List of volcanoes in Chile

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This is a list of ca. 137 volcanoes in Chile. According with archivonacionaldevolcanes.cl[1] there are ca. 500 volcanoes, with 123 active - volcanoes that have erupted at least once in the Holocene. The volcanodb.com lists 109[2] and the Global Volcanism Program lists 105 volcanoes in Chile.[3]

The Pacific islands of Chile are of volcanic origin. They have been formed from magma coming from three distinct hotspots, Easter, Juan Fernández and San Felix hotspots. The westernmost part of the ridges formed by these hotspots contain the most recently active volcanoes.

Some volcanoes or groups of volcanoes are under surveillance of OVDAS because of their critical activity or nearness to big cities.

This list doesn't include Chilean claims in the Antarctic.

Name Shape Elevation (m) Last eruption (VEI) Coordinates Other names OVDAS surveillance
Tacora stratovolcano 5,980 17°43′S 69°46′W / 17.72°S 69.77°W / -17.72; -69.77 (Tacora)
Lexone[4] Lava dome 5,340 Holocene 17°52′S 69°29′W / 17.87°S 69.48°W / -17.87; -69.48 (Lexone)
Taapaca stratovolcano 5,860 320 BC ± 50 years 18°06′S 69°30′W / 18.10°S 69.50°W / -18.10; -69.50 (Taapaca (volcano))
Parinacota stratovolcano 6,348 Holocene 18°10′S 69°09′W / 18.17°S 69.15°W / -18.17; -69.15 ("Parinacota (volcano)")
Acotango stratovolcano 6,052 Holocene 18°22′S 69°03′W / 18.37°S 69.05°W / -18.37; -69.05 ("Acotango")
Guallatiri stratovolcano 6,071 1985 18°25′S 69°10′W / 18.42°S 69.17°W / -18.42; -69.17 ("Guallatiri")
Arintica stratovolcano 5,597 Holocene 18°44′S 69°03′W / 18.73°S 69.05°W / -18.73; -69.05 ("Arintica")
Isluga stratovolcano 5,550 1913 19°09′S 68°50′W / 19.15°S 68.83°W / -19.15; -68.83 ("Isluga") [16]
Puchuldiza[5] 4,500 Pleistocene 19°25′S 68°58′W / 19.42°S 68.97°W / -19.42; -68.97 ("Puchuldiza")
Cerro Pina[6] 4,037 Holocene 19°29′S 68°39′W / 19.49°S 68.65°W / -19.49; -68.65 ("Cerro Pina")
Irruputuncu stratovolcano 5,163 1995 20°44′S 68°33′W / 20.73°S 68.55°W / -20.73; -68.55 ("Irruputuncu")
Unnamed 4,200 Holocene 20°50′S 68°38′W / 20.83°S 68.63°W / -20.83; -68.63 ("Unnamed")
Olca-Paruma stratovolcano 5,407 1867 20°56′S 68°29′W / 20.93°S 68.48°W / -20.93; -68.48 ("Olca-Paruma")
Aucanquilcha stratovolcano 6,176 Holocene 21°13′S 68°28′W / 21.22°S 68.47°W / -21.22; -68.47 ("Aucanquilcha")
Ollagüe stratovolcano 5,868 21°18′S 68°11′W / 21.30°S 68.18°W / -21.30; -68.18 ("Ollagüe")
Cerro del Azufre stratovolcano 5,846 Holocene 21°47′S 68°14′W / 21.78°S 68.23°W / -21.78; -68.23 ("Cerro del Azufre")
San Pedro stratovolcano 6,145 1960 21°53′S 68°24′W / 21.88°S 68.40°W / -21.88; -68.40 ("San Pedro (Chile volcano)") [17]
Cerro Paniri stratovolcano 5,946 22°05′S 68°15′W / 22.08°S 68.25°W / -22.08; -68.25 ("Cerro Paniri")
Cerro del León stratovolcano 5,760 22°11′S 58°07′W / 22.18°S 58.12°W / -22.18; -58.12 ("Cerro del León") Chao
