List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll. It covers the lowest estimate of death as well as the highest estimate, the name of the event, the location, and the start and end of each event. Some events may belong in more than one category. In addition, some of the listed events overlap each other, and in some cases the death toll from a smaller event is included in the one for the larger event or time period of which it was part.

Wars, armed conflicts, and genocides[edit]

These figures of one million or more deaths include the deaths of civilians from diseases, famine, etc., as well as deaths of soldiers in battle and massacres and genocide. Where only one estimate is available, it appears in both the low and high estimates. This is a sortable table. Click on the column sort buttons to sort results numerically or alphabetically.

The United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) defines genocide in part as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group". Determining what historical events constitute a genocide and which are merely criminal or inhuman behavior is not a clear-cut matter. In nearly every case where accusations of genocide have circulated, partisans of various sides have disputed the interpretation and details of the event, often to the point of promoting different versions of the facts. An accusation of genocide will almost always be controversial. Determining the number of persons killed in each genocide can be just as difficult, with political, religious and ethnic biases or prejudices often leading to downplayed or exaggerated figures. Some of the accounts below may include ancillary causes of death such as malnutrition and disease, which may or may not have been intentionally inflicted.

Lowest
estimate
Highest
estimate
Event Location From To Duration (years) Notes, See also
40,000,000[1] 85,000,000[2] World War II Worldwide 1939 1945 7 World War II casualties and Second Sino-Japanese War[3] (this estimate includes worldwide Holocaust and concentration camps deaths)
30,000,000[4] 80,000,000 Mongol conquests Eurasia 1206 1368 163 Mongol Empire
25,000,000[5] 25,000,000 Qing dynasty conquest of the Ming Dynasty China 1616 1662 47 Qing Dynasty
20,000,000[6] 100,000,000[7][8][9][10][11] Taiping Rebellion China 1851 1864 14 Dungan revolt
15,000,000[12] 65,000,000
[13]
World War I Worldwide 1914 1918 5 World War I casualties
Upper estimate includes worldwide Spanish flu deaths.
15,000,000[14] 20,000,000[14] Conquests of Timur-e-Lang West Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, Russia 1369 1405 37 Timurid dynasty
13,000,000[15] 36,000,000[16] An Lushan Rebellion China 755 763 9 Medieval warfare
8,000,000[17][18] 12,000,000 Dungan revolt China 1862 1877 16 Panthay Rebellion
5,000,000[citation needed] 30,000,000[citation needed] Conquests by the Empire of Japan Asia 1894 1945 52
5,000,000
[citation needed]
9,000,000[19] Russian Civil War Russia 1917 1921 5 Russian Revolution (1917), List of civil wars
4,194,200[20] 17,000,000
[21][22][23]
Holocaust Europe 1941 1945 4 The low estimate only accounts for Jewish deaths.
3,500,000
[citation needed]
7,000,000[24] Napoleonic Wars Europe, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean 1803 1815 13 Napoleonic Wars casualties
3,000,000 11,500,000[25] Thirty Years' War Holy Roman Empire 1618 1648 31 Religious war
3,000,000[26] 4,000,000[26] Deluge Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1655 1660 6 Second Northern War
3,000,000[27] 7,000,000[27] Yellow Turban Rebellion China 184 205 22 Part of Three Kingdoms War
2,500,000[28] 5,400,000[29] Second Congo War Democratic Republic of the Congo 1998 2003 6 First Congo War
2,582,000[30][31][32] 8,000,000[33] Holodomor (and Soviet famine of 1932–1933) Ukrainian SSR (and other areas of southern USSR, western Siberia) 1932 1933 1 Targeted famine and forced relocation of Soviet ethnic groups, especially landed Ukrainian peasants, by Stalin Regime.
2,300,000[34] 3,300,000[35] Hundred Years' War Western Europe 1337 1443 107 Edwardian War (1337-1360), Caroline War (1369-1389), Lancastrian War (1415–53)
2,000,000
[36]
100,000,000
[37]
European colonization of the Americas Americas 1492 1900 408 Colonization, disease, ethnic cleansing and war.
2,000,000 4,000,000[38] French Wars of Religion France 1562 1598 37 Religious war
2,000,000[39]
[dubious ]
2,000,000
[dubious ]
Shaka's conquests Africa 1816 1828 13 Ndwandwe–Zulu War
1,500,000[40] 2,000,000[40] War in Afghanistan Afghanistan 1979 2000 22 Soviet-Afghan War, Taliban Era. Death toll estimates through 1999 (2M) and 2000 (1.5M and 2M).
1,000,000 3,000,000 Nigerian Civil War Nigeria 1967 1970 3 Civil war followed by ethnic cleansings of the Igbo people.
1,000,000[41] 3,000,000[41] Cambodian Genocide Cambodia 1975 1979 4 Political mass killings by communist forces.
1,000,000[42] 3,000,000[43] Crusades Holy Land, Europe 1095 1291 197 Religious war
1,000,000[44] 2,000,000 Second Sudanese Civil War Sudan 1983 2005 23 First Sudanese Civil War
900,000 1,000,000 Gallic Wars France 58 BC 50 BC 9 Roman Empire
800,000 1,000,000 Du Wenxiu Rebellion China 1856 1873 18
800,000[45] 3,000,000[46] Vietnam War Southeast Asia 1955 1975 21 Cold War and First Indochina War
600,000[40] 2,000,000[40] Soviet War in Afghanistan Afghanistan 1980 1988 9 Cold War
500,000[47] 3,000,000[48] Expulsion of Germans after World War II Europe 1945 1950 5 Ethnic cleansing of Germans after the redrawing of post-WWII borders.
500,000[49] 2,000,000[49] Mexican Revolution Mexico, United States 1911 1920 10 Pancho Villa and Columbus Raid
500,000[50][51] 2,000,000[citation needed] Iran–Iraq War Iran, Iraq 1980 1988 9 Al-Anfal Campaign and Invasion of Kuwait
500,000[52] 1,000,000[52] Rwandan genocide Rwanda 1994 1994 1 Tribal genocide.
500,000 1,000,000 Spanish Civil War Spain 1936 1939 4
400,000[53] 4,500,000[53] Korean War Korean Peninsula 1950 1953 4 Cold War
300,000[54] 1,500,000[55] Armenian Genocide Anatolia 1915 1923 8 Usually called the First Genocide of the 20th century. Despite recognition by some twenty one countries as a genocide, Turkey disputes genocide by the Ottoman Empire.
300,000[56] 1,200,000[57] Paraguayan War South America 1864 1870 7 Military history of South America and Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias
200,000[58] 1,000,000[58] Greek genocide Anatolia 1915 1923 8 Disputed by Turkey, but considered a genocide.
75,000[59][60] 130,000[59][60] Massacres of Poles by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army Volhyn and Eastern Galicia 1943 1944 1 Killings conducted by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army on Polish civilians.
26,000[61] 3,000,000[61] 1971 Bangladesh genocide East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) 1971 1971 1 Killings by the Pakistani Armed Forces in East Pakistan leading to the Bangladesh Liberation War and Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 Widely regarded as a genocide against Bengali people.

