List of video game console palettes

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For a full listing of computer's color palettes, see List of color palettes

This is a list of the full color palettes for notable video game console hardware.

For color palettes of early 8-bit personal computers, see the List of 8-bit computer hardware palettes article.

For color palettes of 16-bit personal computers, see the List of 16-bit computer hardware palettes article.

For current RGB display systems for 32-bit and better PCs (Super VGA, etc.), see the 16-bit RGB for HighColor (thousands) and 24-bit RGB for TrueColor (millions of colors) modes.

For various software arrangements and sorts of colors, see the List of software palettes article.

For each unique palette, an image color test chart and sample image (Truecolor original follows) rendered with that palette (without dithering) are given. The test chart shows the full 8-bits, 256 levels of the red, green and blue (RGB) primary colors and cyan, magenta and yellow complementary colors, along with a full 8-bits, 256 levels grayscale. Gradients of RGB intermediate colors (orange, lime green, sea green, sky blue, violet and fucsia), and a full hue's spectrum are also present. Color charts are not gamma corrected.

RGB 24bits palette sample image.jpg RGB 24bits palette color test chart.png

These elements permit study of the color depth and distribution of the full colors of any given palette, and the sample image indicates how the full color selection of such palettes would represent real life images. These images are not necessarily representative of how the image would be displayed on the original graphics hardware, as the hardware may have additional limitations regarding the maximum display resolution, pixel aspect ratio and color placement.

For specific models of videogame consoles, simulations of how the sample image would render in different graphic modes are provided, if available. These simulations are always up to the maximum vertical resolution of the given graphic mode or up to 200 scan lines, if vertical resolution is greater. So any of them could be properly padded, transcoded and dumped into the original hardware and/or software emulators without any other changes.

The sample images only try to show how a certain system is able to handle to an image in terms of color without improvements nor additional clever tricks of design like anti-aliasing or dithering. Doubtlessly a human artist is able to improve enormously the look of the simulated images to approximate them to the original one, but that is not the goal of this article.


Atari[edit]

Atari 2600[edit]

The Atari 2600 used different YPbPr color palettes dependent on the television signal format used.[1]

NTSC[edit]

With the NTSC format, a 128-color palette was available, built based on eight luminance values and fifteen combinations of Pb and Pr chroma signals (plus Pb = Pr = 0 for a pure grayscale):

Atari2600 NTSC palette sample image.png Atari2600 NTSC palette color test chart.png
Atari2600 NTSC palette.png
hue / luminance 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Atari2600 NTSC simulation.png

The hardware supports 4 colors per scanline: a background, an arbitrary 40-pixel wide bitmapped playfield, and colors for the two players. Using just the first two, an NTSC console could draw the above.

PAL[edit]

With the PAL format, a 104-color palette was available. 128-color entries were still selectable, but due to changes in color encoding schemes, 32 color entries results in the same eight shades of gray:

Atari2600 PAL palette sample image.png Atari2600 PAL palette color test chart.png
Atari2600 PAL palette.png
hue / luminance 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
0,1,14,15
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Atari2600 PAL simulation.png

Using just the playfield and background controls, a PAL console could draw the above.

SECAM[edit]

The SECAM palette were reduced to a simple 3-bit RGB, contained only 8 colors:

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Nintendo[edit]

Famicom/NES[edit]

The Picture Processing Unit (PPU) was used in the Nintendo Entertainment System and had a YPbPr 64-color palette (plus color emphasis bits, not counted), of which nine are duplicates and one is out of NTSC's gamut, giving a total of 54 useful colors. The palette is built based on four luminance values and twelve combinations of Pb and Pr chroma signals (plus two series of Pb = Pr = 0 for eight pure grays). Two of the shades of gray are identical, one has negative brightness, and one is within 2% of another, so sometimes the palette has been reported to have 53 to 55 colors.

NES palette sample image.png NES palette color test chart.png
NES palette.png
Hex Value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
00h
10h
20h
30h

The NES could select 4 palettes each containing one of these colors (however, color 0 of each palette has to be the same, so technically, 13 different colors are available at a time) to be applied to the background. A background palette is applied to a 16x16 pixel area, however through a special video mode of the MMC5 mapper it is possible for every 8x8 pixel tile to have its individual palette. As for sprites, 4 different palettes can be used at a time (with color 0 being transparent in each) and every 8x8 or 8x16 pixels can have their own palette, allowing for a total of 12 different colors to use for sprites at any given time.

Because of the constraints mentioned above, there are no current simulated screen images available for the NES.

SuperFamicom/SNES[edit]

The Picture Processing Unit (PPU) used in the Super Nintendo Entertainment System has a 15-bit RGB (32,768 color) palette, with up to 256 simultaneous colors.