Linzor stratovolcano 5,680 22°11′S 67°57′W / 22.18°S 67.95°W / -22.18; -67.95 ("Linzor")
Cerro Toconce[7] 5,435 Holocene 22°12′S 68°06′W / 22.20°S 68.10°W / -22.20; -68.10 ("Cerro Toconce")
El Volcán[citation needed] 5,100 22°20′S 67°58′W / 22.33°S 67.97°W / -22.33; -67.97 ("El Volcán")
El Tatio[8] 4,280 Pleistocene 22°21′S 68°02′W / 22.35°S 68.03°W / -22.35; -68.03 ("El Tatio (volcano)")
Tocorpuri (La Torta) stratovolcano 5,018 22°30′S 67°54′W / 22.50°S 67.90°W / -22.50; -67.90 ("Cerros de Tocorpuri")
Putana stratovolcano 5,890 1972 22°34′S 67°52′W / 22.57°S 67.87°W / -22.57; -67.87 ("Putana Volcano")
Sairecabur stratovolcano 5,971 Holocene 22°44′S 67°53′W / 22.74°S 67.88°W / -22.74; -67.88 ("Sairecabur")
Licancabur stratovolcano 5,916 Holocene 22°50′S 67°53′W / 22.83°S 67.88°W / -22.83; -67.88 ("Licancabur")
Guayaques Lava domes 5,598 Holocene 22°53′S 67°35′W / 22.88°S 67.58°W / -22.88; -67.58 ("Guayaques")
Purico Complex Pyroclastic shield, Volcanic complex 5,703 Holocene 23°00′S 67°45′W / 23.00°S 67.75°W / -23.00; -67.75 ("Purico Complex")
Acamarachi stratovolcano 6,046 23°11′S 67°22′W / 23.18°S 67.37°W / -23.18; -67.37 ("Acamarachi") Pili
Colachi stratovolcano 5,631 Holocene 23°14′S 67°39′W / 23.23°S 67.65°W / -23.23; -67.65 ("Colachi")
Laguna Verde stratovolcano 5,412 Holocene? 23°15′S 67°43′W / 23.25°S 67.71°W / -23.25; -67.71 ("Laguna Verde (volcano)")
Cerro Overo maar 4,555 Holocene 23°21′S 67°40′W / 23.35°S 67.67°W / -23.35; -67.67 ("Cerro Overo")
Aguas Calientes stratovolcano 5,924 23°22′S 67°41′W / 23.37°S 67.68°W / -23.37; -67.68 ("Aguas Calientes (volcano)")
Lascar stratovolcano 5,592 2013 23°22′S 67°44′W / 23.37°S 67.73°W / -23.37; -67.73 ("Lascar (volcano)") [18]
Chiliques stratovolcano 5,778 Unknown 23°35′S 67°42′W / 23.58°S 67.70°W / -23.58; -67.70 ("Chiliques")
Cordón de Puntas Negras stratovolcano 5,852 Holocene 23°45′S 67°32′W / 23.75°S 67.53°W / -23.75; -67.53 ("Cordón de Puntas Negras")
Miñiques stratovolcano 5,910 23°49′S 67°46′W / 23.82°S 67.77°W / -23.82; -67.77 ("Miñiques")
Cerro Tujle[9] 3,550 Holocene 23°50′S 67°57′W / 23.83°S 67.95°W / -23.83; -67.95 ("Cerro Tujle")
Cordón Chalviri stratovolcano 5,623 Holocene 23°51′S 67°37′W / 23.85°S 67.62°W / -23.85; -67.62 ("Cordón de Puntas Negras")
Caichinque stratovolcano 4,450 23°57′S 67°44′W / 23.95°S 67.73°W / -23.95; -67.73 ("Caichinque")
Tilocalar[10] stratovolcano 3,116 23°58′S 68°08′W / 23.97°S 68.13°W / -23.97; -68.13 ("Tilocalar")
Pular stratovolcano 6,233 1990 24°11′S 68°03′W / 24.18°S 68.05°W / -24.18; -68.05 ("Pular (volcano)")
El Negrillar[11] pyroclastic cone 3,500 24°11′S 68°15′W / 24.18°S 68.25°W / -24.18; -68.25 ("El Negrillar") See also Negrillar de Ensenada at the Osorno (volcano)
La Negrillar[12] pyroclastic cone 4,109 24°17′S 68°36′W / 24.28°S 68.60°W / -24.28; -68.60 ("La Negrillar") See also Negrillar de Ensenada at the Osorno (volcano)