Deadly prisons and camps[edit]

Deaths Name Run by Location Date Notes, References
800,000–1,500,000 Auschwitz-Birkenau Nazi Germany Oświęcim, Poland 1940–1945 [62][63]
700,000–1,000,000 Treblinka Nazi Germany Treblinka, Poland 1942–1943 [64][65]
480,000–600,000 Bełżec Nazi Germany Bełżec, Poland 1942–1943 [66][67][68]
130,000–500,000 Kolyma Gulag Soviet Union Kolyma, Soviet Union 1932–1954 [69]
82,600-100,000 Jasenovac NDH Ustaše Croatia 1941–1945 [70][71][72]
12,790–75,000 Stara Gradiška NDH Ustaše Croatia 1941–1945 primarily for women and children[73][74]
17,000 Tuol Sleng Democratic Kampuchea Phnom Penh, Cambodia 1975–1979 [75]
13,171 Camp Sumter Confederate States of America Andersonville, Georgia, USA 1864–1865 [76]
12,000 Crveni Krst Nazi regime, Nedić's Serbia Niš, Serbia 1941 [77]
12,000 Gakovo Yugoslavia northern Serbia 1944 [78]
9,000–10,000 Omarska Bosnian Serb forces Omarska, Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992 [79][80]
2,963 Elmira Prison United States of America Elmira, New York, USA 1864–1865 [81]
>1,800 Krugersdorp United Kingdom Krugersdorp, Transvaal Republic c. 1900–1902 Second Boer War, primarily for women and children[82]

Famine[edit]

Main articles: Famine and List of famines

Note: Some of these famines were partially caused by nature.
This section includes famines that were caused or exacerbated by the policies or actions of the ruling regime.

