom [160]
Chin Chin Gutierrez Television and Film Actress, Philippines [161]
GZA Lyricist, rapper, songwriter United States [162]
Ha Okio Musician, singer-song writer, music producer, actor, social activist Vietnam [163]
Alexander Hacke Musician, record producer Germany [164]
Sarah Jane Hamilton Pornographic actress United Kingdom [165]
Otoman Zar-Adusht Ha'nish Founder of the religious movement known as Mazdaznan United States [166]
Neil Harbisson Catalan-raised, Northern Ireland-born artist, musician and performer United Kingdom [167]
George Harrison Musician, singer-songwriter, actor, record and film producer, member of the The Beatles United Kingdom [168]
Lenie 't Hart Animal rights activist Netherlands [169]
Maarten 't Hart Biologist, author Netherlands [nb 7]
David Hartley Philosopher and founder of the Associationist school of psychology United Kingdom [171](pp207–209)[nb 8]
John Hawkesworth Writer United Kingdom
Sadeq Hedayat Writer of prose fiction and short stories Iran [173]
Martin van Hees Philosopher and professor of ethics at the University of Groningen Netherlands [174][175]
Hesiod Oral poet Greece [176]
Rudolf Hess Nazi Politician Germany [177]
Missy Higgins Singer-songwriter, musician Australia [178][179]
Saint Hilarion Anchorite Egypt [28](pp24–25)
Adolf Hitler Politician Germany [180][181][182][183][184][185][nb 9]
Isa Hoes Actress, voice actress Netherlands [105]
Amanda Holden Actress, presenter United Kingdom [186]
Jens Holm Politician Sweden [187]
Henriette Roland Holst Poet, political activist Netherlands [43](p230)
John Howard Philanthropist and the first English prison reformer United Kingdom [188]
Barbie Hsu Actress, Singer, Host Taiwan [75]
Henny Huisman Television presenter Netherlands [189]
Aldous Huxley Novelist, essayist United Kingdom [190]
Iamblichus Neoplatonist philosopher Syria [191]
Frank Iero Musician, member of My Chemical Romance United States [192]
Michael Imperioli Actor, television writer United States [193]
Ewout Irrgang Politician, anti-globalization activist Netherlands [194]
Susan Saint James Actress, activist United States [112](pp47–58)
Reid Jamieson Singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist Canada [195]
JeA Singer, dancer, member of Brown Eyed Girls South Korea [196][197][198]
Joan Jett Singer-songwriter, musician United States [199]
Éder Jofre Retired professional boxer and former Bantamweight and Featherweight Champion Brazil [200]
Watkin Tudor Jones Musician South Africa [201]
Juanes Singer-songwriter Colombia [202]
Kabīr Weaver, poet India [13](pp47–49)
Alter Kacyzne Jewish (Yiddish) writer, poet, and photographer Lithuania [3](p171)
Franz Kafka Insurance officer, factory manager, novelist, short story writer Austria [203]
Antonie Kamerling Actor, musician Netherlands [204]
Kareena Kapoor Actress India [205]
Shahid Kapoor Actor, Dancer India [206]
Bill Kaulitz & Tom Kaulitz Singer, Songwriters, Activists, Guitarist, members of Tokio Hotel Germany [207]
Matt Kean Musician, member of Bring Me the Horizon United Kingdom [208][209]
John Harvey Kellogg Physician, inventor of corn flakes breakfast cereal United States [38](pp149–158)
Kenney, MatthewMatthew Kenney Raw Food Chef, Author, Educator, Speaker and Entrepreneur United States [210]
Kesha Singer-songwriter United States [211]
Masta Killa Rapper United States [212]
Kim Hyo-jin Actress South Korea [24]
Anna Bonus Kingsford Editor of The Lady's Own Paper, campaigned for women's rights and against vivisection United Kingdom [103](pp374–383)[213]
Bep van Klaveren Boxer Netherlands [43](p103)[214]
Marcela Kloosterboer Actress, occasional singer Argentina [215]
Nicolette Kluijver Television presenter, model Netherlands [105]
Niko Koffeman Politician Netherlands [nb 10]
Martine Wittop Koning Nutrition expert and writer of cook books Netherlands [43](p231)[217]
Abraham Isaac Kook Torah scholar, first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of the British Mandate for Palestine Latvia [3](p175)[13](pp118–121)[86]
Kim van Kooten Actress and screenwriter Netherlands [204]
k-os Rapper, singer, songwriter, producer Canada [218][219]
Killer Kowalski Professional wrestler Canada [38](pp231–236)
Jiddu Krishnamurti Public speaker, author, philosopher India [220]
Liv Kristine Singer-songwriter Norway [221]
KRS-One Rapper, record producer, actor, author, activist United States [222]
Alexander Krull Musician, Singer-songwriter Germany [223]
Attje Kuiken Politician and former civil servant Netherlands [224]
