List of weather records

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This is a list of weather records, a list of the most extreme occurrences of weather phenomena for various categories. Many weather records are measured under specific conditions—such as surface temperature and wind speed—to keep consistency among measurements around the Earth. Each of these records is understood to be the record value officially observed, as these records may have been exceeded before modern weather instrumentation was invented, or in remote areas without an official weather station. This list does not include remotely sensed observations such as satellite measurements, since those values are not considered official records.[1]

Temperature[edit]

The standard measuring conditions for temperature are two meters above the ground, and shielded from direct sunlight (hence the term, x degrees "in the shade"). These lists include all officially confirmed claims measured by those methods.The satellites take what is called "land skin temperature," which tells the amount of heating of a certain parcel of ground from the sun, the atmosphere and other heat sources.[2]After seven years of collecting infrared data (which indicates temperature) from the Landsat satellites, it has been found that the hottest place on earth in five of those years was actually the Lut Desert in Iran.[2]The single highest land skin temperature recorded in any year of the study was found in the Lut Desert in 2005 and measured 159.3 F (70.7 C). Lut had the highest surface temperature in 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2009 as well.[2]


Heat[edit]

Highest temperatures ever recorded[edit]

A world map showing areas with Köppen BWh (hot desert climate). The temperature in these regions has potential to exceed 50 ºC (122 °F) during hottest seasons.
Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
World
North America
 USA
56.7 °C (134 °F) Furnace Creek Ranch (formerly Greenland Ranch), Death Valley, California 10 July 1913[3][4][5]
 Canada 45.0 °C (113 °F) Midale, Yellow Grass, Saskatchewan 05 July 1937[6]
 Greenland 25.9 °C (78.6 °F) Maniitsoq 30 July 2013[7]
 Mexico 52.0 °C (125.6 °F) San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora 06 July 1966[8][9]
Africa
 Tunisia
55.0 °C (131 °F) Kebili 07 July 1931[10][11]
 Algeria 50.6 °C (123.1 °F) In Salah, Tamanrasset Province 12 July 2002[10]
 Cameroon 47.7 °C (117.9 °F) Kousseri  ?[12]
 Chad 47.6 °C (117.7 °F) Faya-Largeau 22 June 2010[12]
 Libya 50.2 °C (122.4 °F) Zuara June 1995[11][13]
 Morocco 49.6 °C (121.3 °F) Marrakech 17 July 2012[14]
 Niger 48.2 °C (118.8 °F) Bilma 23 June 2010[12]
 Nigeria 46.4 °C (115.5 °F) Yola 03 April 2010[12]
 South Africa 50.0 °C (122 °F) Dunbrody, Eastern Cape 1918[15]
 Sudan 49.7 °C (121.5 °F) Dongola 25 June 2010[12]
 Zambia 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) Mfuwe, Eastern Province 13 October 2010[12]
Asia
 Kuwait
53.6 °C (128.5 °F) Sulaibya 31 July 2012[16][17]
 Bangladesh 45.1 °C (113.2 °F) Rajshahi 30 April 1972[18]
 China 49.7 °C (121.5 °F) Ayding Lake, Turpan, Xinjiang 03 August 2008[12]
 India 50.6 °C (123 °F) Alwar, Rajasthan 10 May 1956[19]
 Iraq 53.0 °C (127.4 °F) Ali Air Base, Nasiriyah 03 August 2011[20][21]
 Japan 41.0 °C (105.8 °F) Shimanto, Kōchi 12 August 2013[22]
 Malaysia 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) Chuping 09 April 1998[23]
 Pakistan 53.5 °C (128.3 °F) Mohenjo-daro, Sindh 26 May 2010[12][24]