Lowest estimate Highest estimate Event Location From To Notes
15,000,000[83] 55,000,000[84] Great Chinese Famine People's Republic of China 1958 1962 During the Great Leap Forward under Mao Zedong tens of millions of Chinese starved to death[85] and about the same number of births were lost or postponed.[86] State violence during this period further exacerbated the death toll, and some 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death in connection with Great Leap policies.[87]
5,000,000[88] 10,000,000[88] Russian famine of 1921 Soviet Russia 1921 1922 See also: Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union and Russian Civil War with its policy of War communism, especially prodrazvyorstka
4,000,000 4,000,000 Bengal famine of 1943 British India 1943 1943 The Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India's main supply of rice imports[89]

However, administrative policies in British India ultimately helped cause the massive death toll.[90]

2,400,000[91] 2,400,000 Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies Indonesia 1944 1945 An estimated 2.4 million Indonesians starved to death during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. The problem was partly caused by failures of the main 1944–45 rice crop, but mainly by the compulsory rice purchasing system that the Japanese authorities put in place to secure rice for distribution to the armed forces and urban population.[91]
800,000[92] 950,000[93] Cambodian Genocide Cambodia 1975 1979 An estimated 2 million Cambodians lost their lives to murder, forced labor and famine from the Cambodian Communist government, of which nearly half was caused by forced starvation. Came to an end due to invasion by Vietnam in 1979.
750,000[94][95] 1,500,000[96] Great Irish Famine[97] United Kingdom 1846 1849 Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland—where a third of the population was significantly dependent on the Irish Lumper potato for food—was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors which remain the subject of historical debate.[98][99]
400,000[100] 2,000,000[101] Vietnamese Famine of 1945 Vietnam 1944 1945 The Japanese occupation during World War II caused the famine in North Vietnam.[101]
400,000[102] 1,000,000[103] 1983–85 famine in Ethiopia Ethiopia 1983 1985 The famines that struck Ethiopia between 1961 and 1985, and in particular the one of 1983–5, were in large part created by government policies.[102]
70,000[104] 70,000 Sudan famine Sudan 1998 1998 The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan.[105]

Floods and landslides[edit]

Note: These floods and landslides will have been partially caused by humans, for example by failure of dams, levees, seawalls or retaining walls.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 2,500,000–3,700,000[106] 1931 China floods China 1931
2. 900,000–2,000,000 1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1887
3. 500,000–700,000 1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1938
4. 26,000[107]-230,000[108] The failure of 62 dams in Zhumadian Prefecture, Henan, the largest of which was Banqiao Dam, caused by Typhoon Nina. China August 1975
5. 145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935
6. more than 100,000 St. Felix's Flood, storm surge Netherlands 1530
7. 100,000 Hanoi and Red River Delta flood North Vietnam 1971
8. 100,000 1911 Yangtze river flood China 1911
9. 50,000–80,000 St. Lucia's flood, storm surge Netherlands, England 1287
10. 10,000–50,000 Vargas Tragedy, landslide Venezuela 1999
11. 2,400 North Sea flood, storm surge Netherlands, Scotland, England, Belgium 31 January 1953
12. 2,209 Johnstown Flood Pennsylvania 31 May 1889

Human sacrifice and ritual suicide[edit]

This section lists deaths from the systematic practice of human sacrifice or suicide. For notable individual episodes, see Human sacrifice and mass suicide.

Lowest estimate Highest estimate Description Group Location From To Notes
300,000[citation needed] 1,500,000[citation needed] Human sacrifice in Aztec culture Aztecs Mexico 14th century 1521 Up to 3,000 sacrificed yearly[109]
13,000[110] 13,100 Human sacrifice Shang dynasty China BC1300 BC1050 Last 250 years of rule
7,941[111] 7,941 Ritual suicides Sati Bengal, India 1815 1828
3,912 3,912 Kamikaze suicide pilots, see note [112] Imperial Japanese air forces Pacific theatre 1944 1945
913 913 Jonestown murder-suicide[113] Followers of The Peoples Temple cult Jonestown November 18, 1978 November 19, 1978
967 967 Mass suicide motivated religious and political. Judean rebels Masada spring 73

Other deadly events[edit]

Events with a large anthropogenic death toll not fitting any of the above classifications. May include deaths caused by famine, genocide, etc. as a portion of the total.