Sushil Kumar World champion wrestler India [225]
František Kupka Painter and graphic artist Czechoslovakia [nb 11][nb 12]
Yasmien Kurdi Singer Philippines [158]
Haldor Lægreid Musical artist Norway [228]
Mon Laferte Singer-songwriter, actress Chile [229]
Bonnie-Jill Laflin Actress, Model, TV personality United States [230]
Christine Lagarde Lawyer, Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund France [231]
Alphonse de Lamartine Writer, poet, politician France [nb 13][nb 14]
Benjamin Lay Quaker philanthropist and abolitionist United States [233]
Cloris Leachman Actress, comedienne United States [234]
Charles Webster Leadbeater Author, member of the Theosophical Society United Kingdom [235]
Lee Ha-nui Beauty pageant titleholder, classical musician, gayageum player, and actress South Korea [24][236][237]
Rita Lee Singer, songwriter, actress, author, TV host Brazil [238]
Nikolai Leskov Writer Russia [239]
Leona Lewis Singer-songwriter, recording artist United Kingdom [240][241][242]
Jimmy Liao Illustrator, picture book writer Taiwan [75]
Bart de Ligt Anarcho-pacifist and antimilitarist Netherlands [43](p239)
Jan Ligthart Teacher, philosopher Netherlands [43](p220)
Jack Lindsay Writer Australia [155](p77)
Richard Linklater Filmmaker United States [243][244][245]
Tzipi Livni Lawyer and politician Israel [246]
Eneko Llanos Basque triathlete Spain [247]
Michael Locher Musician, member of the band Samael Switzerland [248]
Claire Loewenfeld Nutritionist and herbalist Germany [249]
Lisa Lopes Rapper, singer-songwriter, actress, dancer, musician, member of the R&B/hip-hop girl group TLC United States [250]
César "Vampiro" López One of the best-known rock guitarists in Latin America Mexico [251]
Arjen Lucassen Progressive metal/rock songwriter, producer, singer, multi-instrumentalist Netherlands [252]
Lo Wing-lok doctor and politician Hong Kong [75]
Lu You Poet, politician China [253]
Joanna Lumley Actress, voice-over artist, former-model, author United Kingdom [254]
Anni-Frid Lyngstad Singer, member of pop/rock group ABBA Norway [49]

M–R[edit]

Name Occupation Country Source
Francisco Madero Politician, writer and revolutionary Mexico [255]
R. Madhavan Actor, writer, producer, television presenter India [256]
Jamby Madrigal Politician Philippines [158]
Tobey Maguire Actor, producer United States [257][258][259]
Mahavira Sage who established tenets of Jainism India [38](pp19–28)
Gustav Mahler Composer and one of the leading conductors of his generation Austria-Hungary [nb 15][nb 16]
Jaime de Magalhães Lima Thinker, poet, essayist, literary critic, promoter of vegetarianism Portugal [nb 17]
Andrius Mamontovas Musician, Songwriter, record producer, actor Lithuania [263][264]
Method Man Hip hop artist, record producer, actor, member of the Wu-Tang Clan United States [265]
Bob Marley Singer songwriter, guitarist Jamaica [266]
Jodie Marsh Media personality, glamour model United Kingdom [267]
Chris Martin Musician, producer, member of Coldplay United Kingdom [259][268]
Ricky Martin Singer songwriter, actor Puerto Rico [269]
Doug Martsch Musician, member of Built to Spill United States [270]
Scott Maslen Actor, model United Kingdom [271]
Mojo Mathers Politician, member of the New Zealand House of Representatives New Zealand [272]
Alicia Mayer Actress, Comedian Philippines [273]
Colman McCarthy Journalist, teacher, lecturer, peace activist United States [6](pp206–207)
Paul McCartney Musician, composer, producer, businessman, member of the The Beatles United Kingdom [47][274][275][276][277]
Stella McCartney Fashion designer United Kingdom [278]
Rue McClanahan Actress, comedienne, author United States [279]
Jay McGuiness Singer, member of the boy band The Wanted United Kingdom [108][109][110]
Edward McMillan-Scott Member of the European Parliament United Kingdom [280]
Armin Meiwes Convict who claims to be reformed and concerned about injustices Germany [281]
Luisa Mell Actress and former presenter of the RedeTV! programme Late Show Brazil [282]
Natalie Merchant Musician, Songwriter United States [283]
Narendra Modi Prime Minister of India India [284]
Saint Angela de Merici Religious leader and saint Italy [28](pp125–126)
Johan Messchaert Singer and vocal pedagogue Netherlands [43](p219)
Lea Michele Actress, singer United States [285]
Gabrielle Miller Actress Canada [286]
Crispian Mills Musician, songwriter, film director United Kingdom [287]
Hayley Mills Actress, singer United Kingdom [288]