 Myanmar 47.0 °C (116.6 °F) Myinmu 12 May 2010[12]
 Philippines 42.2 °C (107.96 °F) Tuguegarao, Cagayan Valley 12 April 1912[25]
 Qatar 50.4 °C (122.7 °F) Doha 14 July 2010[12]
 Russia 42.3 °C (108.1 °F) Belogorsk, Amur Oblast 12 July 2010[26]
 Saudi Arabia 52.0 °C (125.6 °F) Jeddah 22 June 2010[12]
 Singapore 36.0 °C (96.8 °F) Singapore 26 March 1998[23]
 South Korea 40.0 °C (104 °F) Daegu 01 August 1942[27]
 Taiwan 40.2 °C (104 °F) Taitung County 09 May 2004[28]
 Thailand 44.5 °C (112.1 °F) Uttaradit 27 April 1960[29]
 Turkey 48.8 °C (119.8 °F) Mardin 14 August 1993[30]
Oceania
 Australia
50.7 °C (123.3 °F) Oodnadatta, South Australia 02 January 1960[31][32][33]
 New Zealand 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) Rangiora, Canterbury and Jordan, Marlborough (tied) 07 February 1973[34]
 Solomon Islands 36.1 °C (97 °F) Honiara, Guadalcanal Province 01 February 2010[12]
South America
 Argentina
49.1 °C (120.4 °F) Villa de María, Córdoba Province 02 January 1920[31][35]
 Bolivia 46.7 °C (116.1 °F) Villamontes, Tarija Department 29 October 2010*[12]
 Brazil 44.7 °C (112.4 °F) Bom Jesus, Piauí 21 November 2005[36]
 Colombia 42.3 °C (108 °F) Puerto Salgar, Cundinamarca Department 29 October 2010[12]
 Paraguay 45 °C (113 °F) Pratts Gill, Boquerón Department 14 November 2009[37]
 Uruguay 44 °C (111.2 °F) Paysandú, Paysandú Department 20 January 1943[38]
Central America and Caribbean Islands
 Guatemala
45 °C (113 °F) Estanzuela, Zacapa  ?[39]
 Dominican Republic 43.0 °C (109.4 °F) Mao 31 August 1954[40][41]
 Cuba 38.8 °C (102 °F) Jucarito (Granma Province) 17 April 1999[42]
 Puerto Rico 37.2 °C (99 °F) Arecibo 25 June 1985[43]
Europe
 Greece
48.0 °C (118.4 °F ) Athens, Greece 10 July 1977[44]
 Andorra 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) Andorra la Vella  ?
 Austria 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) Bad Deutsch-Altenburg 08 August 2013[45]
 Belarus 38.9 °C (102 °F) Gomel 07 August 2010[12]
 Belgium 38.8 °C (102 °F) Uccle 27 June 1947
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 43.2 °C (111.16 °F) Mostar (Herzegovina, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) 31 July 1900
 Bulgaria 45.2 °C (113.3 °F) Sadovo, Plovdiv Province 05 August 1916[46]
 Croatia 42.8 °C (109 °F) Ploče 05 August 1998[47]
 Cyprus 46.6 °C (115.9 °F) Lefkoniko 01 August 2010[12]
 Czech Republic 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) Dobřichovice, Prague-West District 20 August 2012[48]
 Denmark 36.4 °C (97.5 °F) Holstebro, Midtjylland 10 August 1975[49]
 Estonia 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) Võru 11 August 1992[50]
 Finland 37.2 °C (99 °F) Liperi 29 July 2010[51]
 France 44.1 °C (111.4 °F) Conqueyrac / Saint-Christol-lès-Alès 12 August 2003[52]
 Germany 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) Gärmersdorf bei Amberg / Karlsruhe / March (Breisgau) / Freiburg 27 July 1983 / 09 August 2003 / 13 August 2003 / 27 July 2013[53][54]
 Hungary 41.9 °C (107.4 °F) Kiskunhalas 20 July 2007[55]
 Iceland 30.5 °C (86.9 °F) Teigarhorn, Djúpivogur 22 June 1939[56][57]
 Ireland 33.3 °C (92 °F) Kilkenny Castle, County Kilkenny 26 June 1887[58]
 Italy 47 °C or 48.5 °C (116.6 or 119.3 °F) Foggia, Apulia or Catenanuova, Sicily (Catenanuova's record is disputed) 25 June 2007 / 10 August 1999[59] [60]
 Latvia 37.8 °C (100.03 °F) Ventspils 04 August 2014[61]
 Lithuania 37.5 °C (99.5 °F) Zarasai, Utena County 30 July 1994[62]