RGB 15bits palette sample image.png

However, while the hardware palette can only contain 256 entries, in most display modes the graphics are arranged into between 2 and 4 layers, and these layers can be combined using additive or subtractive color blending. Because these blended colors are calculated by the hardware itself, and do not have to be represented by any of the existing palette entries, the actual number of visible colors onscreen at any one time can be much higher.

The exact number depends on the number of layers, and the combination of colors used by these layers, as well as what blending mode and graphical effects are in use. In theory it can show the entire 32,768 colors, but in practice this is rarely the case.

Original Game Boy[edit]

The original Game Boy uses a monochrome 4-shades palette. Due to the fact that the non-backlighted LCD display background is greenish, this results in a green-scale graphic display, as it is shown in the simulated image (at Game Boy display resolution), below.

Screen color test Gameboy.png


Game Boy Color[edit]

The Game Boy Color systems use a 15-bit RGB (32,768 colors) palette.

When an older monochrome original Game Boy game cartridge (Type 1) is plugged-in, if certain combinations of the controls are held during startup, the games are colorized with one of the factory 12 false color palettes. In this mode, games can have from 4 to 10 colors, due 4 are for the background plane palette and there are two more hardware sprite planes palettes, with 3 colors plus transparent each.

The following shows these startup palettes (background plus both sprite planes) and the combination of controls used (the names are taken from the Game Boy user's manual; the colors are simulated):

Gbcpalette-up-highcon.png
UP (Brown)
Gbcpalette-up+a-highcon.png
UP+A (Red)
Gbcpalette-up+b-highcon.png
UP+B (Dark brown)
Gbcpalette-dw-highcon.png
DOWN (Pastel mix)
Gbcpalette-dw+a-highcon.png
DOWN+A (Orange)
Gbcpalette-dw+b-highcon.png
DOWN+B (Yellow)
Gbcpalette-lf-highcon.png
LEFT (Blue)
Gbcpalette-lf+a-highcon.png
LEFT+A (Dark blue)
Gbcpalette-lf+b-highcon.png
LEFT+B (Gray)
Gbcpalette-rg-highcon.png
RIGHT (Green)
Gbcpalette-rg+a-highcon.png
RIGHT+A (Dark green)
Gbcpalette-rg+b-highcon.png
RIGHT+B (Reverse)

The specific Game Boy Color (Type 3) game cartridges presents up to 56 colors without the use of special programming techniques from the full 32,768. From these, 32 are for a background palette, plus 8 hardware sprite palettes, with 3 colors plus transparent each. Typically, the sprite palettes shares some colors (black, white or others), so the total colors displayed are less than 56.

Here is the sample image shown in the non-backlighted color LCD display of the Game Boy Color (the colors are simulated):

Screen color test GameboyColor 32colors.png

Though there is a 56 color limit, this in of itself is a palette storage limit and not an actual hardware limitation. As such, the programmer can swap out the palettes on a per-scanline or even on a mid-scanline basis ("mode 3 mid-scanline rendering"). Because of this ability to swap out the palettes each scanline, over ten thousand colors can actually appear on screen per frame when programmed on a per-scanline basis.


Game Boy Advance/SP/Micro[edit]

The Game Boy Advance/SP/Micro systems also uses a 15-bit RGB palette, and along with the original and Color modes, they have also a specific Highcolor 32,768 colors mode.

In addition, the LCD displays of the Micro and some models of the SP are backlit, giving brighter images.

Here are sample images shown simulating a backlit color LCD display of the Game Boy Advance/SP/Micro in both Game Boy Color compatible mode and Game Boy Advance 32K color mode:

Screen color test GameboyAdvance 32colors.png Screen color test GameboyAdvance 32Kcolors.png


Sega[edit]

Master System[edit]

The Sega Master System had a 6-bit RGB palette (64 colors), with 32 colors on-screen at once. It is possible to display all 64 colors at once using raster effects (line interrupts).

Screen color test SEGAMasterSystem.png


Game Gear[edit]

The Sega Game Gear had a 12-bit RGB palette (4096 colors), with 32 colors on-screen at once.

Screen color test Amiga 32colors.png


Mega Drive/Genesis[edit]

The Sega Mega Drive/Sega Genesis used a 9-bit RGB palette (512 colors, 1536 including shadow and highlight mode) with up to 61 colors on-screen at once without raster effects (4 palette lines of 16 colors each, palette indices $x0 are definable but considered as transparent, and can only be used as the background color).

RGB 24bits palette sample image 9bpp MD.png

NEC[edit]

PC-Engine/TurboGrafx-16[edit]

The PC-Engine/TurboGrafx 16 used a 9-bit RGB palette, like the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis, consisting of 512 colors with 482 colors on-screen at once (16 background palettes of 16 colors each, with at least 1 common color among all background palettes, and 16 sprite palettes of 15 colors each, plus transparent which was visible as the overscan area).

RGB 24bits palette sample image 9bpp PCE.png

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Atari 2600 "TIA color chart". Archived 12 February 2011 at WebCite