List of wars involving Poland

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This is a chronological list of military conflicts in which Polish armed forces participated or took place on Polish territory. From the reign of Mieszko I (960–992) to the ongoing military operations.

This list does not include peacekeeping operations (such as UNPROFOR, UNTAES or UNMOP), humanitarian missions or training missions supported by the Polish Armed Forces.

The list gives the name, the date, the Polish allies and enemies, and the result of these conflicts following this legend:

      Polish victory
      Polish defeat
      Another result (e.g., a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result unknown or indecisive)
      Ongoing conflict

Piast Poland[edit]

During the Middle Ages, Poland sought to incorporate other Slavic peoples under the rule of the Polan dukes, such as Mieszko I, Boleslaw I Chrobry and their descendants, and then defend the lands acquired in the west from the Holy Roman Empire. In the east and south it struggled with Ruthenia, Bohemia and Hungary, and Tatar raiders. In the north-east, it encountered intermittent Lithuanian and Prussian raids.

Date Conflict Allies Enemies Result
964–972
  • 967
  • 972
Fights of Mieszko I in Western Pomerania POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland Veleti
Wolinians
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Sorbian March
Polish victory
979 Otto II's raid on Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire Polish victory
981 Polish raid on Pomerelia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland Pomerelia Polish victory
981 Rus raid on Czerwień Towns POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus' Polish defeat
985 Polish-Saxon invasion of Veleti POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire
Veleti Polish and Saxon victory
988–990 Polish-Bohemian War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire
Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
992 Polish-German invasion of Veleti POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire
Veleti Polish and German victory
995 Polish-German invasion of Obotrites POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire
Obotrites Polish and German victory
1002–1018
  • 1002–1005
    • 1005
  • 1007–1015
    • 1012
  • 1015–1018
    • 1015
    • 1015
    • 1015
    • 1015/17
    • 1015
    • 1015
    • 1017
Wars against Holy Roman Empire POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland
Moravians
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire
Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia
Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus'
Veleti
Peace of Bautzen
1015–1016 Cnut the Great's Conquest of England[1] COA of Denmark.svg Kingdom of Denmark
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland
Flag of England.svg Kingdom of England Danish victory
1015–1019
  • 1018
Boleslaw I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire
Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1022 Yaroslav the Wise's attack on Brest POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Duchy of Poland Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1028–1031
  • 1029
Polish-German War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Mieszko II Lambert
Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Bezprym
Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia
Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus'
Polish defeat
1031–1032 Pagan reaction in Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Bezprym Pagans and magnates Defeat of Bezprym
1034–1047
  • 1047
Pagan reaction and popular uprising POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Casimir I the Restorer
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire
Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus'
Miecław
Pagans and magnats
Casimir I the Restorer's victory
1038–1039 Bretislaus I's raid on Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia Polish defeat
1042 Casimir I the Restorer's raid on Lesser Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1047 Casimir I the Restorer's raid on Silesia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1050 Casimir I the Restorer's raid on Silesia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1051 Polish-German invasion of Hungary POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire
Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Kingdom of Hungary Polish-German victory
1060 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Bohemia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia Polish defeat
1060 Fights for the Hungarian throne Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Béla I
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Andrew I Béla I's victory
1063 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Pomerelia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Pomerelia Polish victory
1064 Pomeranians raid on Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Pomeranians Polish victory
1069 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Rus' POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1072 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Bohemia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1074 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Rus' POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1076 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Bohemia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus'
Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1077 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Hungary POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Kingdom of Hungary Polish victory
1077 Bolesław II the Generous's raid on Rus' POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus' Polish victory
1077–1079 Internal conflicts POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Bolesław II the Generous Rebels and magnats Bolesław II the Generous's defeat
1086 Hungarian raid on Kraków POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Kingdom of Hungary Polish defeat
1090–1092
  • 1090
  • 1091
  • 1091
Four raids on Western Pomerania POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia
Western Pomerania Polish defeat
1092 Ruthenian and Cuman raid on Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus' Polish defeat
1093–1100
  • 1096
Władysław Herman and Sieciech's fight against Zbigniew and Bolesław POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Władysław I Herman
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Sieciech
Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Zbigniew of Poland
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Bolesław III Wrymouth
Władysław and Sieciech's defeat
1099 Władysław I Herman'a raid on Halych POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Alex K Halych 2.svg Principality of Halych Indecisive
1100 Pomeranians raid on Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Western Pomerania Polish victory
1101 Cuman raid on Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus' Polish defeat
1103–1123
  • 1121
Fourteen Bolesław Wrymouth's raids on Pomerania POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
COA of Denmark.svg Kingdom of Denmark
Pomeranians Polish victory
1103–1108 Internal conflicts POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Bolesław III Wrymouth
Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus'
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Zbigniew of Poland
Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia
Bolesław III Wrymouth's victory
1108 Bolesław III Wrymouth's raid on Old Prussians POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Old Prussians Polish victory
1108–1109 Three Pomeranians raids on Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Western Pomerania Polish victory
1108 Moravians raid on Silesia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1108 Bolesław III Wrymouth's raid on Bohemia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1109 Polish-German War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire
Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia
Polish victory
1109–1114
  • 1110
Three Bolesław III Wrymouth's raids on Bohemia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia Polish victory
1110 Zbigniew's and Bohemians raid on Silesia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia Polish defeat
1110–1111 Bolesław III Wrymouth's raid on Old Prussians POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Old Prussians Polish victory
1117 Skarbimir's rebellion POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Herb Abdank.svg Skarbimir Polish victory
1121–1124
  • 1124
Fights in Rus' POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus'
Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia
Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Alex K Halych 2.svg Principality of Halych Polish victory
1120 Ruthenian and Cuman raid on Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus' Polish defeat
1126 Hungarian raid on Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Kingdom of Hungary Polish defeat
1127 Polish raid on Hungary POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Kingdom of Hungary Polish victory
1131–1134 Six Bohemian raids on Silesia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia Polish defeat
1132 Bolesław III Wrymouth' raid on Hungary POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Kingdom of Hungary Polish defeat
1135 Fights in Rus' POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Alex K Halych 2.svg Principality of Halych Polish victory
1144–1320
  • 1144
  • 1146
  • 1195
  • 1228
  • 1228
  • 1228
  • 1243
  • 1243
  • 1246
  • 1259
  • 1273
  • 1277
  • 1285
  • 1288
  • 1289
  • 1292
  • 1313
Battles during feudal fragmentation POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Local dukes POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Local dukes The weakening and internal breakdown of the country
1139–1142 Fights between Duchy of Masovia and Rus' Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg Bolesław IV the Curly Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus' Bolesław IV the Curly's defeat
1144–1146 Two Polish-Ruthenian raids on Halych POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Władysław II the Exile
Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus'
Alex K Halych 2.svg Principality of Halych Ruthenian and Polish victory
1146 Polish-German War POL województwo wielkopolskie COA.svg Mieszko III the Old Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire
Přemyslovci erb.svg Duchy of Bohemia
Mieszko III the Old's victory
1147 Albert the Bear and Mieszko III the Old's crusade for Polabian Slavs POL województwo wielkopolskie COA.svg Mieszko III the Old
Northern March
Polabian Slavs
Veleti
The victory crusade
1147 Bolesław IV the Curly's raid on Old Prussians POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Bolesław IV the Curly
Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus'
Old Prussians Bolesław IV the Curly's victory
1154–1155 Henry of Sandomir's crusade to Palestine POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Polish knights IslamSymbol.svg Saracen Henry of Sandomir's victory
1157 Polish-German War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Bolesław IV the Curly Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire Peace of Krzyszkowo
1166 Bolesław IV the Curly's raid on Old Prussians POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Bolesław IV the Curly Old Prussians Bolesław IV the Curly's defeat
1180 Duke Wasylek's fight for Brześć Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Principality of Drohiczyn
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Casimir II the Just
Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus' Casimir II the Just's victory
1182–1183
  • 1182
Casimir II the Just's fight for Brześć POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Casimir II the Just Alex K Kievan Rus..svg Kievan Rus' Casimir II the Just's victory
1184 Frederick I Barbarossa's raid on Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Casimir II the Just Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Holy Roman Empire Indecisive
1187 Ruthenian raid on Lesser Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Casimir II the Just Alex K Halych 2.svg Principality of Halych Casimir II the Just's defeat
1189 Casimir II the Just's raid on Halych POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Casimir II the Just Coa Hungary Country History Bela III (1172-1196).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Alex K Halych 2.svg Principality of Halych
Casimir II the Just's victory
1194 Casimir II the Just's raid on Yotvingians POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Casimir II the Just Yotvingians Casimir II the Just's victory
1199 Leszek I the White's raid on Halych POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Leszek I the White Alex K Halych 2.svg Principality of Halych Leszek I the White's victory
1205 Roman the Great's raid on Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Leszek I the White Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek I the White's victory
1207 Leszek I the White's raid on Rus' POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Leszek I the White
Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg Konrad I of Masovia
Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek I the White's victory
1209–1211
  • 1209
First War For Lebus POL województwo dolnośląskie COA.svg Henry I the Bearded
POL województwo wielkopolskie COA.svg Władysław III Spindleshanks
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg Sorbian March Henry I the Bearded and Władysław III Spindleshanks's victory
1214 Leszek I the White's raid on Volodymyr-Volynskyi POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Leszek I the White
Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek I the White's victory
1215 Hungarian raid on Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Casimir II the Just Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Kingdom of Hungary Casimir II the Just's defeat
1218–1221 Polish-Hungarian-Ruthenian War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Leszek I the White
Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek I the White's defeat
1219–1222
  • 1220
Three Old Prussians raids on Lesser Poland Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg Konrad I of Masovia Old Prussians Konrad I of Masovia's defeat
1222–1223 Two polish raids on Old Prussians POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Lokal dukes Old Prussians Polish defeat
1225 Prussian raid on Lesser Poland Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg Konrad I of Masovia Old Prussians Konrad I of Masovia's defeat
1225–1230 Second War For Lebus POL województwo dolnośląskie COA.svg Henry I the Bearded Vollwappen Wettiner Landgraf Albrecht 1265.png Landgraviate of Thuringia Henry I the Bearded's victory
1234 Polish-Teutonic crusade on Old Prussians POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Lokal dukes
Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights
Old Prussians Polish-Teutonic victory
1236–1237
  • 1236
Wars between Konrad I of Masovia and Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg Konrad I of Masovia Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Konrad I of Masovia's defeat
1238–1240
  • 1239
Third War For Lebus POL województwo dolnośląskie COA.svg Henry I the Bearded Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Margraviate of Brandenburg Henry I the Bearded's victory
1241 First Mongol invasion of Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Lokal dukes
Christian cross.svg Military orders
Mongol Empire Polish defeat
1247–1252 Przemysł I's fight against Brandenburg POL województwo wielkopolskie COA.svg Przemysł I Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Margraviate of Brandenburg Przemysł I's victory
1248–1455 Three raids on Yotvingians POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Bolesław V the Chaste
Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg Siemowit I of Masovia
Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Yotvingians Bolesław V the Chaste's victory
1259 Second Mongol invasion of Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Bolesław V the Chaste Mongol Empire Polish defeat
1260 Bohemian-Hungarian War Small coat of arms of the Czech Republic.svg Kingdom of Bohemia
POL województwo dolnośląskie COA.svg Duchy of Silesia
Austria coat of arms simple.svg Duchy of Austria
Flag of Hungary (11th c. - 1301).svg Kingdom of Hungary
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Bohemian victory
1262 Lithuanian raid on Lesser Poland Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg Siemowit I of Masovia Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania Siemowit I of Masovia's defeat
1264 Fights against Yotvingians POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Bolesław V the Chaste Yotvingians Bolesław V the Chaste's victory
1265–1278
  • 1278
Fights against Brandenburg POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Bolesław V the Chaste
POL województwo wielkopolskie COA.svg Przemysł II
Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Margraviate of Brandenburg Bolesław V the Chaste's victory
1278 Fights for Bohemian throne Small coat of arms of the Czech Republic.svg Ottokar II of Bohemia
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Bolesław V the Chaste
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Przemysł II
POL województwo dolnośląskie COA.svg Henryk IV Probus
Counts of Habsburg Arms.svg Rudolph I of Germany Przemysł II's defeat
1280 War between Leszek II the Black and Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Leszek II the Black Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Leszek II the Black's victory
1282–1283
  • 1282
  • 1282
Three Lithuanian-Yotvingian raids on Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Leszek II the Black Yotvingians
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Leszek II the Black's victory
1287–1288
  • 1287
  • 1287
  • 1288
Third Mongol invasion of Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Leszek II the Black Mongol Empire Indecisive
1291–1306
  • 1294
Six Vytenis's raids on Lesser Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Lokal dukes Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania Polish defeat
1296 Brandenburgian raid on Rogoźno POL województwo wielkopolskie COA.svg Przemysł II Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Margraviate of Brandenburg Przemysł II's defeat
1308 Brandenburgian raid on Gdańsk POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Władysław I the Elbow-high Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Margraviate of Brandenburg Władysław I the Elbow-high's defeat
1308 Capture of Gdańsk by the Teutonic Knights POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Władysław I the Elbow-high Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights Władysław I the Elbow-high's defeat
1309 Capture of Świecie by the Teutonic Knights POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Władysław I the Elbow-high Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights Władysław I the Elbow-high's defeat
1311–1312 Rebellion of mayor Albert POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Władysław I the Elbow-high Albert
Burghers of Kraków
Władysław I the Elbow-high's victory
1316 Polish-Brandenburgian fights in Greater Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Władysław I the Elbow-high Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Margraviate of Brandenburg Władysław I the Elbow-high's victory
1323 Polish-Hungarian raid on Ruthenia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia Polish-Hungarian victory
1323 Władysław I the Elbow-high raid on Płock POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland POL księstwo płockie COA.svg Duchy of Płock Polish victory
1326–1329 Polish-Brandenburgian fights POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Margraviate of Brandenburg Polish victory
1326–1332
  • 1327
  • 1327
  • 1331
  • 1331
  • 1331
  • 1331
  • 1332
Polish–Teutonic War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights
Small coat of arms of the Czech Republic2.png Kingdom of Bohemia
Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg Duchy of Masovia
Indecisive
1332 Casimir III the Great's raid on Głogów POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland POL księstwo jaworskie COA.svg Duchy of Głogów Polish victory
1340–1392
  • 1340
  • 1340
  • 1341
  • 1350
  • 1368
  • 1376
Galicia–Volhynia Wars POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg Duchy of Masovia
Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Gerae-tamga.svg Crimean Khanate
Polish victory
1343 Fights for Wschowa POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland POL księstwo jaworskie COA.svg Duchy of Głogów Polish victory
1345–1348
  • 1345
  • 1345
  • 1345
Polish-Czech War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Small coat of arms of the Czech Republic.svg Kingdom of Bohemia Treaty of Namslau
1352–1358 Maćko Borkowic's confederation POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland POL województwo wielkopolskie COA.svg Maćko Borkowic
Nobles of Greater Poland
Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Margraviate of Brandenburg
Polish victory
1355 Teutonic raid on Masovia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg Duchy of Masovia
Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights Polish defeat
1359 Casimir III the Great's raid on Moldavia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Coat of arms of Moldavia.svg Principality of Moldavia Polish defeat
1368 Casimir III the Great's raid on Moldavia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Coat of arms of Moldavia.svg Principality of Moldavia Polish defeat
1370 Branderburgian raid on Santok and Drezdenko POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Margraviate of Brandenburg Polish defeat
1370 Fights for Płock POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg Duchy of Masovia Polish defeat
1375–1376
  • 1375
  • 1376
Fights against Władysław the White POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland POL Gniewkowo COA.svg Władysław the White Polish victory
1382–1385 Greater Poland Civil War Herb Grzymala.jpg Grzymała POL COA Nałęcz.svg Nałęcz Victory of the Nałęcz clan
1381–1385 Siemowit IV's fight for Polish throne POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg Duchy of Masovia Polish victory