Lowest
estimate
Highest
estimate
Event Location From To Notes
49,000,000 78,000,000 Mao Zedong era 1949–1976 People's Republic of China 1949 1976 Millions of people died as a result of Mao Zedong's reforms,[114] with most of these deaths due to the Great Chinese Famine caused by mismanagement of agricultural resources during the Great Leap Forward. Millions more died as a result of human rights abuses. The total includes those who died during the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, the Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns, human rights abuses in Tibet, The Great Leap Forward (especially the resulting famine), and the Cultural Revolution. See also Mass killings under communist regimes.
8,000,000 61,000,000 Soviet crimes 1917–1953 Soviet Republics (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1953), the East and Center of Europe, Mongolia 1917 1953 War, forced collectivization, and poor central planning in the Soviet Republics and Soviet Union led to enormous famines in 1921, 1932–33, and 1946–47. Mass murders were also perpetrated by the Communist leaders of the Soviet Republics between 1917 and 1922 and later on in The Soviet Union during a period of 1922–1953 (until the death of Joseph Stalin). This includes terrors unleashed by Cheka during the Russian Civil War against nations and 'enemies of The Revolution',[115] deaths in Gulags,[116] forced resettlement,[117] Holodomor,[118] Dekulakization,[119] Great Purge,[120] National operations of the NKVD.[121] See also Mass killings under communist regimes.
5,000,000[122] 22,000,000[123] Crimes during Congo Free State 1885–1908 Now the Democratic Republic of the Congo 1885 1908 Private forces under the control of Leopold II of Belgium carried out mass murders, mutilations, and other crimes against the Congolese in order to encourage the gathering of valuable raw materials, principally rubber. Significant deaths also occurred due to major disease outbreaks and starvation, caused by population displacement and poor treatment.[124] Estimates of the death toll vary considerably because of the lack of a formal census before 1924, but a commonly cited figure of 10 million deaths was obtained by estimating a 50% decline in the total population during the Congo Free State and applying it to the total population of 10 million in 1924.[125]
175,000[126] 576,000[127] Sanctions against Iraq Iraq 1990 1998 Sanctions imposed by the United Nations Security Council caused excess deaths of young children.
100,000 2,000,000 Indonesian killings of 1965–1966 Indonesia 1965 1966 Massacres of people connected to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) were carried out in 1965 and 1966. Death tolls are difficult to estimate.[128]
100,000[129][130] 250,000[131][132] War in the Vendée France 1793 1796 Described as genocide by some historians[130] but this claim has been widely discounted.[133] See also French Revolution.
100,000 200,000 Bosnian genocide Bosnia 1992 1995 During the Bosnian War, at least 100,000 people were killed.
100,000[134] 120,000 Manila Massacre Manila, Philippines 1945 1945 During the Battle of Manila, at least 100,000 civilians were killed.
90,800 202,600 Indonesian occupation of East Timor East Timor 1974 1999 Civilian deaths under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, including killings, disappearances, and deaths caused by conflict-related hunger and illness.[135]
50,000 80,000[136] Operation Condor South America 1975 1983 A campaign of political repression by right-wing dictatorships in South America, sponsored by the United States
40,000[137] 350,000[138] Nanking Massacre Nanking, China 1937 1938 The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was a war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on 13 December 1937.
15,000 15,000[139] First Sack of Thessalonica Byzantine Empire 904 904 The sack of the second city of the Byzantine Empire by a Muslim fleet under the command of Leo of Tripoli. In addition to the thousands killed the Saracen fleet also took 20,000 Greek slaves.
10,000[140][141] 100,000[142][143] Great Fire of Smyrna Turkey September 9, 1922 September 24, 1922 Fires set during attacks on Greeks and Armenians by Turkish mobs and military forces in Smyrna at the end of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22). The violence and fires resulted in the destruction of the Greek and Armenian portions of the city and the evacuation of their former populations by British and American military forces. After the attacks 30,000 Greek and Armenian men left behind were deported by Turkish forces, many of whom were subsequently killed.
9,000[144] 30,000[145] Dirty War Argentina 1976 1983 At least 9,000 people were tortured and killed in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, carried out primarily by the Argentinean military Junta (part of Operation Condor).

See also[edit]

Other lists organized by death toll[edit]

Other lists with similar topics[edit]