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola Renaissance philosopher Italy [289]
Shanna Moakler Actress, Model, Reality television celebrity United States [290]
Elizabeth Maria Molteno Suffragist and civil rights activist South Africa [291]
Sophie Monk Singer, songwriter, actress, model Australia [292]
Théodore Monod Naturalist, explorer, and humanist scholar France [293]
Jenna Morasca Actress, swimsuit model, winner of Survivor: The Amazon United States [294]
Edwin Moses Former American track and field athlete United States [295]
Malcolm Muggeridge Journalist, author, satirist United Kingdom [38](pp243–250)
Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Saintly Tamil-speaking teacher and Sufi mystic from the island of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka [13](p175)
José Mujica President of Uruguay Uruguay [296]
Lillian Müller Model and an actress in motion pictures and television Norway [49]
Desidério Murcho Philosopher, professor, and writer Portugal [nb 18]
Stuart Murdoch Musician, member of indie pop band Belle & Sebastian United Kingdom [298]
Cillian Murphy Actor Ireland [299]
Keith Murray Musician, member of indie rock band We Are Scientists United States [300]
Murs Rapper United States [301]
Reuben D. Mussey Medical doctor and an early opponent of tobacco United States [6](pp44–46)
Xavier Naidoo Singer-songwriter, record producer Germany [302]
Martina Navratilova Retired tennis player and a former World No. 1 Czech Republic [nb 19]
Kevin Nealon Actor and comedian United States [304]
Helen Nearing Author and the second wife of Scott Nearing United States [305]
Philip Neri Priest noted for founding the "Congregation of the Oratory" Italy [28](p152)[171](p153)
Jukka Nevalainen Musician, member of Nightwish Finland [306]
Phil Neville Footballer, played for Manchester United and Everton England [307]
Matt Nicholls Musician, member of Bring Me the Horizon United Kingdom [208][209]
George Nicholson Nationally known printer United Kingdom [308]
Jayde Nicole Model Canada [309]
Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis The Netherlands' first prominent socialist Netherlands [43](p214)
Roberto de Nobili Jesuit missionary to Southern India Italy [310]
Krist Novoselic Musician, songwriter, author, activist, Nirvana member United States [311]
Paavo Nurmi World record setting Runner Finland [312]
Natasja Oerlemans Politician, a prominent member of the Party for the Animals Netherlands [313]
José Oiticica Poet, activist Brazil [314]
Margreth Olin Film director and producer Norway [49]
Maria O'Neill Writer, poet, journalist, spiritualist Portugal [315]
Felix Ortt Philosopher Netherlands [43](p224)
Kelly Osbourne Singer-songwriter, author, actress, television personality, radio personality, fashion designer United Kingdom [259]
Maja Ostaszewska Actress Poland [316]
Carré Otis Actress, model United States [317]
Esther Ouwehand Politician, marketing manager Netherlands [nb 20]
Cem Özdemir Politician Germany [319]
Walburga, Lady Paget Diarist, writer and an intimate friend of Queen Victoria Germany [320]
Monty Panesar Cricketer United Kingdom [321]
Hayden Panettiere Actress, singer, model United States [322][323]
Alexandra Paul Actress United States [324]
Kal Penn Film and television actor, producer, and civil servant United States [325]
Isaac Leib Peretz Yiddish language author and playwright Poland [3](p171)
Fiona Phillips Television broadcaster United Kingdom [186]
Sir Richard Phillips Schoolteacher, author and publisher United Kingdom [103](pp235–244)
Kellie Pickler Singer-songwriter United States [100]
Plotinus Major philosopher of the ancient world Greece [nb 21][327]
Plutarch Biographer, essayist, priest, ambassador, magistrate Greece [328]
Henri Polak Trade unionist and politician Netherlands [43](p229)
Alexander Pope Poet United Kingdom [329]
Porphyry Neoplatonic philosopher Greece [29](pp58–61)[60](pp37–38)
Martín de Porres Lay brother of the Dominican Order Peru [28](p206)
Natalie Portman Actress United States [330]
John Cowper Powys Novelist United Kingdom [331]
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Gaudiya Vaishnava teacher, founder-acharya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness India [13](pp56–60)[38](pp173–180)
Jimmy Pursey Musician, record producer United Kingdom [332]
Pythagoras of Samos Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, founder of Pythagoreanism Greece [30][333]
Maggie Q Actress, model United States [334]
Srinivasa Ramanujan Mathematician and autodidact India [335]