 Macedonia 45.7 °C(114.26 °F) Demir Kapija, Demir Kapija Municipality 24 July 2007[63]
 Malta 43.8 °C (110.84 °F) Malta International Airport 09 August 1999[64]
 Moldova 42.4 °C(108.3 °F) Falesti 07 August 2012[14]
 Montenegro 44.8 °C (112.6 °F) Podgorica & Danilovgrad 16 August 2007 / 08 August 2012[14]
 Netherlands 38.6 °C (102 °F) Warnsveld 23 August 1944[65]
 Norway 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) Nesbyen, Buskerud 20 June 1970[66]
 Poland 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) Record measured on German territory at that time: Proskau, Landkreis Oppeln, Oberschlesien (now Prószków, Opole Voivodeship). The record in Poland proper at that time was attained on the same day by the village of Zbiersk at 40.0°C. 29 July 1921[67]
 Portugal 47.4 °C (117.3 °F) Amareleja, Beja 01 August 2003[68]
 Romania 44.5 °C (112.1 °F) Ion Sion, Brăila County 10 August 1951[69]
 Russia (European part only) 45.4 °C (113.7 °F) Utta, Kalmykia 12 July 2010[70]
 Serbia 44.9 °C (112.8 °F) Smederevska Palanka, Podunavlje District 24 July 2007[71]
 Slovenia 40.8 °C (105.4 °F) Cerklje ob Krki 08 August 2013[72]
 Spain 47.2 °C (116.9 °F) Murcia 04 July 1994[73]
 Sweden 38.0 °C (100.4 °F) Ultuna, Uppsala County / Målilla, Kalmar County 09 July 1933 / 29 June 1947[74]
  Switzerland 41.5 °C (106.7 °F) Grono, Moesa District 11 August 2003[75]
 Ukraine 42.0 °C (107.6 °F) Luhansk 12 August 2010[76]
 United Kingdom
 England
38.5 °C (101.3 °F) Faversham, Kent 10 August 2003[77]
 Northern Ireland 30.8 °C (87.4 °F) Knockarevan, County Fermanagh / Belfast, County Antrim 30 June 1976 / 12 July 1983[77]
 Scotland 32.9 °C (91.2 °F) Greycrook, Scottish Borders 09 August 2003[77]
 Wales 35.2 °C (95.4 °F) Hawarden Bridge, Flintshire 02 August 1990[77]
Antarctica 15 °C (59 °F) Vanda Station, Scott Coast 05 January 1974[31]
South Pole −12.3 °C (9.9 °F) Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station 25 December 2011[78]
*Temperature reached on multiple occasions; this is the most recent.
There are a few reports of temperatures higher than this during phenomena known as heat bursts, including a report of 87 °C (188 °F) in Abadan, Iran in June 1967. These temperatures have never been confirmed, and are not recognized as world records.[79] The former highest official temperature on Earth, held for 90 years by ‘Aziziya, Libya, was de-certified by the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) in January 2012 as the record for the world's highest surface temperature (this temperature of 57.8 °C (136 °F), registered on September 13, 1922, is currently considered to have been a recorder's error).[80] Christopher C. Burt, the weather historian writing for Weather Underground who shepherded the Libya reading's 2012 disqualification, believes that the 1913 Death Valley reading is "a myth", and is at least four or five degrees Fahrenheit too high,[5] as do other weather historians Dr. Arnold Court and William Taylor Reid.[81] Burt proposes that the highest reliably recorded temperature on Earth is still at Death Valley, but is instead 53.9 °C (129 °F) recorded five times: 20 July 1960, 18 July 1998, 20 July 2005, 7 July 2007, and 30 June 2013.[82][83]
On 16 January 1889, a temperature of 53 °C (128 °F) was recorded at Cloncurry, Queensland. It was measured with a non-standard thermometer, so it is unknown if this reading was valid or not.[31] The reading is not recognised by Australia's Bureau of Meteorology.[32]