Topics dealing with similar themes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ David Wallechinsky (1996-09-01). David Wallechinskys 20th Century: History With the Boring Parts Left Out. Little Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-92056-8. 
  2. ^ Fink, George: Stress of War, Conflict and Disaster
  3. ^ "BBC – History – Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  4. ^ The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907–1368, 1994, p.622, cited by White
  5. ^ Alan Macfarlane (1997-05-28). The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-18117-0. 
  6. ^ "Taiping Rebellion – Britannica Concise". Concise.britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  7. ^ "The Taiping Rebellion 1850–1871 Tai Ping Tian Guo". Taipingrebellion.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  8. ^ Livre noir du Communisme: crimes, terreur, répression, page 468
  9. ^ By Train to Shanghai: A Journey on the Trans-Siberian Railway By William J. Gingles page 259
  10. ^ Jun 11, 2009 (2009-06-11). "Asia Times Online :: China News, China Business News, Taiwan and Hong Kong News and Business". Atimes.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  11. ^ "Emergence Of Modern China: II. The Taiping Rebellion, 1851–64". 
  12. ^ Willmott 2003, p. 307
  13. ^ 1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics, CDC
  14. ^ a b "Timur Lenk (1369–1405)". Users.erols.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  15. ^ Matthew White (2011-11-07). The Great Big Book of Horrible Things: The Definitive Chronicle of History's 100 Worst Atrocities. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-08192-3. 
  16. ^ "Death toll figures of recorded wars in human history". 
  17. ^ Mike Davis (2001). Late Victorian Holocausts: El Ni鋘o Famines and the Making of the Third World. Verso Books. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-85984-739-8. 
  18. ^ Jacques Gernet (1996-05-31). A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-49712-1. 
  19. ^ "Russian Civil War". Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  20. ^ "Reitlinger, The Final Solution (1953) cited by White". Necrometrics.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  21. ^ Donald L. Niewyk; Francis R. Nicosia (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-231-11200-0. 
  22. ^ [1][dead link]
  23. ^ "Holocaust Museum 11 million". .sptimes.com. Retrieved 2014-02-28. 
  24. ^ Charles Esdaile "Napoleon's Wars: An International History."
  25. ^ "The Thirty Years War (1618–48)". Users.erols.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  26. ^ a b Jan Wróbel, Odnaleźć przeszłość 1 (2002)"Odnaleźć przeszłość 1". 
  27. ^ a b "Mankind's Worst Wars and Armed Conflicts". Retrieved December 7, 2010. 
  28. ^ Bethany Lacina and Nils Petter Gleditsch, "Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths, European Journal of Population" (2005) 21: 145–166.
  29. ^ "Congo war-driven crisis kills 45,000 a month-study"Reuters, 22 Jan 2008.
  30. ^ Jacques Vallin, France Mesle, Serguei Adamets, Serhii Pyrozhkov, A New Estimate of Ukrainian Population Losses during the Crises of the 1930s and 1940s, Population Studies, Vol. 56, No. 3. (Nov. 2002), pp. 249–264
  31. ^ France Meslé, Gilles Pison, Jacques Vallin France-Ukraine: Demographic Twins Separated by History, Population and societies, N°413, juin 2005
  32. ^ France Meslé; Jacques Vallin (2003). Mortalité et causes de décès en Ukraine au XXe siècle: la crise sanitaire dans les pays de l'ex-URSS. Ined. ISBN 978-2-7332-0152-7. 
  33. ^ – "The famine of 1932–33", Encyclopædia Britannica. Quote: "The Great Famine (Holodomor) of 1932–33—a man-made demographic catastrophe unprecedented in peacetime. Of the estimated six to eight million people who died in the Soviet Union, about four to five million were Ukrainians... Its deliberate nature is underscored by the fact that no physical basis for famine existed in Ukraine... Soviet authorities set requisition quotas for Ukraine at an impossibly high level. Brigades of special agents were dispatched to Ukraine to assist in procurement, and homes were routinely searched and foodstuffs confiscated... The rural population was left with insufficient food to feed itself."
  34. ^ Philip Pregill. Landscapes in History. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-29328-6. 
  35. ^ Frederic Baumgartner. France in the Sixteenth Century. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-15856-9. 
  36. ^ Rummel, R.J. Death by Government, Chapter 3: Pre-Twentieth Century Democide
  37. ^ Stannard, David E. (1993). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-19-508557-0. "In the 1940s and 1950s conventional wisdom held that the population of the entire hemisphere in 1492 was little more than 8,000,000—with fewer than 1,000,000 people living in the region north of present-day Mexico. Today, few serious students of the subject would put the hemispheric figure at less than 75,000,000 to 100,000,000 (with approximately 8,000,000 to 12,000,000 north of Mexico)." 