Guillaume Thomas François Raynal Writer and man of letters during the Age of Enlightenment France [nb 22]
Jean Jacques Élisée Reclus Geographer, anarchist revolutionary, and writer. France [61](pp88,105,173–176)
Redman Rapper, record producer, actor United States [337]
Dimitri Reinderman Chess Grandmaster with an Elo rating of 2542 Netherlands [189]
Ilya Yefimovich Repin Leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic school Russia [239][338](pp110–114)
Reshma Renowned folk singer of Pakistan Pakistan [339]
Saint Richard of Chichester Saint who was Bishop of Chichester United Kingdom [28](p191)[29](p81)
Joseph Ritson Antiquary United Kingdom [103](pp185–190)
Alice Roberts Anatomist, Paleopathologist, TV presenter United Kingdom [340]
Andy Robinson English rugby union coach and retired player United Kingdom [341]
Fred Rogers Educator, minister, songwriter, television host United States [342]
Huberto Rohden Philosopher, educator, theologist, author, pioneer of transcendentalism Brazil [343]
Romain Rolland Dramatist, Essayist, Art historian, Novelist France [344]
Marc van Roon Jazz pianist Netherlands [345]
Xavier Rudd Musician, singer-songwriter Australia [346][347][348]
RZA Rapper, CEO, record producer, actor, screenwriter, author, director United States [349][350]

S–Z[edit]

Name Occupation Country Source
Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre Writer, botanist France [94](pp208–214)[103](pp173–176)
Henry Stephens Salt Writer, teacher, social reformer United Kingdom [351]
Diederik Samsom Politician Netherlands [352]
Rodrigo Santoro Actor Brazil [353]
Gabe Saporta Lead singer and primary creative force behind the synthpop band Cobra Starship Uruguay [192]
Judith Sargentini GreenLeft politician Netherlands [354]
Martin Sastre Artist, Filmmaker Uruguay [355]
Swami Satchidananda Religious teacher, spiritual master and yoga adept India [356]
Kool Savas German rapper Germany [302]
Nikolas Schiller Blogger, prominent digital map artist in the blogosphere, civil rights activist United States [357]
Wim T. Schippers Voice actor, producer, comedian Netherlands [63]
Loretta Schrijver Television host Netherlands [nb 23]
Jason Schwartzman Actor, musician United States [359]
Albert Schweitzer Music, philanthropy, theology Germany [360]
Jenny Seagrove Actress, political activist United Kingdom [361]
Virender Sehwag One of the leading batsmen in the Indian cricket team India [362]
Sandra Seifert Nurse, beauty pageant contestant, fashion model Taiwan [158]
Serenity Erotic dancer and pornographic actress United States [363]
Christian Serratos Actress United States [364]
Quintus Sextius Philosopher, whose philosophy combined Pythagoreanism with Stoicism Italy [nb 24]
George Bernard Shaw Playwright, critic, political activist Ireland [30][366]
Martin Shaw Actor United Kingdom [367]
Percy Bysshe Shelley Poet, dramatist, essayist, novelist United Kingdom [103](pp218–235)
Herbert Shelton Alternative medicine advocate, author, pacifist United States [6](pp160–161)
Sheetal Sheth Actress, producer United States [368]
Agostinho da Silva Philosopher, essayist and writer Portugal [369]
Sarah Silverman Comedienne, writer, actress, singer and musician United States [370]
Aaron Simpson Mixed martial artist United States [128]
Isaac Bashevis Singer Novelist, short story writer United States [38](pp237–242)[371][372][373]
Peter Singer Moral philosopher Australia [374]
Fauja Singh Centenarian marathon runner India [375][376]
Jon Skolmen Actor and comedian Norway [228]
Song Il-gook Actor South Korea [24]
Sotion Neopythagorean philosopher Greece [377]
Amílcar de Sousa Medical doctor, author, president of the first Portuguese vegetarian society Portugal [378]
Henry Spira Widely regarded as one of the most effective animal rights activists of the 20th century United States [379]
Aad Stelylen Former Dutch athlete, specialised in long distances Netherlands [43](p102)
Arran Stephens Writer, Founder of Nature's Path Foods Canada [380]
Gruschenka Stevens Actress and singer Germany [381]
Joss Stone Singer-songwriter, actress United Kingdom [382][383][384]
Jan P. Strijbos Naturalist, cineast, photographer, journalist, writer Netherlands [43](p242)
Gustav Struve Politician Germany [103](pp271–281)
Ruben Studdard Singer, actor United States [385]
Mark Suppelsa Television anchor United States [386]
Oliver Sykes Musician, member of Bring Me the Horizon United Kingdom [208][387]
Amber Tamblyn Actress United States [388]