Socompa stratovolcano 6,051 5250 BC (?) 24°24′S 68°15′W / 24.40°S 68.25°W / -24.40; -68.25 ("Socompa (volcano)")
Llullaillaco stratovolcano 6,739 1877 24°43′S 68°30′W / 24.72°S 68.50°W / -24.72; -68.50 ("Llullaillaco")
Cerro Escorial stratovolcano 5,447 Holocene 25°05′S 68°22′W / 25.08°S 68.37°W / -25.08; -68.37 ("Cerro Escorial")
Lastarria stratovolcano 5,697 Holocene 25°10′S 68°30′W / 25.17°S 68.50°W / -25.17; -68.50 ("Lastarria (volcano)")
Cordón del Azufre stratovolcano 5,463 Holocene 25°20′S 68°31′W / 25.33°S 68.52°W / -25.33; -68.52 ("Cordón del Azufre")
Cerro Bayo complex volcano 5,401 Holocene 25°25′S 68°35′W / 25.42°S 68.58°W / -25.42; -68.58 ("Cerro Bayo Complex")
San Felix[13] Shield volcano 183 Holocene 26°16′S 80°07′W / 26.27°S 80.12°W / -26.27; -80.12 ("San Felix (volcano)")
Sierra Nevada de Lagunas Bravas stratovolcano 6,127 26°29′S 68°34′W / 26.48°S 68.57°W / -26.48; -68.57 ("Sierra Nevada de Lagunas Bravas")
Falso Azufre stratovolcano 5,890 Holocene 26°48′S 68°22′W / 26.80°S 68.37°W / -26.80; -68.37 ("Falso Azufre")
Pukao submarine volcano 26°57′S 110°16′W / 26.95°S 110.27°W / -26.95; -110.27 ("Pukao (seamount)")
Nevado de Incahuasi stratovolcano and caldera 6,621 27°02′S 68°17′W / 27.04°S 68.28°W / -27.04; -68.28 ("Incahuasi")
El Solo stratovolcano 6,190 27°07′S 68°43′W / 27.11°S 68.72°W / -27.11; -68.72 ("El Solo")
Ojos del Salado stratovolcano 6,891 700 AD ± 300 27°07′S 68°32′W / 27.12°S 68.53°W / -27.12; -68.53 ("Ojos del Salado")
Poike, Easter Island shield volcano 370 >1Ma 27°09′S 109°23′W / 27.15°S 109.38°W / -27.15; -109.38 ("Poike, Easter Island")
Rano Kau, Easter Island crater lake 250 >1Ma 27°09′S 109°23′W / 27.15°S 109.38°W / -27.15; -109.38 ("Rano Kau, Easter Island")
Terevaka, Easter Island shield volcano 507 >1Ma 27°09′S 109°23′W / 27.15°S 109.38°W / -27.15; -109.38 ("Terevaka, Easter Island")
Moai submarine volcano 27°06′S 109°51′W / 27.1°S 109.85°W / -27.1; -109.85 ("Moai (seamount)")
Copiapó stratovolcano 6,052 27°18′S 69°08′W / 27.30°S 69.13°W / -27.30; -69.13 ("Copiapó (volcano)")
Tupungato stratovolcano 6,570 1986 33°21′S 69°45′W / 33.35°S 69.75°W / -33.35; -69.75 ("Tupungato")
Tupungatito stratovolcano 6,000 1986 33°24′S 69°48′W / 33.40°S 69.80°W / -33.40; -69.80 ("Tupungatito") [19]
Unnamed[14] submarine volcano -642 33°37′S 76°50′W / 33.62°S 76.83°W / -33.62; -76.83 ("Unnamed")
Robinson Crusoe[15] Shield volcano 922 1835 33°39′S 78°51′W / 33.65°S 78.85°W / -33.65; -78.85 ("Robinson Crusoe (volcano)")
Alexander Selkirk Island volcanic island 1,329 <1Ma 33°45′S 80°45′W / 33.75°S 80.75°W / -33.75; -80.75 ("Alexander Selkirk Island")
San José stratovolcano 5,856 1960 33°47′S 69°53′W / 33.78°S 69.89°W / -33.78; -69.89 ("San José (volcano)") [20]
Maipo stratovolcano 5,264 1908 34°10′S 69°50′W / 34.16°S 69.83°W / -34.16; -69.83 ("Maipo (volcano)")
Palomo stratovolcano 4,860 Holocene 34°37′S 70°18′W / 34.61°S 70.30°W / -34.61; -70.30 ("Palomo")