  38. ^ "Huguenot Religious Wars, Catholic vs. Huguenot (1562–1598)". Users.erols.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  39. ^ "Shaka: Zulu Chieftain". Historynet.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  40. ^ a b c d "Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century". Necrometrics.com. Retrieved September 24, 2012. 
  41. ^ a b Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia." In Forced Migration and Mortality, eds. Holly E. Reed and Charles B. Keely. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
  42. ^ John Shertzer Hittell, "A Brief History of Culture" (1874) p.137: "In the two centuries of this warfare one million persons had been slain..." cited by White
  43. ^ Robertson, John M., "A Short History of Christianity" (1902) p.278. Cited by White
  44. ^ Sudan: Nearly 2 million dead as a result of the world's longest running civil war at the Wayback Machine (archived December 10, 2004), U.S. Committee for Refugees, 2001. Archived 10 December 2004 on the Internet Archive. Accessed 10 April 2007
  45. ^ Charles Hirschman et al., "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate," Population and Development Review, December 1995.
  46. ^ Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 
  47. ^ Christoph Bergner, Secretary of State in Germany's Bureau for Inner Affairs, Deutschlandfunk, November 29, 2006,[2]
  48. ^ Hermann Kinder; Werner Hilgemann (1978). The Anchor atlas of world history. Anchor Books. p. 221. 
  49. ^ a b Buchenau, Jürgen (2005). Mexico otherwise: modern Mexico in the eyes of foreign observers. UNM Press. p. 285. ISBN 0-8263-2313-8. 
  50. ^ "The Iran-Iraq War". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  51. ^ Roger Hardy (22 September 2005). "The Iran-Iraq War: 25 years on". BBC News. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  52. ^ a b See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, April 1, 2004, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), page 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000. 7 out of 10 Tutsis were killed.
  53. ^ a b Rummel, R.J., Statistics Of North Korean Democide: Estimates, Calculations, And Sources, Statistics of Democide, 1997.
  54. ^ Kamuran Gürün: Ermeni Soykirmi. 3rd Volume, Ankara 1985, p. 227
  55. ^ French in Armenia 'massacre' row BBC
  56. ^ Jurg Meister, Francisco Solano López Nationalheld oder Kriegsverbrecher?, Osnabrück: Biblio Verlag, 1987. 345, 355, 454–5
  57. ^ Another estimate is that from the pre-war population of 1,337,437, the population fell to 221,709 (28,746 men, 106,254 women, 86,079 children) by the end of the war (War and the Breed, David Starr Jordan, p. 164. Boston, 1915; Applied Genetics, Paul Popenoe, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1918)
  58. ^ a b Henry Morgenthau, Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, Doubleday, Page & Company, Garden City, New York, 1919.
  59. ^ a b Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia
  60. ^ a b Rzeź wołyńska (pl)
  61. ^ a b While the official Pakistani government report estimated that the Pakistani army was responsible for 26,000 killings in total, other sources have proposed various estimates ranging between 200,000 and 3 million
    Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report, chapter 2, paragraph 33 (official 1974 Pakistani report).White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the 20th Century: Bangladesh". Users.erols.com.  "History: The Bangali Genocide, 1971". Virtualbangladesh.com. 
  62. ^ Wellers, Georges. Essai de determination du nombre de morts au camp d'Auschwitz (attempt to determine the number of dead at the Auschwitz camp), Le Monde Juif, Oct–Dec 1983, pp. 127–159
  63. ^ Brian Harmon, John Drobnicki, Historical sources and the Auschwitz death toll estimates
  64. ^ "Operation Reinhard: Treblinka Deportations". Nizkor.org. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  65. ^ Encyclopedia Americana
  66. ^ Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas, A New Document on the Deportation and Murder of Jews during "Einsatz Reinhardt" 1942, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Vol. 15, No. 3, Winter 2001, ISBN 0-19-922506-0
  67. ^ Raul Hilberg (2003). The Destruction of the European Jews: Third Edition. ISBN 978-0-300-09557-9. 
  68. ^ Yitzhak Arad, Bełżec, Sobibor, Treblinka. The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987, NCR 0-253-34293-7
  69. ^ Ludwik Kowalski: Alaska notes on Stalinism Retrieved 18 January 2007. Case Study: Stalin's Purges from Genderside Watch. Retrieved 19 January 2007. George Bien, Gulag Survivor in the Boston Globe, June 22, 2005, Kolyma
  70. ^ "Jewish virtual library". Jewish virtual library. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  71. ^ "Croatian holocaust still stirs controversy". BBC News. 2001-11-29. Retrieved 2010-09-29. 
  72. ^ "Balkan 'Auschwitz' haunts Croatia". BBC News. 2005-04-25. Retrieved 2010-09-29. "No one really knows how many died here. Serbs talk of 700,000. Most estimates put the figure nearer 100,000." 