Serj Tankian Musician, songwriter, record producer, poet, activist, System of a Down member United States [389]
Tarkan Singer-songwriter, record producer, performer Turkey [390]
Tertullian Prolific early Berber Christian author from Carthage in the Roman province of Africa Roman Empire (Carthage) [60](p53)[72](pp116–117)
Marianne Thieme Politician, animal rights activist, author Netherlands [nb 25]
Maarten Tjallingii Professional racing cyclist for UCI ProTeam Belkin Pro Cycling Netherlands [392]
Leo Tolstoy Novelist, short story writer, playwright, essayist Russia [30][38](pp88–97)[393]
Peter Tosh Musician, member of The Wailers Jamaica [394]
Paolo Troubetzkoy Artist, sculptor Russia [nb 26]
Titia van der Tuuk Author, feminist, pacifist, teacher Netherlands [43](p226)
Shania Twain Singer-songwriter, television personality Canada [396][397]
Richard Ungewitter Writer, pioneer of the German nudist movement Germany [94](pp436–437)
Mellie Uyldert Writer, alternative healer, occultist and astrologer Netherlands [43](p246)
Pedro Valdjiu Musician, member of Blasted Mechanism Portugal [398]
Yolandi Visser Musician South Africa [201]
Eddie Vedder Musician, songwriter, member of alternative rock band Pearl Jam United States [399]
Marly van der Velden Actress Netherlands [nb 27]
Krista van Velzen Politician Netherlands [63]
Milo Ventimiglia Actor, director United States [401][402]
Georgina Verbaan Actress, singer Netherlands [204]
Leon Verdonschot Journalist, presenter, writer, radio producer, columnist Netherlands [189]
Umberto Veronesi Surgeon and oncologist Italy [403]
Virgil Poet Italy [30]
Swami Vivekananda Chief disciple of the 19th-century saint Ramakrishna India [13](pp50–52)
Marijke Vos Politician Netherlands [63]
Vydūnas Teacher, poet, humanist, philosopher and Lithuanian Lithuania [404]
Herschel Walker Former American college and professional football player and a mixed martial artist United States [405]
David Wallechinsky Author of many Olympic reference books and other reference books United States [38](pp219–224)
Bernard Weatherill Politician, Speaker of the House of Commons United Kingdom [406]
Dennis Weaver Actor United States [407]
John Wesley Founder of Methodism United Kingdom [408]
Forest Whitaker Actor, producer, director United States [409][410]
Ellen G. White Author and Co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church United States [411]
Zara Whites Former adult film actress Netherlands [nb 28]
Norbert Wiener Mathematician, famous child prodigy, originator of cybernetics United States [413]
Faye Wong recording artist, actress China [414][415]
S. Fowler Wright Novelist United Kingdom [nb 29]
Esmé Wynne-Tyson Actress and writer United Kingdom [38](pp167–171)
Shmuly Yanklowitz modern Orthodox Rabbi, activist, educator, writer, motivational speaker, social entrepreneur, founder of Uri L'Tzedek United States [417][418]
Owain Yeoman Actor United Kingdom [419]
Yoon Jin-seo Actress South Korea [24]
Marguerite Yourcenar Author, essayist, poet France [420][421]
Zarathustra Founder of Zoroastrianism Persia [30]
Ethan Zohn Soccer player United States [294]
Rob Zombie Musician, songwriter, screenwriter, film director, film producer, programmer, music producer United States [422]

Former vegetarians[edit]

Name Occupation Country Source
Morten Abel Musician Norway [228]
Louisa May Alcott Novelist United States [nb 30]
Gillian Anderson Actress United States [423]
Christian Bale Actor United Kingdom [424]
Blixa Bargeld Musician Germany [425]
Amber Benson Actress United States [426]
14th Dalai Lama Monk Tibet [259]
Prince Fielder Baseball player United States [427]
Benjamin Franklin Politician United States [30]
Sam Harris Author and neuroscientist United States [428]
Josh Hartnett Actor United States [259][429]
Darren Hayes Singer-songwriter Australia [430]
Sir Ian McKellen Actor United Kingdom [431][432]
Meat Loaf Musician United States [433]
Alyssa Milano Actress United States [434][435]
Dannii Minogue Actress, singer United Kingdom [436]
Julia Sawalha Actress United Kingdom [259]
Dax Shepard Actor United States [47]
Arve Tellefsen Violinist Norway [437]
Paul Weller Musician United Kingdom [438]
Reese Witherspoon Actress United States [259]
Kareena Kapoor Actress India [439]
Hayden Panettiere Actress United States [440]

Disputed vegetarians[edit]

This list includes only those for whom there is a legitimate dispute of the fact and omits those merely rumored of being a vegetarian, regardless of how widely such rumor is spread.