Jagiellon Poland[edit]

For much of its early history as a Christian state, Poland had to contend with Pomeranians, Prussians, Lithuanians and other Baltic peoples in continuous border wars without clear results or end in sight. After the Teutonic Order conquered and assimilated the Prussians, it began incursions into both Polish and Lithuanian territories. This represented a far greater threat to both Poland and Lithuania, and the two countries united in a defensive alliance by the crowning of the Lithuanian Duke Jogaila as King of Poland (as Władysław II) which led to a major confrontation at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 and subsequent wars until 1525, when the Order became a vassal to the Polish Crown.

Date Conflict Allies Enemies Result
1387 Jadwiga of Poland's raid on Red Ruthenia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary Polish victory
1390–1392 Lithuanian Civil War Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Jogaila
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Vytautas
Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights
Jogaila's victory
1391 Fights against Konrad II the Gray for Wschowa POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Oels Polish victory
1391–1401 War against Władysław Opolczyk POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland POL województwo opolskie COA.svg Duchy of Opole Polish victory
1399 Fights against Golden Horde Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights
Coat of arms of Moldavia.svg Principality of Moldavia
Golden Horde flag 1339.svg Golden Horde Polish and Lithuanian defeat
1409–1411
  • 1410
  • 1410
Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War[2] POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights
Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary
First Peace of Thorn
1414 Hunger War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights Council of Constance
1422 Gollub War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coat of arms of Moldavia.svg Principality of Moldavia
Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights Treaty of Melno
1431–1435/39
  • 1431
  • 1431
  • 1435
Polish–Teutonic War Small coat of arms of the Czech Republic2.png Hussites
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Sigismund Kęstutaitis
Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Švitrigaila
Peace of Brześć Kujawski
1438 Polish-Bohemian fights for Silesia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Small coat of arms of the Czech Republic2.png Kingdom of Bohemia
Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Polish and Lithuanian defeat
1438 Tatar raid on Podolia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1439 Spytek of Melsztyn's confederation POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland POL COA Leliwa.svg Spytek of Melsztyn Crushing of the confederation
1440–1444 Lithuanian-Masovian War for Podlasie Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg Duchy of Masovia Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania Indecisive
1440–1442 Civil War in Hungary Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Władysław III of Poland
POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Elizabeth of Luxembourg Władysław III's victory
1443–1444
  • 1443–1444
  • 1444
Crusade of Varna POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary
others
 Ottoman Empire Polish-Hungarian defeat
1449–1450 Fights for Moldavian throne POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Moldavia.svg Aleksander II of Moldavia
Coat of arms of Moldavia.svg Bogdan II of Moldavia Aleksander II's defeat
1450–1454 Fights of Land of Oświęcim POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Duchy of Toszek Polish victory
1453 Tatar raid on Podolia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish victory
1454–1466
  • 1454
Thirteen Years' War[3] POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Prussian Confederation
Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights
Zakon Kawalerów Mieczowych COA.svg Livonian Brothers of the Sword
COA of Denmark.svg Kingdom of Denmark
Second Peace of Thorn
1457–1458 Rebellion of unpaid mercenaries POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland COA fo Duchy of Auschwitz.PNG Duchy of Oświęcim
Mercenaries
Payment of salaries
1469 Tatar raid on Podolia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1471 Tatar raid on Podolia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1471–1474 Polish-Hungarian War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary Indecisive
1474 Polish-Hungarian War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary Polish victory
1476 Polish raid on Prussia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights Polish victory
1476–1482 War of Succession of Głogów POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Margraviate of Brandenburg Polish victory
1478–1479 War of the Priests POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland POL Księstwo Warmińskie IRP COA.svg Nicolaus von Tüngen
Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights
Polish victory
1485–1503
  • 1487
  • 1491
  • 1497
Polish-Ottoman War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
 Ottoman Empire
Coat of arms of Moldavia.svg Principality of Moldavia
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate
Polish defeat
1490–1492
  • 1490–1491
  • 1492
Fights for Hungarian throne POL COA Jagiellonowie.svg John I Albert POL COA Jagiellonowie.svg Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary Vladislaus II's victory
1495 Polish raid on Płock POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Księstwo Mazowieckie COA.svg Duchy of Masovia Polish victory
1500–1503
  • 1500
Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coat of Arms of Russia 1577.png Grand Duchy of Moscow Lithuanian defeat
1501 Polish raid on Prussia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights Interruption of the expedition because of king's death
1502–1510
  • 1506
  • 1509
Polish-Moldavian War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Coat of arms of Moldavia.svg Principality of Moldavia Polish victory
1506 Tatar raid on Poland and Lithuania[4] POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish-Lithuanian victory
1507–1508
  • 1508
Third Muscovite-Lithuanian War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coat of Arms of Russia 1577.png Grand Duchy of Moscow Lithuanian victory
1512 Tatar raid on Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish victory
1512–1522
  • 1514
  • 1518
Fourth Muscovite-Lithuanian War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coat of Arms of Russia 1577.png Grand Duchy of Moscow Lithuanian defeat
1516 Tatar raid on Podolia and Ruthenia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1519 Tatar raid on Podolia and Ruthenia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1519–1521
  • 1520
Polish–Teutonic War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Teuton flag.svg Teutonic Knights Prussian Homage
1524 Ottoman-Tatar raid on Podolia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland  Ottoman Empire
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate
Polish defeat
1526 Tatar raid on Poland and Lithuania POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1528 Habsburgian raid on Spisz POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Coa Hungary Country History (15th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary Polish defeat
1528 Tatar raid on Podolia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish victory
1530–1531
  • 1530
  • 1531
  • 1531
Polish-Moldavian War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Coat of arms of Moldavia.svg Principality of Moldavia Indecisive
1534–1537
  • 1534
  • 1535
Fifth Muscovite-Lithuanian War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Coat of Arms of Russia 1577.png Grand Duchy of Moscow Indecisive
1535 Moldavian raid on Podolia and Pokuttya POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Coat of arms of Moldavia.svg Principality of Moldavia Polish defeat
1537 Chicken War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Nobility End of rebellion
1538
  • 1538
  • 1538
Polish-Moldavian War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Coat of arms of Moldavia.svg Principality of Moldavia Indecisive
1549 Tatar raid on Volhynia and Red Ruthenia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1557 Zygmunt II August's raid on Livonia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Zakon Kawalerów Mieczowych COA.svg Livonian Brothers of the Sword Polish victory
1557 Tatar raid on Podolia POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish defeat
1561–1570
  • 1558–1570
  • 1564
Northern Seven Years' War POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Denmark Denmark–Norway
Flag of the Free City of Lübeck.svg Free City of Lübeck
Coat of Arms of Russia 1577.png Grand Duchy of Moscow
Sweden Kingdom of Sweden
Treaty of Stettin