Other high-temperature records[edit]

Cold[edit]

Lowest temperatures ever recorded[edit]

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
World*
Antarctica
−89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) Vostok Station 1983-07-21[31][84][86]*
Dome A −82.5 °C (−116.5 °F) Dome A 2005–07[87]
South Pole −82.8 °C (−117.0 °F) Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station [88]
Asia
 Russia
−68 °C (−90 °F) Verkhoyansk and
Oymyakon, both in Sakha Republic
1892-02-07
1933-02-06[31]
 Bangladesh 2.8 °C (37.0 °F) Sreemangal 1968-?-?
[89]
 China −52.3 °C (−62.1 °F) Mohe County 1969-02-13[90]
 India −50 °C (−58 °F)/−33.9 °C (−29.0 °F) Dras, Ladakh January ??/1911-03-22[91]
 Iran −36 °C (−32.8 °F) Saqqez 1969[92]
 Iraq −17.6 °C (0.4 °F) Mosul, Ninawa Governorate 1911-01-24[93]
 Israel −13.7 °C (7.3 °F) Beit Netofa Valley 1950-02-07[94]
 Japan −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Asahikawa, Hokkaidō 1902-01-25[22]
 Malaysia 7.8 °C (46.0 °F) Cameron Highlands 1978-02-01[23]
   Nepal −45.0 °C (−49.0 °F) Mt. Everest, Sagarmatha 1999-05-15[22]
 North Korea −43.6 °C (−46.5 °F) Chunggangjin 1933-01-12[95]
 Philippines 2 °C (36 °F) Mount Pulag, Mountain Province 2011-01[96]
 Thailand −1.4 °C (29.5 °F) Sakon Nakhon 1974-01-02[29]
 Turkey −46.4 °C (−51.5 °F) Van 1990-01-09[30]
North America
 Greenland
−66.1 °C (−87.0 °F) North Ice 1954-01-09[31]
 Canada −63 °C (−81 °F) Snag, Yukon 1947-02-03[31][84]
 Mexico −29 °C (−20.2 °F) Los Lamentos, Chihuahua 1962-01-11[97][98]
 United States
 Alaska
−62 °C (−80 °F) Prospect Creek, Alaska 1971-01-23[99]
United States Contiguous United States −57 °C (−70 °F) Rogers Pass, Montana 1954-01-20[100]
Europe
 Russia (European part only)
−58.1 °C (−72.6 °F) Ust' Shchugor 1978-12-31[44]
 Albania −27.5 °C (−17.5 °F) Voskopojë 1967-01-27
 Austria −52.6 °C (−62.9 °F) Grünloch doline 1932-02-19[101]
 Belarus −42.2 °C (−44.0 °F) Slavnom, Vitsebsk Voblast 1940-01-17[102]
 Belgium −30.1 °C (−22.2 °F) Valley of the Lesse in Rochefort 1940-01-20[103]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina −42 °C (−44 °F) Veliko Polje on the Igman plateau 1963-01-24[citation needed]
 Bulgaria −38.3 °C (−37 °F) Tran 1947-01-25[46]
 Croatia −35.5 °C (−31.5 °F) CakovecČakovec 1929-02-03[47]
 Czech Republic −42.2  °C (−44.0 °F) Litvínovice 1929-02-11[48]
 Denmark −31.2  °C (−24.2 °F) Thisted Municipality, North Denmark Region 1982-01-08[49]
 Estonia −43.5 °C (−46.0 °F) Jõgeva, Jõgeva County 1940-01-17[50]
 Finland −51.5 °C (−60.7 °F) Kittilä, Lapland 1999-01-28[104]
 France −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Mouthe, Doubs 1985-01-17[105]
 Germany −45.9 °C (−50.6 °F) Funtensee, Berchtesgadener Land, Bavaria 2001-12-24[106]
 Greece −27.8 °C (−18.0 °F) Ptolemaida 1967-01-27[107]
 Hungary −35.0 °C (−31.0 °F) Görömbölytapolca 1940-02-16[55]
 Iceland −37.9 °C (−36.2 °F) Grímsstaðir 1918-01-21[56]
 Ireland −19.1 °C (−2.4 °F) Markree Castle, County Sligo 1881-01-16[58]
 Italy −49.6 °C (−57.2 °F) Busa Fradusta, Pale di San Martino 2013-02-10[108]
 Latvia −43.2 °C (−45.8 °F) Daugavpils 1956-02-08[61]
 Lithuania −42.9 °C (−45.2 °F) Utena, Utena County 1956-02-01[62]
 Macedonia −31.5 °C (−24.7 °F) Berovo, Berovo Municipality 1954-01-27[109]