  73. ^ Jelka Smreka. "STARA GRADIŠKA Ustaški koncentracijski logor". Spomen područja Jasenovac. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 
  74. ^ Davor Kovačić (2004). "Iskapanja na prostoru koncentracijskog logora Stara Gradiška i procjena broj žrtava". Retrieved 2010-08-25. 
  75. ^ A History of Democratic Kampuchea (1975–1979). Documentation Center of Cambodia. p. 74. ISBN 99950-60-04-3. 
  76. ^ The Andersonville Prison Trial: The Trial of Captain Henry Wirz, by General N.P. Chipman, 1911.
  77. ^ "On the killing of Roma in World War II". Mrc.org.rs. 2013-03-13. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  78. ^ Razprave in gradivo, Volume 55. Institut za Narodnostna Vprašanja. 2008. 
  79. ^ "The Unindicted: Reaping the Rewards of "Ethnic Cleansing" in Prijedor". Human Rights Watch. 1997-01-01. 
  80. ^ "Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team report". 
  81. ^ Horigan, Michael (2002). Death Camp of the North: The Elmira Civil War Prison Camp. Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-1432-2. 
  82. ^ Walker, DR (2011-09-20). "Burgershoop cemetery and concentration camp in Krugersdorp.". The All at Sea Network. Retrieved 2011-12-21. 
  83. ^ Stéphane Courtois; Mark Kramer (1999-10-15). Livre Noir Du Communisme: Crimes, Terreur, Répression. ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2. 
  84. ^ Wemheuer, Felix (July 2011). "Sites of horror: Mao's Great Famine [with response]". The China Journal (66): 155–164. JSTOR 41262812.  on p.163 Frank Dikötter, in his response, quotes Yu Xiguang's figure of 55 million
  85. ^ Becker, Jasper (1998). Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine. Holt Paperbacks p.xi.
  86. ^ "China's great famine: 40 years later". British Medical Journal 1999;319:1619–1621 (18 December)
  87. ^ Dikötter, Frank. Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958–62. Walker & Company, 2010. p. 298.
  88. ^ a b "How the U.S. saved a starving Soviet Russia: PBS film highlights Stanford scholar's research on the 1921–23 famine". Stanford University. April 4, 2011.
  89. ^ Nicholas Tarling (Ed.) The Cambridge History of SouthEast Asia Vol.II Part 1 pp139-40
  90. ^ Madhusree Mukerjee, Churchill’s Secret War: The British Empire and the Ravaging of India During World War II. See also Book review: Churchill's secret war in India by Susannah York
  91. ^ a b Van der Eng, Pierre (2008) ‘Food Supply in Java during War and Decolonisation, 1940–1950.’ MPRA Paper No. 8852, pp.35–38. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/8852/
  92. ^ Bruce Sharp (2008), Counting Hell 2.Ben Kiernan, paragraph 3. Mekong.
  93. ^ Marek Sliwinski (1995), Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique, L'Harmattan, p. 82.
  94. ^ Foster, R.F. 'Modern Ireland 1600–1972'. Penguin Press, 1988. p324. Foster's footnote reads: "Based on hitherto unpublished work by C. Ó Gráda and Phelim Hughes, 'Fertility trends, excess mortality and the Great Irish Famine'...Also see C.Ó Gráda and Joel Mokyr, 'New developments in Irish Population History 1700–1850', Economic History Review, vol. xxxvii, no.4 (November 1984), pp. 473–488."
  95. ^ Joseph Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Society p. 1. Lee says 'at least 800,000'.
  96. ^ Vaughan, W.E. and Fitzpatrick, A.J.(eds). Irish Historical Statistics, Population, 1821/1971. Royal Irish Academy, 1978
  97. ^ The Great Irish Famine Approved by the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on 10 September 1996, for inclusion in the Holocaust and Genocide Curriculum at the secondary level. Revision submitted 11/26/98.
  98. ^ Cecil Woodham-Smith (1991). The great hunger: Ireland 1845–1849. Penguin Books. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-14-014515-1. 
  99. ^ Dr Christine Kinealy (2006). This Great Calamity: The Irish Famine, 1845–52. ISBN 978-0-7171-4011-4. 
  100. ^ Charles Hirschman et al. "Vietnamese Casualties During the American War: A New Estimate". Population and Development Review (December 1995).
  101. ^ a b Koh, David (21 August 2008). "Vietnam needs to remember famine of 1945". The Straits Times (Singapore). Retrieved 25 January 2010. 
  102. ^ a b de Waal, Alex (2002) [1997]. Famine Crimes: Politics & the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Oxford: James Currey. ISBN 0-85255-810-4. 
  103. ^ "Flashback 1984: Portrait of a famine". BBC News. April 6, 2000.
  104. ^ Ó Gráda, Cormac (2009), Famine: a short history, Princeton University Press, p. 24, ISBN 978-0-691-12237-3. 
  105. ^ Despite aid effort, Sudan famine squeezing life from dozens daily CNN, Accessed May 25, 2006
  106. ^ "Worst Natural Disasters In History". Nbc10.com. Retrieved 2010-08-11. 
  107. ^ Dai Qing (1998). The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China's Yangtze River and Its People. M.E. Sharpe. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7656-0206-0. 
  108. ^ 230,000 is the highest of a range of unofficial estimates, including also deaths of ensuing epidemics and famine, in Yi 1998
  109. ^ "The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice", by Michael Harner. Natural History, April 1977, Vol. 86, No. 4, pages 46–51.