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth[edit]

The 17th century saw fierce rivalry between the then major Eastern European powers – Sweden, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. At its heyday, the Commonwealth comprised the territories of present-day Poland, and large parts of Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Russia, and represented a major European power. However, by the end of the 18th century a series of internal conflicts and wars with foreign enemies led to the dissolution of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the partitioning of most of its dependent territories among other European powers.

During the 18th century, European powers (most frequently consisting of Russia, Sweden, Prussia and Saxony) fought several wars for the control of the territories of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. At the end of the 18th century, some Poles attempted to defend Poland from growing foreign influence in the country's internal affairs. These late attempts to preserve independence eventually failed, ultimately ending in Poland's partition and the final dissolution of the remains of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Date Conflict Allies Enemies Result
1571 Danish attack on Poland Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Denmark Kingdom of Denmark Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1572 Mikołaj Mielecki's raid on Moldavia Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth  Ottoman Empire
Moldavia Principality of Moldavia
Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1575 Tatar raid on Red Ruthenia and Podolia Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1575 Russian invasion of Livonia Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Coat of Arms of Russia 1577.png Tsardom of Russia Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1576–77
  • 1577
  • 1577
Danzig rebellion Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Grunwald Gdańsk miasto.svg City of Danzig Polish–Lithuanian victory
1577 Tatar raid on Podolia, Red Ruthenia and Volhynia Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1577–82
  • 1577–78
  • 1579–82
  • 1579
  • 1580
  • 1580
  • 1581–82
Livonian campaign of Stephen Báthory[5] Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Flag of Transylvania before 1918.svg Principality of Transylvania
Coat of Arms of Russia 1577.png Tsardom of Russia Truce of Jam Zapolski
1578 Tatar raid on Podolia, Red Ruthenia and Volhynia Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1587–88
  • 1587
  • 1588
War of the Polish Succession[6] Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Austria Archduchy of Austria Maximilian III's defeat
1589 Tatar raid on Poland Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1591–93
  • 1593
Kosiński Uprising Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Herb Viyska Zaporozkogo (Alex K).svg Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1594–96
  • 1596
  • 1596
  • 1596
Nalyvaiko Uprising Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Herb Viyska Zaporozkogo (Alex K).svg Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1595 Jan Zamoyski's raid on Moldavia Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth  Ottoman Empire
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate
Moldavia Principality of Moldavia
Polish–Lithuanian victory
1598–99
  • 1598
  • 1598
  • 1599
War against Sigismund Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Sweden Swedish Empire Sigismund III Vasa's defeat
1599–1600
  • 1599
  • 1600
  • 1600
Fights against Michael the Brave Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Moldavia Ieremia Movilă
Wallachia Principality of Wallachia
Flag of Transylvania before 1918.svg Principality of Transylvania
Polish–Lithuanian victory
1600–11
  • 1605
Polish–Swedish War Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Sweden Swedish Empire Indecisive
1605–18
  • 1605
  • 1608–10
  • 1609-11
  • 1610
Polish–Muscovite War (Dymitriads) Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Szlachta Flag of Tzar of Muscovia.svg Tsardom of Russia Truce of Deulino
1606 Tatar raid on Poland Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1606–09
  • 1607
Zebrzydowski Rebellion Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Herb Radwan1.jpg Nobility Crushing of the rebellion
1607 Stefan Potocki's raid on Moldavia POL COA Pilawa Złota.svg Stefan Potocki Moldavia Principality of Moldavia Stefan Potocki's victory
1612 Stefan Potocki's raid on Moldavia POL COA Pilawa Złota.svg Stefan Potocki  Ottoman Empire
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate
Moldavia Principality of Moldavia
Stefan Potocki's defeat
1612 Four Tatar raids on Poland Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Zaporozhian Cossacks
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1615–16
  • 1615
  • 1616
  • 1616
Samuel Korecki's raid on Moldavia POL COA Pogonia.svg Samuel Korecki  Ottoman Empire
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate
Moldavia Principality of Moldavia
Polish defeat
1617–18 Polish–Swedish War Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Sweden Swedish Empire Indecisive
1618 Tatar raid on Poland Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1619 Battle of Humenné Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Flag of Transylvania before 1918.svg Principality of Transylvania Polish–Lithuanian victory
1620–21
  • 1620
  • 1621
Polish–Ottoman War Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Moldavia Principality of Moldavia
 Ottoman Empire
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate
Wallachia Principality of Wallachia
Treaty of Khotyn
1621–26
  • 1622
  • 1626
Polish–Swedish War Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Sweden Swedish Empire Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1624 Tatar raid on Poland Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1625 Żmajło uprspring Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Herb Viyska Zaporozkogo (Alex K).svg Cossacks Indecisive
1626–29
  • 1626
  • 1627
Polish–Swedish War Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Sweden Swedish Empire Truce of Altmark