 Malta 1.4 °C (34.5 °F) Malta International Airport 1981-01-29[64]
 Netherlands −27.4 °C (−17.3 °F) Winterswijk 1942-01-27[65]
 Norway −51.4 °C (−60.5 °F) Karasjok, Finnmark 1886-01-01[66]
 Poland −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Siedlce, Masovian Voivodeship 1940-01-11[67]
 Portugal −16.0 °C (3.2 °F) Penhas da Saúde, Covilhã Municipality
Miranda do Douro
1945-01-16 and 1954-02-05[110]
 Romania −38.5 °C (−37.3 °F) Bod, Braşov County 1942-01-25[69]
 Serbia −39.5 °C (−39.1 °F) Karajukica Bunari, Zlatibor District 1985-01-13[71]
 Slovakia −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Vígľaš-Pstruša 1929-02-11[111]
 Slovenia −34.5 °C (−30.1 °F) Babno Polje 1956-02-15 / 1956-02-16 / 1968-01-13[notes 1][112]
 Spain −32.0 °C (−25.6 °F) Lago Estangento, Lleida 1956-02-02[73]
 Sweden −53.0 °C (−63.4 °F) Malgovik, Västerbotten County 1941-12-13[74]
  Switzerland −41.8 °C (−43.2 °F) La Brévine 1987-01-12[75]
 Ukraine −41.9 °C (−43.4 °F) Luhansk 1935-02-08[113]
 United Kingdom
 Scotland
−27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) Braemar, Aberdeenshire
Altnaharra, Sutherland
1895-02-11 and 1982-01-10
1995-12-30[77]
 England −26.1 °C (−15.0 °F) Newport, Shropshire, West Midlands 1982-01-10[77]
 Northern Ireland −18.7 °C (−1.7 °F) Castlederg, County Tyrone 2010-12-24[114]
 Wales −23.3 °C (−9.9 °F) Rhayader, Powys 1940-01-21[77]
South America
 Argentina
−39 °C (−38 °F) Valle de los Patos Superior, San Juan 1972-07-17[115][116]
 Bolivia −25.7 °C (−14.3 °F) Uyuni, Potosí Department 1946-08-04[117]
 Brazil −14 °C (7 °F) Caçador, Santa Catarina 1952-06[118][119]
 Chile −37 °C (−35 °F) Coyhaique Alto, Aisén 2002-06-21[120]
 Paraguay −7.5 °C (18.5 °F) Pratts Gill, Boquerón Department 2000-07-13[121]
 Peru −25.2 °C (−13.4 °F) Mazo Cruz, Puno Region 1966-06-30[122]
 Uruguay −11 °C (12 °F) Melo, Cerro Largo Department 1967-06-14[38]
Africa
 Morocco
−24 °C (−11 °F) Ifrane 1935-02-11[31]
 Algeria −20 °C (−4 °F) Batna, Batna Province 1945-01-04[123]
 Lesotho −20.4 °C (−4.7 °F) Letseng-la-Draai (Letseng-la-Terae), Mokhotlong District 1967-06-12[123]
 South Africa −20.1 °C (−4.2 °F) Buffelsfontein, near Molteno, Eastern Cape 2013-08-23[124]
Oceania
 New Zealand
−25.6 °C (−14.1 °F) Ranfurly, Central Otago 1903-07-18[125]
 Australia −23 °C (−9.4 °F) Charlotte Pass, New South Wales 1994-06-29[126]
Central America and Caribbean Islands
 Guatemala
−11.5 °C (11.3 °F) Olintepeque, Quetzaltenango  ?[39]
 Dominican Republic −3.5 °C (25.7 °F) Valle Nuevo, Constanza 1959-03-02[127]
 Cuba 0.6 °C (33.1 °F) Bainoa, Mayabeque Province 1996-02-18[128]
 Puerto Rico 4.4 °C (40 °F) Adjuntas
Aibonito
Corozal
1989-12-28[129]
1906-02-26[129]
1945-01-19[129]
*This temperature is considered the lowest ever officially recorded in Antarctica and in the World, as it was perceived by ground-positioned thermometers in 1983. However, there were satellite-made analyisis realized in August 10, 2010 that pointed a temperature of −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) near Dome F in Queen Maud Land. This record is not officially listed because it was measured by remote sensing methods that are not totally consistent, unlike the 1983 temperature. See Lowest temperature recorded on Earth for details.