  110. ^ National Geographic, July 2003, cited by White
  111. ^ Sakuntala Narasimhan, Sati: widow burning in India, quoted by Matthew White, "Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century", p.2 (July 2005), Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (self-published, 1998–2005).
  112. ^ This toll is only for the number of Japanese pilots killed in Kamikaze suicide missions. It does not include the number of enemy combatants killed by such missions, which is estimated to be around 4,000. Kamikaze pilots are estimated to have sunk or damaged beyond repair some 70 to 80 allied ships, representing about 80% of allied shipping losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific (see Kamikaze).
  113. ^ The largest single loss of American civilian life in a deliberate act until the September 11, 2001 attacks.
  114. ^ "Did Mao Really Kill Millions in the Great Leap Forward?". Maoists.org. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  115. ^ Andrew and Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield, paperback ed., Basic books, 1999.
  116. ^ Steven Rosefielde (2010-02-15). Red Holocaust. Taylor & Francis. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-415-77757-5. 
  117. ^ Павел Полян, Не по своей воле... (Pavel Polian, Against Their Will... A History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR), ОГИ Мемориал, Moscow, 2001
  118. ^ С. Уиткрофт (Stephen G. Wheatcroft), "О демографических свидетельствах трагедии советской деревни в 1931—1933 гг.
  119. ^ Lynne Viola The Unknown Gulag. The Lost World of Stalin's Special Settlements Oxford University Press 2007,
  120. ^ Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments by Michael Ellman, 2002
  121. ^ Vadim Rogovin "The Party of the Executed"
  122. ^ Forbath, Peter. The River Congo: The Discovery, Exploration, and Exploitation of the World's Most Dramatic River, 1991 (Paperback). Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-122490-1. 
  123. ^ R. J. Rummel Exemplifying the Horror of European Colonization:Leopold's Congo"
  124. ^ p.226-232, Hochschild, Adam (1999), King Leopold's Ghost, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, ISBN 0-547-52573-7
  125. ^ Hochschild p.226–232.
  126. ^ Crossette, Barbara. Iraq Sanctions Kill Children, U.N. Reports=1999. 
  127. ^ Garfield, Richard (1999). Morbidity and Mortality Among Iraqi Children from 1990 Through 1998: Assessing the Impact of the Gulf War and Economic Sanctions. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  128. ^ Cribb, Robert (2002). "Unresolved Problems in the Indonesian Killings of 1965–1966". Asian Survey 42 (4): 550–563. doi:10.1525/as.2002.42.4.550. 
  129. ^ Donald Greer, The Terror, a Statistical Interpretation, Cambridge (1935)
  130. ^ a b Reynald Secher, La Vendée-Vengé, le Génocide franco-français (1986)
  131. ^ Jean-Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France, Éditions du Seuil, collection Points, 1987 he gives the highest estimate of the civil war, including republican losses and premature death. However, he does not consider it as a genocide.
  132. ^ Jacques Hussenet (dir.), « Détruisez la Vendée ! » Regards croisés sur les victimes et destructions de la guerre de Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon, Centre vendéen de recherches historiques, 2007, p.148.
  133. ^ Gough, Hugh (December 1987). "Genocide and the Bicentenary: The French Revolution and the Revenge of the Vendee". The Historical Journal 30 (4). JSTOR 2639130. 
  134. ^ White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century". Users.erols.com. 
  135. ^ "Conflict-related deaths in Timor-Leste 1974–1999". Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor. Retrieved 29 December 2013. 
  136. ^ "Background on Chile". The Center for Justice & Accountability. Retrieved 9 July 2013. 
  137. ^ Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi; Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi (2008). The Naking Atrocity: 1937–38. Berghahn Books. p. 362. ISBN 1-84545-180-5. 
  138. ^ Iris Chang (1997). The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. Basic Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7867-2760-5. 
  139. ^ Warren T. Treadgold (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. p. 572. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2. 
  140. ^ Biondich, Mark. The Balkans: Revolution, War, and Political Violence Since 1878. Oxford University Press, 2011. p. 92 [3]
  141. ^ Naimark, Norman M. Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press, 2002, p. 52.
  142. ^ Rudolph J. Rummel, Irving Louis Horowitz (1994). "Turkey's Genocidal Purges". Death by Government. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-56000-927-6. , p. 233.
  143. ^ Naimark. Fires of Hatred, pp. 47–52.
  144. ^ Phil Gunson (2009-04-02). "The Guardian, Thursday 2 April 2009". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 
  145. ^ PBS News Hour, 16 Oct. 1997, et al. Argentina Death Toll, Twentieth Century Atlas

External links[edit]