Tinguiririca stratovolcano 4,280 1994 34°49′S 70°21′W / 34.81°S 70.35°W / -34.81; -70.35 ("Tinguiririca (volcano)") [21]
Planchón-Peteroa stratovolcano 4,107 2010 35°14′S 70°34′W / 35.24°S 70.57°W / -35.24; -70.57 ("Planchón-Peteroa") [22]
Mondaca[16] Lava dome 2,048 Holocene 35°28′S 70°48′W / 35.46°S 70.80°W / -35.46; -70.80 ("Mondaca")
Descabezado Chico 35°31′S 70°36′W / 35.52°S 70.60°W / -35.52; -70.60 ("Descabezado Chico") Cone of Calabozos
Calabozos caldera 3,508 Holocene 35°34′S 70°30′W / 35.56°S 70.50°W / -35.56; -70.50 ("Calabozos")
Cerro Azul stratovolcano 3,788 1967 35°39′S 70°46′W / 35.65°S 70.76°W / -35.65; -70.76 ("Cerro Azul (Chile volcano)") Los Hornitos, Quipazu, Descabezado Grande [23]
Descabezado Grande stratovolcano 3,953 1933 35°51′S 70°45′W / 35.85°S 70.75°W / -35.85; -70.75 ("Descabezado Grande") Cerro Azul, Quipazu, Hornitos [24]
San Pedro de Tarara 3,621 Holocene 35°59′S 70°51′W / 35.99°S 70.85°W / -35.99; -70.85 ("San Pedro de Tarara") San Pedro-Pellado [25]
Laguna del Maule caldera 3,092 Holocene 36°01′S 70°35′W / 36.02°S 70.58°W / -36.02; -70.58 ("Laguna del Maule (volcano)") [26]
Nevado de Longaví stratovolcano 3242 Holocene 36°12′S 71°12′W / 36.20°S 71.20°W / -36.20; -71.20 ("Nevado de Longaví") [27]
Lomas Blancas[17] 2,268 Holocene 36°17′S 71°01′W / 36.29°S 71.01°W / -36.29; -71.01 ("Lomas Blancas")
Resago[18] Cinder cone 1,550 Holocene 36°27′S 70°55′W / 36.45°S 70.92°W / -36.45; -70.92 ("Resago")
Nevados de Chillán stratovolcano 3,212 2003 36°52′S 71°22′W / 36.86°S 71.37°W / -36.86; -71.37 ("Nevados de Chillán") [28]
Antuco stratovolcano 2,979 1869 37°24′S 71°20′W / 37.40°S 71.34°W / -37.40; -71.34 ("Antuco (volcano)") [29]
Copahue stratovolcano 2,965 2012 37°51′S 71°10′W / 37.85°S 71.17°W / -37.85; -71.17 ("Copahue") [30]
Callaqui stratovolcano 3,164 1980 37°55′S 71°27′W / 37.92°S 71.45°W / -37.92; -71.45 ("Callaqui") [31]
Laguna Mariñaqui[19][20] 2,143 38°16′S 71°06′W / 38.27°S 71.10°W / -38.27; -71.10 ("Laguna Mariñaqui (volcano)") Cinder cones
Tolhuaca stratovolcano 2,806 Holocene 38°19′S 71°39′W / 38.31°S 71.65°W / -38.31; -71.65 ("Tolhuaca") Tolguaca, see also Lonquimay. [32]
Sierra Nevada stratovolcano 2,554 Holocene 38°21′S 71°21′W / 38.35°S 71.35°W / -38.35; -71.35 ("Sierra Nevada (stratovolcano)")
Cerro Chapulul 2,143 Holocene 38°22′S 71°05′W / 38.37°S 71.08°W / -38.37; -71.08 ("Cerro Chapulul")
Lonquimay stratovolcano 2,865 1990 38°23′S 71°35′W / 38.38°S 71.58°W / -38.38; -71.58 ("Lonquimay (volcano)") See also Tolhuaca or Tolguaca [33]
Llaima stratovolcano 3,125 2009 38°41′S 71°43′W / 38.69°S 71.72°W / -38.69; -71.72 ("Llaima") [34]
Sollipulli caldera 2,282 1240 AD ± 50 38°58′S 71°31′W / 38.97°S 71.52°W / -38.97; -71.52 ("Sollipulli") [35]
Caburgua-Huelemolle stratovolcano 995 Holocene 39°12′S 71°50′W / 39.20°S 71.83°W / -39.20; -71.83 ("Caburgua-Huelemolle")