Name Occupation Country Source
John Abraham Actor India [441]
Charlotte Brontë Novelist United Kingdom [nb 31]
Clement of Alexandria Theologian Greece [442]
Albert Einstein Theoretical physicist Germany [30][nb 32]
Ralph Waldo Emerson Writer, philosopher United States [30][nb 33]
Henry Ford Founder of Ford Motor Company United States [445][nb 34]
Michael Jackson Singer United States [446]
Steve Jobs Co-founder of Apple Inc. United States [447][nb 35]
John the Baptist Itinerant preacher and a major religious figure Roman Empire [449]
Abraham Lincoln 16th President of the United States United States [450]
Sir Isaac Newton Scientist United Kingdom [30]
Plato Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer, founder of the Academy in Athens Greece [30][nb 36][451]
William Shakespeare Playwright United Kingdom [30][nb 37]
Socrates Philosopher Greece [nb 38]
Henry David Thoreau Author United States [30][nb 39]
Mark Twain Author, humorist United States [nb 40]
Voltaire Writer, philosopher, playwright France [30]
Richard Wagner Composer Germany [30][103](pp371–374)[454](pp89–95)[nb 41]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ (Original Dutch) V: "Wie is die man die 's zondags het vlees snijdt?" A: "De tofoe snijdt, want ik ben vegetariër." (Translation into English) Q: "Who is that man preparing the meat on Sunday?" A: "Preparing the tofu, because I am a vegetarian."[50]
  2. ^ (Original Dutch) "Wat hebben Paul McCartney, Claudia de Breij, Erik Mouthaan en Pia Douwes met elkaar gemeen? [..] Ze zijn vegetariërs..." (Translation into English) "What do Paul McCartney, Claudia de Breij, Erik Mouthaan and Pia Douwes have in common? [..] They're vegetarians..."[52]
  3. ^ Gregerson[61](p21) observes: "As Zen roshi, Philip Kapleau points out (see his Cherish All Life), any attempt by Theravadins and others to attribute to the Buddha himself, words permitting the consumption of meat involve a blatant falsification and corruption of sacred texts!"
  4. ^ "I became a vegetarian in 1976 while watching a deer being butchered."[88]
  5. ^ "It may be of interest to note, in view of his exuberant vigor and great powers of endurance, that d'Albert is a strict vegetarian"[101](p196)
  6. ^ "He ate once a day, after sunset, sometimes once in two days, and often even in four. His food was bread and salt, his drink, water only. Of flesh and wine it is superfluous even to speak, since no such thing was found with the other earnest men."[157]:Paragraph 7
  7. ^ (Original Dutch) "Presentator Babs Assink vraagt vegetariër en dierenvriend 't Hart of het een angstaanjagend beeld is dat wij het varken tot op het bot verslinden." (Translation into English) "Presenter Babs Assink asks vegetarian and animal friend 't Hart whether or not it is a frightening image that we devour our pigs to the bone."[170]
  8. ^ "If the FRS knew Hartley as a friend, he would know him to be a mathematician with a special interest in statistics, an amateur violinist, and a vegetarian who saw animals as bearing a "near relation" to humans."[172]
  9. ^ See also: the Vegetarianism of Adolf Hitler.