1626 Three Tatar raids on Poland Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1628 Five Tatar raids on Poland Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1629 Five Tatar raids on Poland Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1630 Fedorovych Uprising Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Herb Viyska Zaporozkogo (Alex K).svg Cossacks Treaty of Pereyaslav
1632–34
  • 1632
Smolensk War Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Flag of Tzar of Muscovia.svg Tsardom of Russia Treaty of Polyanovka
1633–34
  • 1633
  • 1633
Polish–Ottoman War Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth  Ottoman Empire
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate
Wallachia Principality of Wallachia
Moldavia Principality of Moldavia
Indecisive
1635 Sulima Uprising Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Herb Viyska Zaporozkogo (Alex K).svg Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1637 Pawluk Uprising Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Herb Viyska Zaporozkogo (Alex K).svg Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1638 Ostrzanin Uprising Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Herb Viyska Zaporozkogo (Alex K).svg Cossacks Crushing of the rebellion
1640 Tatar raid on Poland Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian defeat
1643 Tatar raid on Poland Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1644 Tatar raid on Poland Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1645–1646 Polish raid on Crimean Khanate Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate Polish–Lithuanian victory
1648–55
  • 1648
  • 1649
  • 1651
Khmelnytsky Uprising Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate (1654–1656)
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Zaporozhian Cossacks
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate (1649–1654, 1656–1657)
Indecisive
1651 Kostka-Napierski Uprising Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Aleksander Kostka Napierski Crushing of the rebellion
1651 Peasants' Revolt on Cistercian Ląd's Land Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Peasants Crushing of the rebellion
1654–67
  • 1655
  • 1660
Russo-Polish War Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate
Flag of Tzar of Muscovia.svg Tsardom of Russia
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate
Truce of Andrusovo
1655–60
  • 1655–17
  • 1655
  • 1655
  • 1656
  • 1656
  • 1657
  • 1657
Second Northern War Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Austria Archduchy of Austria
Denmark Denmark–Norway
Flag of Tzar of Muscovia.svg Tsardom of Russia (1656–58)
 Dutch Republic
others
Sweden Swedish Empire
Wappen Mark Brandenburg.png Brandenburg-Prussia
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate (1657)
Flag of Transylvania before 1918.svg Principality of Transylvania
Flag of Tzar of Muscovia.svg Tsardom of Russia
others
Treaty of Oliva
1665–66
  • 1665
  • 1666
Lubomirski's Rokosz Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Herb Lubomirski.PNG Nobility Indecisive
1666–71
  • 1666
  • 1667
  • 1671
  • 1671
Polish–Cossack–Tatar War Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate
Indecisive
1669–1670
  • 1670
Podhale uprising Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Peasants Crushing of the rebellion
1672–76
  • 1672
  • 1673
Polish–Ottoman War Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Wallachia Principality of Wallachia (1673)
 Ottoman Empire
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate
Moldavia Principality of Moldavia
Treaty of Żurawno
1683–99
  • 1683
  • 1698
Polish–Ottoman War (in the Holy League, part of Great Turkish War) Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Austria Archduchy of Austria
 Ottoman Empire
Gerae-tamga.png Crimean Khanate
Treaty of Karlowitz
1697 François Louis's raid for Polish crown Coat of arms of Saxony.svg Augustus II the Strong Armes Bourbon-Conti.png François of Conti Augustus II's victory
1700 Lithuanian Civil War Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Nobility POL COA Lis.svg Sapieha family Defeat of Sapieha
1700–21
  • 1702
  • 1704–06
  • 1705
  • 1706
Great Northern War Flag of Russia.svg Tsardom of Russia
Denmark Denmark–Norway (1700, 1709–)
 Electorate of Saxony (1700–06, 1709–)
Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Augustus II the Strong (1700–04, 1709–)
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate (1700–08, 1709–1721)
Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Prussia (1715–)
Province of Hanover Electorate of Hanover (1715-)
others
Sweden Swedish Empire
Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Stanisław Leszczyński (1704–09)
 Ottoman Empire (1710–14)
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate (1708–09)
others
Treaty of Nystad
1702–04 Palej Uprising Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Cossack Hetmanate Crushing of the rebellion
1715–16
  • 1715
  • 1716
  • 1716
  • 1716
  • 1716
Tarnogród Confederation Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Nobility Flag of Tzar of Muscovia.svg Tsardom of Russia
 Electorate of Saxony
Silent Sejm
1733–35
  • 1734
  • 1734
  • 1734
War of the Polish Succession POL COA Wieniawa.svg Stanisław Leszczyński
France Kingdom of France
Spain Kingdom of Spain
Flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia.svg Duchy of Savoy
Coat of Arms of Wettin kings of Poland.svg Augustus II the Strong
 Habsburg Monarchy
 Russian Empire
 Electorate of Saxony
Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Prussia
Treaty of Vienna
1764 Civil War in Poland Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy.svg Hetmans' Party Coat of arms of Lithuania.svg Familia
 Russian Empire
Defeat of Hetmans' Party
1768–72
  • 1768
  • 1768
  • 1771
Bar Confederation Royal Banner of Stanisław II of Poland.svg Stanisław August Poniatowski
 Russian Empire
Royal Banner of Stanisław II of Poland.svg Nobility
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg Haidamaka
First Partition of Poland
1769 Šiauliai revolt Royal Banner of Stanisław II of Poland.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Peasants Crushing of the rebellion
1792 Polish–Russian War of 1792 Royal Banner of Stanisław II of Poland.svg Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth  Russian Empire Second Partition of Poland
1794 Kościuszko Uprising[7] Banner of Kościuszko Uprising.PNG Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth  Habsburg Monarchy
Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Prussia
 Russian Empire
Third Partition of Poland