Cerro Redondo 1,496 39°16′S 71°42′W / 39.27°S 71.70°W / -39.27; -71.70 ("Cerro Redondo") Cone of Sollipulli, Cone of Caburgua-Huelemolle
Villarrica stratovolcano 2,847 2013 39°25′S 71°56′W / 39.42°S 71.93°W / -39.42; -71.93 ("Villarrica (volcano)") [36]
Quetrupillán stratovolcano 2,360 1872 39°30′S 71°42′W / 39.50°S 71.70°W / -39.50; -71.70 ("Quetrupillán") [37]
Lanín stratovolcano 3,747 560 AD ±150 39°38′S 71°30′W / 39.63°S 71.50°W / -39.63; -71.50 ("Lanín") [38]
Mocho-Choshuenco stratovolcano 2,422 1864 39°56′S 72°02′W / 39.93°S 72.03°W / -39.93; -72.03 ("Mocho-Choshuenco") [39]
Carrán-Los Venados pyroclastic cones, maars 1,114 1979 40°21′S 72°04′W / 40.35°S 72.07°W / -40.35; -72.07 ("Carrán-Los Venados") [40]
Mencheca 1,840 Holocene 40°32′S 72°02′W / 40.53°S 72.04°W / -40.53; -72.04 ("Mencheca") Stratovolcano of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle
Puyehue-Cordón Caulle stratovolcano 2,236 2011 40°35′S 72°07′W / 40.59°S 72.12°W / -40.59; -72.12 ("Puyehue-Cordón Caulle") [41]
Antillanca-Casablanca pyroclastic cones, stratovolcano 1,990 Holocene 40°46′S 72°09′W / 40.77°S 72.15°W / -40.77; -72.15 ("Antillanca Group") [42]
Puntiagudo-Cordón Cenizos pyroclastic cones 2,493 1930 40°58′S 72°16′W / 40.96°S 72.26°W / -40.96; -72.26 ("Puntiagudo-Cordón Cenizos")
Osorno stratovolcano 2,652 1869 41°06′S 72°29′W / 41.10°S 72.49°W / -41.10; -72.49 ("Osorno (volcano)") [43]
Cayutué-La Viguería[21] Pyroclastic cone 506 Holocene 41°15′S 72°16′W / 41.25°S 72.27°W / -41.25; -72.27 ("Cayutué-La Viguería")
Calbuco stratovolcano 2,003 1972 41°20′S 72°37′W / 41.33°S 72.61°W / -41.33; -72.61 ("Calbuco (volcano)") [44]
Cuernos del Diablo[22] 41°22′S 72°01′W / 41.37°S 72.02°W / -41.37; -72.02 ("Cuernos del Diablo") stratovolcano
Yate stratovolcano 2,187 Holocene 41°46′S 72°23′W / 41.76°S 72.39°W / -41.76; -72.39 ("Yate (volcano)") See also Hornopirén. [45]
Hornopirén stratovolcano 1,572 Holocene 41°52′S 72°26′W / 41.87°S 72.43°W / -41.87; -72.43 ("Hornopirén (volcano)") See also Yate [46]
Apagado (Hualiaque) pyroclastic cone 1,210 41°53′S 72°35′W / 41.88°S 72.59°W / -41.88; -72.59 ("Apagado (Hualiaque)")
Huequi stratovolcano 1,318 1920 42°22′S 72°34′W / 42.37°S 72.57°W / -42.37; -72.57 ("Huequi")
Michinmahuida stratovolcano 2,404 1835 42°47′S 72°26′W / 42.78°S 72.43°W / -42.78; -72.43 ("Michinmahuida") Minchinmávida [47]
Chaitén lava dome 1,122 2011 42°50′S 72°39′W / 42.83°S 72.65°W / -42.83; -72.65 ("Chaitén (volcano)") [48]
Corcovado stratovolcano 2,300 1835 43°11′S 72°48′W / 43.18°S 72.80°W / -43.18; -72.80 ("Corcovado (volcano)") See also Yanteles. [49]
Yanteles stratovolcano 2,050 6650 BC 43°30′S 72°48′W / 43.50°S 72.80°W / -43.50; -72.80 ("Yanteles") See also Corcovado. [50]
Palena Volcanic Group[23] Cinder cone Holocene 43°41′S 72°30′W / 43.68°S 72.50°W / -43.68; -72.50 ("Palena Volcanic Group")