  10. ^ (Original Dutch) "Zijn gedrevenheid moet, zeggen velen, voortkomen uit religieus besef: de vegetariër Koffeman is net als zijn vrouw belijdend Zevende-dagsadventist, een klein protestants kerkgenootschap."' (Translation into English) "His determination has to, some say, come from religieus belief: the vegetarian Koffeman is just like his wife a practising Seventh-day Adventist, a small protestant denomination."[216]
  11. ^ [1892] "Under Diefenbachs theosophical influence Kupka becomes a strict vegetarian and adopts a regime of daily physical exercises".[226](p21)
  12. ^ [1894] "Meets Nazarene artist Karl Diefenbach, who advocates man's return to naure. Moves to Diefenbach's home and participates in communal life-style there, which features vegetarian cuisine, outdoor baths, nude exercising, discussions about spiritual issues, music, and painting."[227](p408)
  13. ^ "True it is that Lamartine ate flesh and fish at one period of his life; but we have the authority of Douglas Jerrold's London Journal for assuring our readers that he is again a vegetarian."[124](p222)
  14. ^ "Lamartine said that, despite his conventions, in adulthood he conformed to society by eating meat. But contemporaries recall that later in life Lamartine reconverted to vegetarianism after travelling through India, and lived in Paris like a Hindu vegetarian..."[232](p214)
  15. ^ "The following season proved a very gloomy one for Mahler. Once more the "city of music" could furnish him no greater material consolation than that of a few piano-pupils. Evenings he would attach himself to a group of young, poverty-stricken Wagnerian enthusiasts and over a cup of coffee help wage the abstract battles of the music-dramatist's political and ethical doctrines. Of these sage utterances one the young musicians adopted unanimously was the proposal to regenerate mankind through strict, vegetarian diet. Perhaps the cost of meat-dishes had as much to do with this resolution as the realization that carnivorous humanity was going to the dogs. [...] Although two years had passed since those unforgettable meatless meetings of the young Wagnerians in Vienna, Mahler was in Olmuetz still a vegetarian, claiming bitterly that he went to the restaurant to starve."[260]:Chapter III
  16. ^ "Keussler is also already here. A splendid fellow. After the Saturday evening rehearsal I'll be joining him for a vegetarian meal. (10 September 1908)"(p254); "I'll presumably have to assume the role of 'the flesh pots in the land of Egypt'. Ouch! What a metaphor for a husband with vegetarian inclinations! (June 1909)."(p272)[261]
  17. ^ Jaime de Magalhães Lima (1859–1936) was a Portuguese writer born in Aveiro. He studied Law in the University of Coimbra. He was an admirer of Tolstoy and visited him in Russia. In 1912 he wrote the essay O Vegetarismo e a Moralidade das raças.[262]
  18. ^ 'O consumo de animais é supérfluo, não há razão para continuar a comê-los quando é tão fácil ser vegetariano', comentou Desidério Murcho, filósofo e vegetariano convicto ['The consumption of animals is unnecessary, there is no reason to continue to eat them when it is so easy to be vegetarian,' said Desiderio Murch, philosopher and vegetarian].[297]
  19. ^ "I advocate eating nutritious food (I'm a vegetarian), working out, being in top form mentally and physically...".[303](pp172–173)
  20. ^ (Original Dutch) "De koeien waren moe en zwak, maar werden toch de vrachtwagens ingeschopt en geslagen. Toen heb ik besloten daar niet mee aan mee te werken en vegetariër te worden." (Translation into English) "The cows were tired and weak and were brutally thrown into the trucks. At that point I decided to become a vegetarian and stop supporting this."[318]
  21. ^ "Plotinus came from somewhere in Egypt and lived a frugal life. He was celibate and vegetarian and took little in the way of food, drink and sleep."[326]
  22. ^ "Outro autor muito afamado de nossos dias, Raynal, era igualmente sóbrio. A senhora Marquesa de Alorna, que muitas vezes o teve a jantar, me contou, que nunca o vira comer mais que algumas poucas ervas e fruta, nem beber senão água."[336](pp281–282)
  23. ^ (Original Dutch) "Of vlees-vrije stijlvolle godinnen als Marly van der Velden, Alyssa Milano, Isa Hoes, Jorinde Moll, Loretta Schrijver [..]" (Translation into English) "Or meat free stylish goddesses like Marly van der Velden, Alyssa Milano, Isa Hoes, Jorinde Moll, Loretta Schrijver [..]"[358]
  24. ^ "Sextius thought, that there was food enough for man in the world without shedding blood; and that the taking pleasure in butchering helpless animals, only inspired men with cruelty."[365]