Other low-temperature records[edit]

Precipitation[edit]

Rain[edit]

  • Most in one minute: 38 mm (1.5 in); Barot, Guadeloupe, 26 November 1970.[131]
  • Most in one hour: 305 mm (12.0 in) in 42 minutes. Holt, Missouri, United States, 22 June 1947.[44]
  • Most in 12 hours: 1,144 mm (45.0 in); Foc-Foc, Réunion, 8 January 1966, during tropical cyclone Denise.[44]
  • Most in 24 hours: 1,825 mm (71.9 in); Foc-Foc, Réunion, 7–8 January 1966, during tropical cyclone Denise.[44]
  • Most in 48 hours: 2,493 mm (98.1 in); Cherrapunji, Meghalaya, India, 15-16 June 1995.[44]
  • Most in 72 hours: 3,929 mm (154.7 in); Commerson, Réunion, 24–26 February 2007.[44]
  • Most in 96 hours: 4,869 mm (191.7 in); Commerson, Réunion, 24–27 February 2007.[44]
  • Most in one year: 26,470 mm (1,042 in); Cherrapunji, Meghalaya, India, 1860–1861.[44]
  • Highest average annual total: 11,872 mm (467.4 in); Mawsynram, Meghalaya, India.[44]

Snow[edit]

  • Most in one-year period: 31.5 meters (102 ft); Mount Rainier, Washington, United States, 19 February 1971 to 18 February 1972.[84]
  • Most in one season (1 July – 30 June): 29.0 meters, (95 ft); Mount Baker, Washington, United States, 1998 through 1999.[132]
  • Largest snowflake ever observed: 38 centimeters (15 in) in diameter; Fort Keogh, Montana, United States, 28 January 1887.[84]

Wind speed[edit]

Tornadoes[edit]

Main article: Tornado records
The Tri-State Tornado holds many records, including the longest known tornado track, fastest speed for a significant tornado, and the deadliest tornado outside of Bangladesh.

Deadliest in history[edit]

Outbreaks[edit]

Tropical cyclones[edit]

Most intense (by minimum surface air pressure)[edit]

Other severe weather[edit]

A picture of the Aurora, Nebraska hailstone, measured at 47.6 cm (18.75 in) in circumference

Hail[edit]

Lightning[edit]

Other categories[edit]

  • Highest air pressure ever recorded (above 750 meters): 1084.8 hPa (32.03 inHg); Tosontsengel, Khövsgöl Province, Mongolia, 19 December 2001.[148] This is the equivalent sea-level pressure; Tosontsengel is located at 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) above sea level. The highest adjusted-to-sea-level barometric pressure ever recorded (below 750 meters) was at Agata, Evenhiyskiy, Russia (66°53’N, 93°28’E, elevation: 261 m (856.3 ft)) on 31 December 1968 of 1,083.3 hectopascals (hPa) (31.99 inHg).[149] The discrimination is due to the problematic assumptions (assuming a standard lapse rate) associated with reduction of sea level from high elevations.[148][149]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The lowest unofficially measured temperature in Slovenia was recorded at Komna on 9 January 2009 and reached −49 °C (−56 °F).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Meteorological Organization: Global Weather & Climate Extremes". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c OurAmazingPlanet Staff (April 16, 2012). "Where's the Hottest Place on Earth?". LiveScience. Purch. Retrieved 27 June 2014. 
  3. ^ "NCDC Global measured extremes". Retrieved 6 November 2007. 
  4. ^ World: Highest Temperature World Meteorological Organization Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Doubts Cloud Death Valley's 100-year Heat Record". Retrieved 30 December 2013. 
  6. ^ "Private Tutor". Infoplease.com. Retrieved 29 January 2012. 
  7. ^ By, Forecast. "Greenland soars to its highest temperature ever recorded, almost 80 degrees F.". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  8. ^ "PROYECTO BASES DE DATOS CLIMATOLÓGICOS" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteológico Nacional. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  9. ^ "Máximas temperaturas registradas en San Luis Río Colorado" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteológico Nacional. Retrieved 31 December 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Hottest air temperatures reported on Earth Weather Underground. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
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External links[edit]