19th century and World War I[edit]

Poles unsuccessfully struggled to win back their independence throughout the 19th century. At first, they put their hopes in Napoleon. Later, they tried to ignite national uprisings every now and then – most of them bloodily repressed.

Date Conflict Allies Enemies Result
1797–1814
  • 1798–1802
  • 1806–1807
    • 1806
  • 1808
  • 1809
    • 1809
      • 1809
  • 1812
    • 1812
  • 1812–1814
    • 1813
Napoleonic Wars France First French Empire
Flag of the Duchy of Warsaw.svg Polish Legions (1797–1807)
Flag of the Duchy of Warsaw.svg Duchy of Warsaw (1807–1815)
Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Prussia (1807–1812)
 Russian Empire (1807–1812)
Austria Austrian Empire (1809–1813)
other states
 Russian Empire (1804–1807, 1812–1815)
Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Prussia (1806–1807, 1812–1815)
Austria Austrian Empire (1804–1805, 1809, 1813–1815)
 British Empire
other states
Congress of Vienna
1797 Denisko Uprising Poland Joachim Denisko Austria Austrian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
1830–1831
  • 1831
  • 1831
  • 1831
  • 1831
November Uprising[8][N 1] November Uprising.svg Kingdom of Poland  Russian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
1846 Kraków Uprising Poland Poles Austria Austrian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
1846 Greater Poland Uprising Poland Poles Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Prussia Crushing of the rebellion
1848 Revolutions of 1848 in Poland Poland Poles Austria Austrian Empire
Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Prussia
Crushing of the rebellion
1863–1864
  • 1863
  • 1863
  • 1863
January Uprising Coat of arms of the January Uprising.svg Poles  Russian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
1866 Siberian Uprising Poland Poles  Russian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
1905–1907
  • 1905
Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland Poland Poles  Russian Empire Crushing of the rebellion
1914–1918
  • 1914
  • 1914
  • 1915
  • 1916
  • 1917
  • 1918
  • 1918
World War I  German Empire
 Austria-Hungary
Poland Polish Legions
Central Powers
 Russian Empire
 British Empire
France French Third Republic
Poland Polish Armed Forces
Allies
Treaty of Versailles

Modern history[edit]

In the turmoil of the First World War, Poles managed to regain independence and then to expand their territory in a series of local wars and uprisings; only to be occupied again during the next world war. The second half of the 20th century was more peaceful, but still tense, as Poland was involved in the Cold War on the Soviet side. Later, at the beginning of the 21st century Poland is involved in the War against Islamic terrorism on the NATO side.