Melimoyu stratovolcano 2,400 200 AD ± 75 44°05′S 72°53′W / 44.08°S 72.88°W / -44.08; -72.88 ("Melimoyu") [51]
Puyuhuapi Cinder cone 255 Holocene 44°18′S 72°32′W / 44.30°S 72.53°W / -44.30; -72.53 ("Puyuhuapi (volcanic group)")
Mentolat stratovolcano 1,660 Holocene 44°40′S 73°05′W / 44.67°S 73.08°W / -44.67; -73.08 ("Mentolat") [52]
Cay stratovolcano 2,200 45°04′S 73°00′W / 45.06°S 73.00°W / -45.06; -73.00 ("Cay (volcano)")
Maca stratovolcano 2,960 Holocene 45°06′S 73°12′W / 45.10°S 73.20°W / -45.10; -73.20 ("Maca (volcano)") [53]
Mount Hudson stratovolcano 1,905 1991 45°54′S 72°58′W / 45.90°S 72.97°W / -45.90; -72.97 ("Mount Hudson") [54]
Río Murta (volcano)[24] pyroclastic cone 46°10′S 72°40′W / 46.17°S 72.67°W / -46.17; -72.67 ("Río Murta (volcano)")
Arenales stratovolcano 3,437 1979 47°12′S 73°29′W / 47.20°S 73.48°W / -47.20; -73.48 ("Cerro Arenales")
Lautaro stratovolcano 3,345 19791979 49°01′S 73°33′W / 49.02°S 73.55°W / -49.02; -73.55 ("Lautaro (volcano)")
Viedma Subglacial volcano 1,500 1988 49°22′S 73°17′W / 49.36°S 73.28°W / -49.36; -73.28 ("Viedma (volcano)")
Aguilera stratovolcano 2,546 -16501650 BC 50°10′S 73°50′W / 50.17°S 73.83°W / -50.17; -73.83 ("Aguilera (volcano)")
Reclus stratovolcano 1,000 19081908 AD ± 1 50°59′S 73°42′W / 50.98°S 73.70°W / -50.98; -73.70 ("Reclus (volcano)")
Pali-Aike volcanic field -1550 5550 BC ± 1000 52°00′S 70°00′W / 52.00°S 70.00°W / -52.00; -70.00 ("Pali-Aike Volcanic Field")
Burney stratovolcano 1,495 19101910 52°20′S 73°24′W / 52.33°S 73.40°W / -52.33; -73.40 ("Monte Burney")
Fueguino lava domes 150 1820 54°57′S 70°15′W / 54.95°S 70.25°W / -54.95; -70.25 ("Fueguino")

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ archivonacionaldevolcanes.cl, retrieved on 8 November 2013
  2. ^ List of Volcanoes in Chile by volcanodb.com, retrieved on 10 November 2013
  3. ^ Search database GVP using Chile, Chile-Peru, Chile-Bolivia and Chile-Argentina options, retrieved on 10 November 2013
  4. ^ Lexone, retrieved on 10 November 2013
  5. ^ Puchuldiza, retrieved on 10 November 2013
  6. ^ Cerro Pina, retrieved on 10 November 2013
  7. ^ Cerro Toconce, retrieved on 10 November 2013
  8. ^ El Tatío, retrieved on 10 November 2013
  9. ^ Cerro Tujle, retrieved on 10 November 2013
  10. ^ [1], retrieved on 10 November 2013
  11. ^ [2], retrieved on 10 November 2013
  12. ^ [3], retrieved on 10 November 2013
  13. ^ [4], retrieved on 10 November 2013
  14. ^ [5], retrieved on 10 November 2013
  15. ^ [6], retrieved on 10 November 2013
  16. ^ [7], retrieved on 10 November 2013
  17. ^ [8], retrieved on 10 November 2013
  18. ^ [9], retrieved on 10 November 2013
  19. ^ [10], retrieved on 10 November 2013
  20. ^ [11], retrieved on 10 November 2013
  21. ^ [12], retrieved on 10 November 2013
  22. ^ [13], retrieved on 10 November 2013
  23. ^ [14], retrieved on 10 November 2013
  24. ^ [15], retrieved on 10 November 2013

External links[edit]