  25. ^ (Original Dutch) "Of ik zelf ook vegetariër ben? [..] Zelf heb ik dat vlees echter niet meer nodig. Bovendien wil ik graag advocaat voor de dieren zijn en u snapt dat ik dan liever niet mijn eigenklanten opeet." (Translation into English) "Whether or not I am a vegetarian myself? [..] I do not to eat meat anymore. In fact, I want to defend the rights of animals (as a lawyer) and I guess you understand I would rather not eat my own clients"[391]
  26. ^ "Repin's contemporary the prominent sculptor Paolo Trubetskoi was also sympathetic to theosophical ideas and was a vegetarian and confirmed antivivisectionist".[395]
  27. ^ (Original Dutch) V: "Waarom ben je vegetariër?" A: "'Ik vind het onzin om vlees te eten terwijl er tegenwoordig genoeg vleesvervangers zijn. Vlees eten is ontzettend zielig voor de diertjes. Ik ben dus zeker al twee jaar vegetariër." (Translation into English) Q: "Why are you a vegetarian?" A: "I think there is no sense in eating meat since there are loads of alternatives available. Eating meat, it's so sad for those poor animals. So I have been a vegetarian for at least two years."[400]
  28. ^ "[..] or Zara Whites, a former Dutch porn actress. The militant vegetarian made a half-naked appearance at the last 'Salon International de l'Agriculture'"[..][412]
  29. ^ He (Wright) did not smoke or eat meat, rarely drank alcohol, and exercised with a rare determination".[416]
  30. ^ Although Louisa May Alcott is in many famous vegetarians lists, she probably wasn't a vegetarian. It appears that although she was raised a vegetarian by her father Amos Bronson Alcott, she didn't maintain that diet. Vegetarian historian Rynn Berry wrote: "Whereas Amos Bronson Alcott remained a vegetarian for the rest of his life – refusing to consume milk, eggs, fish, meat, and cheese, or wear leather or woollen clothing – his wife and their four daughters were backsliders."[38](p133)
  31. ^ "The passage from Gaskell has persuaded many vegetarians that Charlotte Brontë was one of their number. In fact, even as children, the Brontë siblings ate flesh, both according to their father and to the friends. Moreover, the diaries of the Brontë children refer to their meals and their menus, all of which contain a flesh component."[171](p241)
  32. ^ Einstein was known to be sympathetic to the vegetarian cause: "Although I have been prevented by outward circumstances from observing a strictly vegetarian diet, I have long been an adherent to the cause in principle."[443] It is also possible that Einstein adopted a vegetarian diet in the final year of his life: a single letter to Hans Muehsam, dated March 30, 1954 states that he was vegetarian; while in a letter to Max Kariel seven months earlier, he said that he was not.[444]
  33. ^ Although Emerson appears in many un-sourced "Famous Vegetarian" Lists in the internet, he was not a vegetarian: "Once, while Amos Bronson Alcott (a vegetarian) sat at Ralph Waldo Emerson's dinner table, his host discussed the savagery of cannibalism. Emerson was carving a roast as he told his tale. Alcott joked with his nonvegetarian fiend: "But Mr. Emerson, if we are to eat meat at all why should we not eat the best?"[6](p58)
  34. ^ "Ford, not a vegetarian, was obsessed with soybeans […]"[6](p157)
  35. ^ Some sources state that Jobs was pescetarian rather than vegetarian.[448]
  36. ^ "Ancient sources sometimes identify Plato as a vegetarian, but none of these were his contemporaries, and it is not clear whether their authors knew for a fact that he ate no meat, or were making an assumption based on the vegetarian passages in The Republic and the Laws and the obvious Pythagorean influence in Plato's philosophy."[60](p33)
  37. ^ "Another list named Shakespeare, the economic and social theorist Adam Smith (an advocate but not a practitioner), and that avid hunter Prince Charles as "famous vegetarians." There is no evidence to support the vegetarianism of any one of them – and a great deal to indicate otherwise."[171](p21)..."Even Shakespeare who was no vegetarian was burlesquing the Pythagorean theory of reincarnation […]"[38](p4)
  38. ^ Norm Phelps argues that Socrates was not a vegetarian.[60](pp32–33)
  39. ^ And numerous lists of vegetarians include both Henry David Thoreau and Charles Darwin, neither of whom gave up flesh or claimed to do so."[452]
  40. ^ Mark Twain is on many famous vegetarian lists, however these lists fail to provide evidence to substantiate the claim. Shelley Fisher Fishkin, the editor of The Mark Twain's Book of Animals writes that "Twain was not a vegetarian himself".[453]
  41. ^ Lilli Lehmann, My Path Through Life (1914): "We stayed to a meal with the Wagners, during which he talked much about vegetarianism that he wanted to adopt entirely, but his physician was opposed to it. After what I know of it to-day from my own experience, I am certain that Wagner, without going to the extremes of vegetarianism, would have found it a means of lengthening his life."

References[edit]

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