Date Conflict Allies Enemies Result
1918–1919
  • 1918–1919
  • 1918
  • 1919
Polish–Ukrainian War Poland Second Polish Republic
Romania Kingdom of Romania
Ukraine West Ukrainian People's Republic
 Ukrainian People's Republic
Polish victory
1918–1919
  • 1918
Greater Poland Uprising Poland Poles Weimar Republic Germans Polish victory
1918–1919 Polish-German skirmishes Poland Second Polish Republic Weimar Republic Germans Indecisive
1919 Polish coup attempt Poland Legal government Poland National Democracy Failure of coup
1919 Polish–Czechoslovak War Poland Second Polish Republic Flag of Bohemia.svg Czechoslovakia Polish defeat
1919–1920/21
  • 1919
  • 1920
  • 1920
  • 1920
Polish–Soviet War Poland Second Polish Republic
 Ukrainian People's Republic
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Polish victory
Peace of Riga[N 2]
1919–1921
  • 1919
  • 1919
    • 1919
  • 1920
  • 1921
    • 1921
Silesian Uprisings Poland Poles  Weimar Republic Polish defeat (I)
Indecisive (II)
Polish victory (III)
1919–1920[N 3]
  • 1919
  • 1920
Polish–Lithuanian War Poland Second Polish Republic Lithuania Lithuania
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Polish victory
1923 Kraków riot Poland Second Polish Republic Red flag.svg Workers Crushing of the rebellion
1926 May Coup Poland Government
Stanisław Wojciechowski
Poland Sanation
Józef Piłsudski
Józef Piłsudski's victory
1932 Lesko uprising Poland Sanation Peasants Crushing of the rebellion
1938 Capture of Zaolzie Poland Second Polish Republic  Czechoslovakia Polish victory
1939 World War IIInvasion of Poland Poland Second Polish Republic  Nazi Germany
 Soviet Union
Slovak Republic (1939–1945) Slovakia
Polish defeat
1939–1945
  • 1939–1940
  • 1940
  • 1942–1943
  • 1943–1944
  • 1944
World War IIPolish resistance movement Flaga PPP.svg Polish Underground State  Nazi Germany
 Soviet Union
Partial liberation of Poland
1939–1945
  • 1939–1945
  • 1940
    • 1940
  • 1940
  • 1940
  • 1941–1945
    • 1941
    • 1942
    • 1944
  • 1944–1945
    • 1944
    • 1944
World War IIPolish Armed Forces Poland Polish government-in-exile
 United Kingdom
France France
 United States
Allies
 Nazi Germany
 Kingdom of Italy
Axis
Potsdam Conference
1943–1945
  • 1943
  • 1944
  • 1945
  • 1945
  • 1945
World War IIEastern Front  Soviet Union
Poland Polish Committee of National Liberation
Poland State National Council
Poland The Republic of Poland
 Nazi Germany Potsdam Conference
1944–1956
  • 1945
Fights against Cursed soldiers Poland The Republic of Poland
 Soviet Union
Flaga PPP.svg Polish Underground State: Freedom and Independence
NIE
National Military Union
others
Crushing of the rebellion
1944–1949
  • 1944
Fights against Ukrainian Insurgent Army  Soviet Union
Poland The Republic of Poland
 Czechoslovakia
OUN-r Flag 1941.svg Ukrainian Insurgent Army Crushing of the rebellion
1944–1949 Fights against Werwolf Poland The Republic of Poland
 Soviet Union
Werwolf.jpg Werwolf
others
Crushing of the rebellion
1945 Polish–Czechoslovak border conflict of Kłodzko Poland The Republic of Poland  Czechoslovakia Indecisive
1950–1953 Korean War  Soviet Union
Poland People's Republic of Poland
Hungary People's Republic of Hungary
China People's Republic of China
North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea
United StatesUnited States of America
South KoreaSouth Korea
Indecisive / Stalemate (Since 2011 Poland is on South Korean side)
1956 Poznań protests Poland People's Republic of Poland Anti-communist civilian protesters State military victory
1968 Invasion of Czechoslovakia Warsaw Pact Logo.svg Warsaw Pact:
 Soviet Union
Poland People's Republic of Poland
Hungary People's Republic of Hungary
Bulgaria People's Republic of Bulgaria
 East Germany
 Czechoslovakia Warsaw Pact victory
1990–1991 Gulf War Coalition of the Gulf War:
Poland Poland
United States United States of America
France France
Iraq Iraq Coalition victory
2001–present
  • 2001–present
    • 2007
    • 2009
  • 2003–2011
    • 2004
    • 2007
War on Terror  USA
 United Kingdom
 Poland
others
 al-Qaeda
Flag of Taliban.svg Taliban
others
Ongoing

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ also called Polish–Russian War of 1830–31
  2. ^ Russian and Polish historians tend to assign victory to their respective countries. Outside assessments vary, mostly between calling the result a Polish victory or inconclusive. Lenin, in his secret report to the 9th Conference of the Bolshevik Party on 20 September 1920, called the outcome of the war, "In a word, a gigantic, unheard-of defeat."
  3. ^ Lithuanian historiography: Spring 1919 – November 29, 1920 Polish historiography: September 1 – October 7, 1920

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Lawson (2004), p. 49.
  2. ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 203–214.
  3. ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 283–291.
  4. ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 291–292.
  5. ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 299–301.
  6. ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 301–311.
  7. ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 435–451.
  8. ^ Sikorski (1972), pp. 469–490.

References[edit]

  • Gąsowski, Tomasz (1999). Bitwy polskie: leksykon. Kraków: Społeczny Instytut Wydawniczy Znak. ISBN 83-7006-787-5. 
  • Kozłowski, Eligiusz; Wrzosek, Mieczysław (1984). Historia oręża polskiego 1795–1939. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna. ISBN 83-214-0339-5. 
  • Lawson, M. K. (2004). Cnut – England's Viking King (2nd ed.). Stroud: Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-2964-7. 
  • Nowak, Tadeusz M.; Wimmer, Jan (1981). Historia oręża polskiego 963–1795. Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna. ISBN 83-214-0133-3. 
  • Sikorski, Janusz (1972). Zarys historii wojskowości powszechnej do końca wieku XIX. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej. OCLC 20835374. 

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